S K Katiyar

Summary

Affiliation: University of Alabama at Birmingham
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Development of dermatitis in CD18-deficient PL/J mice is not dependent on bacterial flora, and requires both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes
    Shayne C Barlow
    Department of Genetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Int Immunol 16:345-51. 2004
  2. ncbi request reprint Green tea polyphenols prevent ultraviolet light-induced oxidative damage and matrix metalloproteinases expression in mouse skin
    Praveen K Vayalil
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 122:1480-7. 2004
  3. ncbi request reprint Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits photocarcinogenesis through inhibition of angiogenic factors and activation of CD8+ T cells in tumors
    Sudheer K Mantena
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Photochem Photobiol 81:1174-9. 2005
  4. ncbi request reprint Dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit UVB-induced oxidative stress and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappaB signaling in in vivo SKH-1 hairless mice
    Som D Sharma
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Mol Cancer Ther 6:995-1005. 2007
  5. pmc Interleukin-12 deficiency is permissive for angiogenesis in UV radiation-induced skin tumors
    Syed M Meeran
    Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Cancer Res 67:3785-93. 2007
  6. pmc Grape seeds: ripe for cancer chemoprevention
    Santosh K Katiyar
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 6:617-21. 2013
  7. pmc Bioactive grape proanthocyanidins enhance immune reactivity in UV-irradiated skin through functional activation of dendritic cells in mice
    Mudit Vaid
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670 University Boulevard, Volker Hall 557, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 6:242-52. 2013
  8. pmc Epigenetic alterations in ultraviolet radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis: interaction of bioactive dietary components on epigenetic targets
    Santosh K Katiyar
    Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Photochem Photobiol 88:1066-74. 2012
  9. pmc Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit the invasive potential of head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cells by targeting EGFR expression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition
    Qian Sun
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    BMC Complement Altern Med 11:134. 2011
  10. pmc UV-induced immune suppression and photocarcinogenesis: chemoprevention by dietary botanical agents
    Santosh K Katiyar
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Cancer Lett 255:1-11. 2007

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications109 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Development of dermatitis in CD18-deficient PL/J mice is not dependent on bacterial flora, and requires both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes
    Shayne C Barlow
    Department of Genetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Int Immunol 16:345-51. 2004
    ..These mice may therefore be useful in identifying potential mechanisms of pathogenesis and genetic predisposition in human inflammatory skin diseases...
  2. ncbi request reprint Green tea polyphenols prevent ultraviolet light-induced oxidative damage and matrix metalloproteinases expression in mouse skin
    Praveen K Vayalil
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 122:1480-7. 2004
    ..These data suggest that GTP as a dietary supplement could be useful to attenuate solar UVB light-induced premature skin aging...
  3. ncbi request reprint Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits photocarcinogenesis through inhibition of angiogenic factors and activation of CD8+ T cells in tumors
    Sudheer K Mantena
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Photochem Photobiol 81:1174-9. 2005
    ..Together, these in vivo tumor data suggested that inhibition of photocarcinogenesis in mice by EGCG is associated with inhibition of angiogenic factors and induction of antitumor immune reactivity...
  4. ncbi request reprint Dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit UVB-induced oxidative stress and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappaB signaling in in vivo SKH-1 hairless mice
    Som D Sharma
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Mol Cancer Ther 6:995-1005. 2007
    ....
  5. pmc Interleukin-12 deficiency is permissive for angiogenesis in UV radiation-induced skin tumors
    Syed M Meeran
    Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Cancer Res 67:3785-93. 2007
    ....
  6. pmc Grape seeds: ripe for cancer chemoprevention
    Santosh K Katiyar
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 6:617-21. 2013
    ..Notably, the demonstration that miRNA expression is affected by dietary GSE suggests a novel underlying mechanism for the chemopreventive action of GSE in colon cancer and, potentially, other cancers...
  7. pmc Bioactive grape proanthocyanidins enhance immune reactivity in UV-irradiated skin through functional activation of dendritic cells in mice
    Mudit Vaid
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670 University Boulevard, Volker Hall 557, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 6:242-52. 2013
    ..These results suggest that GSPs prevent UVB-induced immunosuppression through DNA repair-dependent functional activation of dendritic cells in mice. Cancer Prev Res; 6(3); 242-52. ©2013 AACR...
  8. pmc Epigenetic alterations in ultraviolet radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis: interaction of bioactive dietary components on epigenetic targets
    Santosh K Katiyar
    Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Photochem Photobiol 88:1066-74. 2012
    ..g. Cip1/p21, p16(INK4a) ). This information is of importance for understanding the role of epigenetic modulation in UV-induced skin tumor and the chemopreventive mechanism of bioactive dietary components...
