Peyton Jacob

Summary

Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Simultaneous determination of mecamylamine, nicotine, and cotinine in plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
    P Jacob
    Department of Medicine and Drug Dependence Research Center, Langley Porter Psychiatric Institute, University of California, San Francisco 94110, USA
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 23:653-61. 2000
  2. ncbi request reprint Anabasine and anatabine as biomarkers for tobacco use during nicotine replacement therapy
    Peyton Jacob
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94110, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11:1668-73. 2002
  3. ncbi request reprint Determination of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethylene glycol 4-sulfate in human urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
    Peyton Jacob
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, University of California, 94110, USA
    Anal Chem 74:5290-6. 2002
  4. ncbi request reprint Determination of ephedra alkaloid and caffeine concentrations in dietary supplements and biological fluids
    Peyton Jacob
    University of California, San Francisco, Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, San Francisco General Hospital, 1001 Potrero Avenue, Building 30, 3rd Floor, San Francisco, California 94110, USA
    J Anal Toxicol 28:152-9. 2004
  5. pmc Biomarkers increase detection of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in critically ill patients
    S Jean Hsieh
    Department of Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Crit Care Med 39:40-5. 2011
  6. pmc Progressive commercial cigarette yield reduction: biochemical exposure and behavioral assessment
    Neal L Benowitz
    Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, and Department of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18:876-83. 2009
  7. ncbi request reprint Effect of grapefruit juice on cytochrome P450 2A6 and nicotine renal clearance
    Janne Hukkanen
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, and Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143 1220, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 80:522-30. 2006
  8. ncbi request reprint CYP2A6 genotype and the metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, and Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco 94143 1220, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 80:457-67. 2006
  9. pmc Racial differences in the relationship between tobacco dependence and nicotine and carcinogen exposure
    Gideon St Helen
    Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Addiction 108:607-17. 2013
  10. pmc Racial differences in the relationship between number of cigarettes smoked and nicotine and carcinogen exposure
    Neal L Benowitz
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 13:772-83. 2011