  9. pmc Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit the invasive potential of head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cells by targeting EGFR expression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition
    Qian Sun
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    BMC Complement Altern Med 11:134. 2011
    ..We have examined the effect of bioactive component grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) on human cutaneous HNSCC cell invasion and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects using SCC13 cell line as an in vitro model...
  10. pmc UV-induced immune suppression and photocarcinogenesis: chemoprevention by dietary botanical agents
    Santosh K Katiyar
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Cancer Lett 255:1-11. 2007
    ..The new information regarding the mechanisms of action of these agents supports their potential use as adjuncts in the prevention of photocarcinogenesis...
  11. ncbi request reprint Skin photoprotection by green tea: antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects
    Santosh K Katiyar
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Curr Drug Targets Immune Endocr Metabol Disord 3:234-42. 2003
    ....
  12. pmc Interleukin-12 and photocarcinogenesis
    Santosh K Katiyar
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670, University Boulevard, Volker Hall 557, P O Box 202, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 224:220-7. 2007
    ..Taken together, this information suggests that augmentation of IL-12 should be considered as a strategy for the prevention and treatment of photocarcinogenesis...
  13. pmc Green tea: a new option for the prevention or control of osteoarthritis
    Santosh K Katiyar
    Arthritis Res Ther 13:121. 2011
    ..The use of green tea polyphenols may be beneficial as a therapeutic addition to biologics that control IL-1β activity by increasing effectiveness and/or reducing dosage...
  14. pmc Silymarin protects epidermal keratinocytes from ultraviolet radiation-induced apoptosis and DNA damage by nucleotide excision repair mechanism
    Santosh K Katiyar
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e21410. 2011
    ..Together, these results suggest that silymarin exert the capacity to reduce UV radiation-induced DNA damage and, thus, prevent the harmful effects of UV radiation on the genomic stability of epidermal cells...
  15. pmc Green tea prevents non-melanoma skin cancer by enhancing DNA repair
    Santosh K Katiyar
    Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Arch Biochem Biophys 508:152-8. 2011
    ..The new mechanistic investigations support and explain the anti-photocarcinogenic activity, in particular anti-non-melanoma skin cancer, of green tea and explain the benefits of green tea for human health...
  16. ncbi request reprint Silymarin and skin cancer prevention: anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects (Review)
    Santosh K Katiyar
    Department of Dermatology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Int J Oncol 26:169-76. 2005
    ..Moreover, silymarin may favorably supplement sunscreen protection and provide additional anti-photocarcinogenic protection...
  17. pmc Obesity increases the risk of UV radiation-induced oxidative stress and activation of MAPK and NF-kappaB signaling
    Santosh K Katiyar
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, P O Box 202, Volker Hall 557, 1670 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 42:299-310. 2007
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Silymarin induces apoptosis primarily through a p53-dependent pathway involving Bcl-2/Bax, cytochrome c release, and caspase activation
    Santosh K Katiyar
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670 University Boulevard, Volker Hall 557, P O Box 202, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Mol Cancer Ther 4:207-16. 2005
    ..These observations show that silymarin-induced apoptosis is primarily p53 dependent and mediated through the activation of caspase-3...
  19. pmc Green tea polyphenols prevent UV-induced immunosuppression by rapid repair of DNA damage and enhancement of nucleotide excision repair genes
    Santosh K Katiyar
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294, USA
    Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 3:179-89. 2010
    ....
  20. ncbi request reprint Green tea and skin cancer: photoimmunology, angiogenesis and DNA repair
    Suchitra Katiyar
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    J Nutr Biochem 18:287-96. 2007
    ..New mechanistic information strongly supports and explains the chemopreventive activity of GTPs against photocarcinogenesis...
  21. ncbi request reprint Matrix metalloproteinases in cancer metastasis: molecular targets for prostate cancer prevention by green tea polyphenols and grape seed proanthocyanidins
    Santosh K Katiyar
    Department of Dermatology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 6:17-24. 2006
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Treatment of silymarin, a plant flavonoid, prevents ultraviolet light-induced immune suppression and oxidative stress in mouse skin
    Santosh K Katiyar
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 0019, USA
    Int J Oncol 21:1213-22. 2002
    ....
  23. pmc Silymarin, a flavonoid from milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.), inhibits UV-induced oxidative stress through targeting infiltrating CD11b+ cells in mouse skin
    Santosh K Katiyar
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Photochem Photobiol 84:266-71. 2008
    ....
  24. ncbi request reprint Green tea polyphenols: DNA photodamage and photoimmunology
    S K Katiyar
    Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670 University Blvd, VH501, Box 202, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    J Photochem Photobiol B 65:109-14. 2001
    ..These in vivo observations suggest that GTPs are photoprotective, and can be used as pharmacological agents for the prevention of solar UVB light-induced skin disorders associated with immune suppression and DNA damage...
  25. pmc Grape seed proanthocyanidines and skin cancer prevention: inhibition of oxidative stress and protection of immune system
    Santosh K Katiyar
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Mol Nutr Food Res 52:S71-6. 2008
    ....
  26. ncbi request reprint Green tea polyphenolic antioxidants and skin photoprotection (Review)
    S K Katiyar
    Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, VH 501B, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Int J Oncol 18:1307-13. 2001
    ..Therefore, the focus of this communication is to review and analyze the photoprotective effects of green tea polyphenols to skin...
  27. ncbi request reprint Green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate treatment to mouse skin prevents UVB-induced infiltration of leukocytes, depletion of antigen-presenting cells, and oxidative stress
    S K Katiyar
    Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 69:719-26. 2001
    ....
  28. ncbi request reprint A single physiologic dose of ultraviolet light exposure to human skin in vivo induces phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor
    S K Katiyar
    Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA
    Int J Oncol 19:459-64. 2001
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo human study, which clarifies the difference in cellular localization of UV-induced constitutive and phosphorylated forms of EGFR in epidermal cells...
  29. ncbi request reprint Green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate treatment of human skin inhibits ultraviolet radiation-induced oxidative stress
    S K Katiyar
    Department of Dermatology, Volker Hall 501, 1530 3rd Ave S, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 0019, USA
    Carcinogenesis 22:287-94. 2001
    ..Further studies are warranted to study the preventive effects of EGCG against multiple exposures to UV light of human skin...
  30. pmc Inhibition of UVB-induced skin tumor development by drinking green tea polyphenols is mediated through DNA repair and subsequent inhibition of inflammation
    Syed M Meeran
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 129:1258-70. 2009
    ..To our knowledge, it is previously unreported that prevention of photocarcinogenesis by GTPs is mediated through IL-12-dependent DNA repair and a subsequent reduction in skin inflammation...
  31. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of UVB-induced oxidative stress-mediated phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes by green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate
    S K Katiyar
    Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 176:110-7. 2001
    ....
  32. pmc Skin photoprotection by natural polyphenols: anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and DNA repair mechanisms
    Joi A Nichols
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670 University Boulevard, Volker Hall 557, PO Box 202, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Arch Dermatol Res 302:71-83. 2010
    ..It is suggested that polyphenols may favorably supplement sunscreens protection, and may be useful for skin diseases associated with solar UV radiation-induced inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage...
  33. ncbi request reprint Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit UV-radiation-induced oxidative stress and activation of MAPK and NF-kappaB signaling in human epidermal keratinocytes
    Sudheer K Mantena
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Volker Hall 557, 1670 University Boulevard, P O Box 202, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 40:1603-14. 2006
    ..Together, these results suggest that GSPs could be useful in the attenuation of UV-radiation-induced oxidative stress-mediated skin diseases in human skin...
  34. ncbi request reprint Treatment of green tea polyphenols in hydrophilic cream prevents UVB-induced oxidation of lipids and proteins, depletion of antioxidant enzymes and phosphorylation of MAPK proteins in SKH-1 hairless mouse skin
    Praveen K Vayalil
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670 University Blvd, Volker Hall 557, 35294, USA
    Carcinogenesis 24:927-36. 2003
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint Green tea polyphenol treatment to human skin prevents formation of ultraviolet light B-induced pyrimidine dimers in DNA
    S K Katiyar
    Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 6:3864-9. 2000
    ..Our data suggest that GTP may be used as a novel chemopreventive candidate and possible strategy to reduce UV-induced skin cancer risk in the human population...
  36. ncbi request reprint Prevention of UVB-induced immunosuppression in mice by the green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate may be associated with alterations in IL-10 and IL-12 production
    S K Katiyar
    Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University, 11100 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland and University Hospitals of Cleveland and VA Hospital, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Carcinogenesis 20:2117-24. 1999
    ..Protection against UVB-induced immunosuppression by EGCG may be associated with protection against UVB-induced photocarcinogenesis...
  37. pmc Molecular mechanisms of inhibition of photocarcinogenesis by silymarin, a phytochemical from milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn.) (Review)
    Mudit Vaid
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Int J Oncol 36:1053-60. 2010
    ..It is suggested that silymarin may favorably supplement sunscreen protection, and may be useful for skin diseases associated with solar UV radiation-induced inflammation, oxidative stress and immunomodulatory effects...
  38. pmc Loss of endogenous interleukin-12 activates survival signals in ultraviolet-exposed mouse skin and skin tumors
    Syed M Meeran
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Neoplasia 11:846-55. 2009
    ..Together, these data suggest that the loss of endogenous IL-12 activates survival signals in UV-exposed skin and that may lead to the enhanced photocarcinogenesis in mice...
  39. ncbi request reprint (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate in Camellia sinensis leaves from Himalayan region of Sikkim: inhibitory effects against biochemical events and tumor initiation in Sencar mouse skin
    S K Katiyar
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Case Western Reserve University, OH
    Nutr Cancer 18:73-83. 1992
    ..The results of the present study suggest that the green tea preparation from Sikkim may be a good source for the isolation of EGCG and that this compound may have significant potential as a cancer chemopreventive agent...
  40. doi request reprint Dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit UVB-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and other inflammatory mediators in UVB-exposed skin and skin tumors of SKH-1 hairless mice
    Som D Sharma
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama, 1670 University Boulevard, Volker Hall 557, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Pharm Res 27:1092-102. 2010
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the chemopreventive mechanism of dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) against ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced skin tumor development in mice...
  41. doi request reprint Leptin deficiency-induced obesity exacerbates ultraviolet B radiation-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and cell survival signals in ultraviolet B-irradiated mouse skin
    Som D Sharma
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 244:328-35. 2010
    ....
  42. ncbi request reprint Protection against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-caused inflammation in SENCAR mouse ear skin by polyphenolic fraction isolated from green tea
    S K Katiyar
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Case Western Reserve University, OH
    Carcinogenesis 14:361-5. 1993
    ..005). These results suggest that GTP possesses potential as a cancer chemopreventive agent against stage I tumor promotion...
  43. doi request reprint High-fat diet exacerbates inflammation and cell survival signals in the skin of ultraviolet B-irradiated C57BL/6 mice
    Syed M Meeran
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 241:303-10. 2009
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate prevents photocarcinogenesis in mice through interleukin-12-dependent DNA repair
    Syed M Meeran
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham and Birmingham VA Medical Center, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Cancer Res 66:5512-20. 2006
    ..Taken together, these results indicate for the first time that EGCG can prevent photocarcinogenesis through an EGCG-induced IL-12-dependent DNA repair mechanism...
  45. ncbi request reprint Silymarin inhibits UV radiation-induced immunosuppression through augmentation of interleukin-12 in mice
    Syed M Meeran
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670 University Boulevard, Volker Hall 557, P O Box 202, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Mol Cancer Ther 5:1660-8. 2006
    ..These data indicate for the first time that silymarin has the ability to protect mice from UVB-induced immunosuppression and that this protective effect is mediated, at least in part, through IL-12...
  46. doi request reprint Inhibition of non-small cell lung cancer cell migration by grape seed proanthocyanidins is mediated through the inhibition of nitric oxide, guanylate cyclase, and ERK1/2
    Thejass Punathil
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Mol Carcinog 48:232-42. 2009
    ..Together, these results indicate sequential inhibition of NO/NOS, GC, and MAPK pathways by GSPs in mediating the inhibitory signals for cell migration, an essential step in invasion and metastasis...
  47. ncbi request reprint Prevention of ultraviolet radiation-induced immunosuppression by (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in mice is mediated through interleukin 12-dependent DNA repair
    Syed M Meeran
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham and Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 12:2272-80. 2006
    ..We studied whether prevention of UV-induced immunosuppression by EGCG is mediated through interleukin 12 (IL-12)-dependent DNA repair...
  48. ncbi request reprint Dietary feeding of proanthocyanidins from grape seeds prevents photocarcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mice: relationship to decreased fat and lipid peroxidation
    Anshu Mittal
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Carcinogenesis 24:1379-88. 2003
    ..Together, it can be suggested that inhibition of photocarcinogenesis by GSP treatment may be associated with the reduction in UVB-induced oxidative damage and tissue fat content...
  49. ncbi request reprint Chemoprevention of photocarcinogenesis by selected dietary botanicals
    Manjeshwar S Baliga
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670 University Boulevard, Volker Hall 557, P O Box 202, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Photochem Photobiol Sci 5:243-53. 2006
    ....
  50. ncbi request reprint Dietary grape-seed proanthocyanidin inhibition of ultraviolet B-induced immune suppression is associated with induction of IL-12
    Som D Sharma
    Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA and Birmingham VA Medical Center, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Carcinogenesis 27:95-102. 2006
    ..These data indicate for the first time that GSPs modulate UVB-induced immunosuppression and suggest that this may be one of the possible mechanisms by which they prevent photocarcinogenesis in mice...
  51. ncbi request reprint Orally administered green tea polyphenols prevent ultraviolet radiation-induced skin cancer in mice through activation of cytotoxic T cells and inhibition of angiogenesis in tumors
    Sudheer K Mantena
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL, USA
    J Nutr 135:2871-7. 2005
    ....
  52. pmc IL-17 and IFN-gamma mediate the elicitation of contact hypersensitivity responses by different mechanisms and both are required for optimal responses
    Donggou He
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    J Immunol 183:1463-70. 2009
    ..This outcome improves understanding of pathogenesis and provides new insights into therapeutic strategies for CHS...
  53. ncbi request reprint GammadeltaT cells regulate the development of hapten-specific CD8+ effector T cells in contact hypersensitivity responses
    Hongbing Guan
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294, U S A
    J Invest Dermatol 119:137-42. 2002
    ....
  54. ncbi request reprint Protection against malignant conversion of chemically induced benign skin papillomas to squamous cell carcinomas in SENCAR mice by a polyphenolic fraction isolated from green tea
    S K Katiyar
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Case Western Reserve University, Ohio 44106
    Cancer Res 53:5409-12. 1993
    ....
  55. doi request reprint Honokiol, a phytochemical from the Magnolia plant, inhibits photocarcinogenesis by targeting UVB-induced inflammatory mediators and cell cycle regulators: development of topical formulation
    Mudit Vaid
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Carcinogenesis 31:2004-11. 2010
    ..Together, our results indicate that honokiol holds promise for the prevention of UVB-induced skin cancer by targeting inflammatory mediators, cell cycle regulators and cell survival signals in UVB-exposed skin...
  56. pmc IL-12 deficiency exacerbates inflammatory responses in UV-irradiated skin and skin tumors
    Syed M Meeran
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 128:2716-27. 2008
    ..Together, our data suggest that IL-12 KO mice are more susceptible to both UVB-induced inflammation and photocarcinogenesis because of the deficiency in the repair of UVB-induced DNA damage...
  57. ncbi request reprint Growth inhibitory and antimetastatic effect of green tea polyphenols on metastasis-specific mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells in vitro and in vivo systems
    Manjeshwar S Baliga
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 11:1918-27. 2005
    ..Here, we examined the effect of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on growth and metastasis of highly metastatic mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells in vitro and in vivo systems...
  58. pmc Grape seed proanthocyanidins induce apoptosis through p53, Bax, and caspase 3 pathways
    Anshu M Roy
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Neoplasia 7:24-36. 2005
    ..These data clearly demonstrate that GSP-induced apoptosis is p53-dependent and mediated through the Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase 3 pathways...
  59. ncbi request reprint Proanthocyanidins from grape seeds inhibit expression of matrix metalloproteinases in human prostate carcinoma cells, which is associated with the inhibition of activation of MAPK and NF kappa B
    Praveen K Vayalil
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294, USA
    Carcinogenesis 25:987-95. 2004
    ....
  60. pmc CD8+ IL-17-producing T cells are important in effector functions for the elicitation of contact hypersensitivity responses
    Donggou He
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    J Immunol 177:6852-8. 2006
    ..This indicates that CD8+ IL-17-producing cells are distinct from Tc1 cells and are important in effector functions at the elicitation of CHS. These studies provide insights into a novel mechanism for CHS...
  61. pmc IL-17 promotes tumor development through the induction of tumor promoting microenvironments at tumor sites and myeloid-derived suppressor cells
    Donggou He
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    J Immunol 184:2281-8. 2010
    ..The study provides novel insights into the role of IL-17 in tumor development and has major implications for targeting IL-17 in treatment of tumors...
  62. pmc Polyphenols: skin photoprotection and inhibition of photocarcinogenesis
    F Afaq
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Mini Rev Med Chem 11:1200-15. 2011
    ..The new information on the mechanisms of action of these polyphenols supports their potential use in skin photoprotection and prevention of photocarcinogenesis in humans...
  63. pmc A definitive role of ornithine decarboxylase in photocarcinogenesis
    N Ahmad
    Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Am J Pathol 159:885-92. 2001
    ..These data establish a definitive role of ODC in the promotion phase of photocarcinogenesis...
  64. ncbi request reprint CD11b+ cells are the major source of oxidative stress in UV radiation-irradiated skin: possible role in photoaging and photocarcinogenesis
    Anshu Mittal
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Photochem Photobiol 77:259-64. 2003
    ....
  65. ncbi request reprint Treatment of epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 via inhibition of activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, c-jun and NF-kappaB in human prostate carcinoma DU-145 cells
    Praveen K Vayalil
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Prostate 59:33-42. 2004
    ..Therefore, the effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) was determined on the synthesis and activation of tumor invasion-specific MMP-2 and MMP-9 in human prostate carcinoma DU-145 cells...
  66. ncbi request reprint Berberine inhibits growth, induces G1 arrest and apoptosis in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells by regulating Cdki-Cdk-cyclin cascade, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP
    Sudheer K Mantena
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Carcinogenesis 27:2018-27. 2006
    ....
  67. ncbi request reprint Neuronal repellent Slit2 inhibits dendritic cell migration and the development of immune responses
    Hongbing Guan
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    J Immunol 171:6519-26. 2003
    ..These findings provide insights into a novel mechanism by which Slit2 functions as an anti-inflammatory factor for the initiation of immune responses...
  68. ncbi request reprint Kinetics of UV light-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in human skin in vivo: an immunohistochemical analysis of both epidermis and dermis
    S K Katiyar
    Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University, 11100 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 5028, USA
    Photochem Photobiol 72:788-93. 2000
    ..Ten days after UV exposure the levels of CPD+ cells in both epidermis and dermis were not significantly different from that in unirradiated skin...
  69. pmc Multi-targeted prevention and therapy of cancer by proanthocyanidins
    Vijayalakshmi Nandakumar
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670, University Boulevard, Volker Hall 557, PO Box 202, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Cancer Lett 269:378-87. 2008
    ..The modulation of various molecular targets by proanthocyanidins in vitro and in vivo tumor models suggests their importance, contribution and mechanism of action to the prevention of cancers of different organs...
  70. pmc DNA damage, apoptosis and langerhans cells--Activators of UV-induced immune tolerance
    Laura Timares
    Department of Dermatology, The UAB Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Photochem Photobiol 84:422-36. 2008
    ....
  71. ncbi request reprint Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in murine and human nonmelanoma skin cancers: implications for therapeutic approaches
    Kathy P An
    Department of Dermatology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Photochem Photobiol 76:73-80. 2002
    ..In summary, enhanced COX-2 expression serves as a marker of epidermal UVB exposure for murine and human NMSC. These results suggest that COX-2 inhibitors could have potent anticarcinogenic effects in UVB-induced skin cancer...
  72. pmc Antagonistic roles of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene cutaneous carcinogenesis
    Nabiha Yusuf
    Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham and Birmingham VA Medical Center, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Cancer Res 68:3924-30. 2008
    ..Manipulation of T-cell subpopulations that are induced by carcinogenic chemicals, like DMBA, could be a means of preventing skin cancers caused by these agents...
  73. doi request reprint Dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate-caused skin tumor promotion in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-initiated mouse skin, which is associated with the inhibition of inflammatory responses
    Syed M Meeran
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Carcinogenesis 30:520-8. 2009
    ..Together, our results show that dietary GSPs inhibit chemical carcinogenesis in mouse skin and that the inhibition of skin tumorigenesis by GSPs is associated with the inhibition of inflammatory responses caused by tumor promoters...
  74. ncbi request reprint Grape seed proanthocyanidins promote apoptosis in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells through alterations in Cdki-Cdk-cyclin cascade, and caspase-3 activation via loss of mitochondrial membrane potential
    Syed M Meeran
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Exp Dermatol 16:405-15. 2007
    ..Together, our study suggests that GSPs possess chemotherapeutic potential against human epidermoid carcinoma cells in vitro, further in vivo mechanistic studies are required to verify the chemotherapeutic effect of GSPs in skin cancers...
  75. ncbi request reprint Grape seed proanthocyanidins induce apoptosis and inhibit metastasis of highly metastatic breast carcinoma cells
    Sudheer K Mantena
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Carcinogenesis 27:1682-91. 2006
    ..These data suggest that GSPs possess chemotherapeutic efficacy against breast cancer including inhibition of metastasis...
  76. ncbi request reprint Photoprotective effects of green tea polyphenols
    Nabiha Yusuf
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 23:48-56. 2007
    ..Green tea polyphenols thus have the potential, when used in conjunction with traditional sunscreens, to further protect the skin against the adverse effects of ultraviolet radiation...
  77. ncbi request reprint Berberine, a natural product, induces G1-phase cell cycle arrest and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in human prostate carcinoma cells
    Sudheer K Mantena
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Volker Hall 557, 1670 University Boulevard, P O Box 202, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Mol Cancer Ther 5:296-308. 2006
    ....
  78. pmc Heat shock proteins HSP27 and HSP70 are present in the skin and are important mediators of allergic contact hypersensitivity
    Nabiha Yusuf
    Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    J Immunol 182:675-83. 2009
    ..The results suggest that HSPs form a link between adaptive and innate immunity during the early stages of contact hypersensitivity...
  79. ncbi request reprint Proteomic characterization of skin and epidermis in response to environmental agents
    Chun Ming Huang
    Department of Dermatology, Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35294 0019, USA
    Expert Rev Proteomics 2:809-20. 2005
    ....
  80. ncbi request reprint Interleukin 17-producing T helper cells and interleukin 17 orchestrate autoreactive germinal center development in autoimmune BXD2 mice
    Hui Chen Hsu
    Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Nat Immunol 9:166-75. 2008
    ..These findings suggest a mechanism by which IL-17 drives autoimmune responses by promoting the formation of spontaneous GCs...
  81. pmc Protective role of Toll-like receptor 4 during the initiation stage of cutaneous chemical carcinogenesis
    Nabiha Yusuf
    Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670 University Boulevard, VH 566A, P O Box 202, Birmingham, AL 35294 0019, USA
    Cancer Res 68:615-22. 2008
    ..Efforts to divert the cell-mediated immune response from one that is IL-17 mediated to one that is IFN-gamma mediated may prove to be beneficial in the prevention of DMBA-induced cutaneous tumors...
  82. pmc Acquired and innate immunity to polyaromatic hydrocarbons
    Nabiha Yusuf
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 Third Avenue South, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 224:308-12. 2007
    ..Efforts to augment immune responses to the chemicals that cause tumors may be a productive approach to the prevention of tumors caused by these agents...
  83. ncbi request reprint High-level expression of B7-H1 molecules by dendritic cells suppresses the function of activated T cells and desensitizes allergen-primed animals
    Hee Kyung Kim
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, VH 566B, 1670 University Blvd, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 79:686-95. 2006
    ..The ability of B7-H1/DC to inhibit the function of preactivated T cells in vivo suggests novel strategies for the treatment of immune response-mediated disorders...
  84. ncbi request reprint Host defense mechanisms in polyaromatic hydrocarbon carcinogenesis
    C A Elmets
    Departmentof Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Ala 35294 0009, USA
    Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol 14:386-92. 2001
    ..This may form the basis for novel immunopreventive strategies for individuals at high risk for development of tumors produced by PAHs...
  85. pmc Exceptionally high protection of photocarcinogenesis by topical application of (--)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in hydrophilic cream in SKH-1 hairless mouse model: relationship to inhibition of UVB-induced global DNA hypomethylation
    Anshu Mittal
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Neoplasia 5:555-65. 2003
    ..These data suggest that hydrophilic cream could be a suitable vehicle for topical application of EGCG, and that EGCG is a promising candidate for future cancer therapies based on its influence on the epigenetic pathway...
  86. doi request reprint Proanthocyanidins inhibit in vitro and in vivo growth of human non-small cell lung cancer cells by inhibiting the prostaglandin E(2) and prostaglandin E(2) receptors
    Som D Sharma
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Mol Cancer Ther 9:569-80. 2010
    ....
  87. ncbi request reprint EGCG down-regulates telomerase in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells, leading to suppression of cell viability and induction of apoptosis
    Anshu Mittal
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Int J Oncol 24:703-10. 2004
    ....
  88. pmc IL-12 deficiency suppresses 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced skin tumor development in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-initiated mouse skin through inhibition of inflammation
    Som D Sharma
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670 University Boulevard, Volker Hall 557, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Carcinogenesis 30:1970-7. 2009
    ..In the case of DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumor development, the endogenous IL-12 modulates the tumor promoter stimulation of inflammatory responses...
  89. doi request reprint p53 Cooperates berberine-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis of non-small cell human lung cancer cells in vitro and tumor xenograft growth in vivo
    Santosh K Katiyar
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Mol Carcinog 48:24-37. 2009
    ....
  90. pmc The immunosuppressive effects of phthalocyanine photodynamic therapy in mice are mediated by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and can be adoptively transferred to naive recipients
    Nabiha Yusuf
    Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Photochem Photobiol 84:366-70. 2008
    ..Procedures that limit PDT-induced immunosuppression but do not affect PDT-induced regression of tumors may prove superior to PDT alone in promoting long-term antitumor responses...
  91. pmc A critical role for the proapoptotic protein bid in ultraviolet-induced immune suppression and cutaneous apoptosis
    Sanjay Pradhan
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    J Immunol 181:3077-88. 2008
    ..These studies provide evidence that Bid activation is a critical upstream mediator in UV-induced keratinocyte and LC apoptosis and that its absence abrogates UV-induced immune tolerance...
  92. ncbi request reprint Epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces apoptosis in estrogen receptor-negative human breast carcinoma cells via modulation in protein expression of p53 and Bax and caspase-3 activation
    Anshu M Roy
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670, University Boulevard, Volker Hall 557, P O Box 202, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Mol Cancer Ther 4:81-90. 2005
    ....
  93. doi request reprint Berberine-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells is initiated by reactive oxygen species generation
    Syed M Meeran
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 229:33-43. 2008
    ....
  94. pmc EGCG inhibits mammary cancer cell migration through inhibition of nitric oxide synthase and guanylate cyclase
    Thejass Punathil
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670 University Boulevard, Volker Hall 557, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 375:162-7. 2008
    ..These results indicate for the first time that EGCG inhibits mammary cancer cell migration through the inhibition of NO/NOS and guanylate cyclase...
  95. doi request reprint Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit the growth of human non-small cell lung cancer xenografts by targeting insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, tumor cell proliferation, and angiogenic factors
    Suhail Akhtar
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 15:821-31. 2009
    ..Here, we assessed the chemotherapeutic effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) on human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in vitro and in vivo using a tumor xenograft model...
  96. pmc Slit2 inhibits growth and metastasis of fibrosarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma
    Hee Kyung Kim
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Neoplasia 10:1411-20. 2008
    ....
  97. ncbi request reprint Somatic integration from an adenoviral hybrid vector into a hot spot in mouse liver results in persistent transgene expression levels in vivo
    Anja Ehrhardt
    Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
    Mol Ther 15:146-56. 2007
    ..With further optimization, this system represents a new tool for gene therapy protocols that may offer an alternative to gene therapy approaches based on random integrating viral vectors...
  98. doi request reprint Proanthocyanidins inhibit photocarcinogenesis through enhancement of DNA repair and xeroderma pigmentosum group A-dependent mechanism
    Mudit Vaid
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 3:1621-9. 2010
    ..Together, our findings reveal that prevention of photocarcinogenesis by GSPs is mediated through enhanced DNA repair in epidermal cells by IL-12- and XPA-dependent mechanisms...
  99. pmc Proanthocyanidins inhibit UV-induced immunosuppression through IL-12-dependent stimulation of CD8+ effector T cells and inactivation of CD4+ T cells
    Mudit Vaid
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 4:238-47. 2011
    ..These data suggest that GSPs inhibit UVB-induced immunosuppression by stimulating CD8(+) effector T cells and diminishing regulatory CD4(+) T cells...
  100. pmc Targeting wild-type and mutant p53 with small molecule CP-31398 blocks the growth of rhabdomyosarcoma by inducing reactive oxygen species-dependent apoptosis
    Jianmin Xu
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 0019, USA
    Cancer Res 70:6566-76. 2010
    ..Our findings indicate that the ability of CP-31398 to modulate wild-type and mutant p53 results in the inhibition of RMS growth and invasiveness...
  101. ncbi request reprint Optimization of cis-acting elements for gene expression from nonviral vectors in vivo
    Anja Ehrhardt
    Departments of Pediatrics and Genetics, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Hum Gene Ther 14:215-25. 2003
    ....

Research Grants8

  1. Prevention of Photocarcinogenesis by antioxidant
    Santosh Katiyar; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. Prevention of UV-carcinogenesis through DNA repair-dependent immunomodulation
    Hui Xu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The generation of new knowledge will provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which silymarin can either correct, or compensate for, the UV-induced damage that triggers or promotes photocarcinogenesis. ..
  3. Prevention of UV-carcinogenesis by antioxidant
    Santosh Katiyar; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  4. Proanthocyanidins: Novel Skin Cancer Preventive Agent
    Santosh Katiyar; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Prevention of skin cancer risk will result to protect and prolong the human health and lives. ..
  5. Prevention of skin cancer by green tea polyphenols
    Santosh Katiyar; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Importantly, worldwide interest in green tea as a cancer chemopreventive agent for humans is increasing because it is non-toxic, affordable, popular beverage and is effective in a wide range of organs. ..
  6. Prevention of skin cancer by green tea polyphenols
    Santosh Katiyar; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Importantly, worldwide interest in green tea as a cancer chemopreventive agent for humans is increasing because it is non-toxic, affordable, popular beverage and is effective in a wide range of organs. ..