Detail Information

Publications66

  1. ncbi request reprint Simultaneous determination of mecamylamine, nicotine, and cotinine in plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
    P Jacob
    Department of Medicine and Drug Dependence Research Center, Langley Porter Psychiatric Institute, University of California, San Francisco 94110, USA
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 23:653-61. 2000
    ..Limits of quantitation for mecamylamine, nicotine and cotinine are 2, 1 and 2 ng/ml, respectively...
  2. ncbi request reprint Anabasine and anatabine as biomarkers for tobacco use during nicotine replacement therapy
    Peyton Jacob
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94110, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11:1668-73. 2002
    ..Anabasine and anatabine concentrations in urine can be used to validate abstinence or measure the extent of tobacco use in persons undergoing nicotine replacement therapy...
  3. ncbi request reprint Determination of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethylene glycol 4-sulfate in human urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
    Peyton Jacob
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, University of California, 94110, USA
    Anal Chem 74:5290-6. 2002
    ..Precision (coefficient of variation) ranged from 1.9 to 9.7%, and accuracy ranged from 97 to 103% of expected values for controls prepared by spiking sulfatase-treated urine with MHPG sulfate...
  4. ncbi request reprint Determination of ephedra alkaloid and caffeine concentrations in dietary supplements and biological fluids
    Peyton Jacob
    University of California, San Francisco, Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, San Francisco General Hospital, 1001 Potrero Avenue, Building 30, 3rd Floor, San Francisco, California 94110, USA
    J Anal Toxicol 28:152-9. 2004
    ..Using this method, low nanogram-per-milliliter concentrations of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, methylpseudoephedrine, and caffeine can be quantitated in a 12-min LC-MS-MS run...
  5. pmc Biomarkers increase detection of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in critically ill patients
    S Jean Hsieh
    Department of Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Crit Care Med 39:40-5. 2011
    ....
  6. pmc Progressive commercial cigarette yield reduction: biochemical exposure and behavioral assessment
    Neal L Benowitz
    Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, and Department of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18:876-83. 2009
    ..We examined the effects of gradual reduction of nicotine yield in commercial cigarettes on smoking behavior, with an assessment of nicotine intake and exposure to tobacco smoke toxins...
  7. ncbi request reprint Effect of grapefruit juice on cytochrome P450 2A6 and nicotine renal clearance
    Janne Hukkanen
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, and Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143 1220, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 80:522-30. 2006
    ..Our objective was to study the effect of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of nicotine, which is primarily metabolized by the CYP2A6 enzyme...
  8. ncbi request reprint CYP2A6 genotype and the metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, and Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco 94143 1220, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 80:457-67. 2006
    ..Our objective was to determine the relationship between variant CYP2A6 genotypes and the disposition and metabolism of nicotine administered intravenously...
  9. pmc Racial differences in the relationship between tobacco dependence and nicotine and carcinogen exposure
    Gideon St Helen
    Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Addiction 108:607-17. 2013
    ..To investigate the relationships between tobacco dependence, biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure and biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure per cigarette in back and white smokers...
  10. pmc Racial differences in the relationship between number of cigarettes smoked and nicotine and carcinogen exposure
    Neal L Benowitz
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 13:772-83. 2011
    ..We studied the relationship between cigarettes per day (CPD) and biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure in Black and White smokers...
  11. pmc Comparison of urine cotinine and the tobacco-specific nitrosamine metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and their ratio to discriminate active from passive smoking
    Maciej Lukasz Goniewicz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of California, San Francisco, Box 1220, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 13:202-8. 2011
    ..The aim of the study was to determine optimal cutoff points to discriminate active versus passive smokers and to compare sensitivity and specificity for the use of cotinine, NNAL, and the ratio of the NNAL/cotinine in urine...
  12. pmc Urine cotinine underestimates exposure to the tobacco-derived lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in passive compared with active smokers
    Neal Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19:2795-800. 2010
    ....
  13. pmc Urine menthol as a biomarker of mentholated cigarette smoking
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 1220, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19:3013-9. 2010
    ..We measured urine menthol concentrations in relation to biomarkers of exposure to nicotine and tobacco carcinogens...
  14. ncbi request reprint Nicotelline: a proposed biomarker and environmental tracer for particulate matter derived from tobacco smoke
    Peyton Jacob
    School of Medicine, Departments of Psychiatry and Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, California 94110, United States
    Chem Res Toxicol 26:1615-31. 2013
    ..We conclude that nicotelline should be useful as a tracer and biomarker for PM derived from tobacco smoke. ..
  15. pmc Exposure and kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cigarette smokers
    Gideon St Helen
    Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    Chem Res Toxicol 25:952-64. 2012
    ..Characterization of hydroxyfluorene and 2-naphthol metabolites in urine may improve the characterization of PAHs from tobacco smoke and related disease risks among smokers and nonsmokers...
  16. doi request reprint Cocaethylene formation following ethanol and cocaine administration by different routes
    Ellen D Herbst
    San Francisco Dept of Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 19:95-104. 2011
    ..Administration of cocaine by different routes alters the amount of cocaethylene formed through hepatic first-pass effects. Increased cardiovascular and subjective effects might explain the toxicity and popularity of the combined drugs...
  17. pmc Comparison of nicotine and carcinogen exposure with water pipe and cigarette smoking
    Peyton Jacob
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco General Hospital, Building 100, Room 235, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 22:765-72. 2013
    ..Smoking tobacco preparations in a water pipe (hookah) is widespread in many places of the world and is perceived by many as relatively safe. We investigated biomarkers of toxicant exposure with water pipe compared with cigarette smoking...
  18. pmc Nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carcinogen exposure after a single use of a water pipe
    Peyton Jacob
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco General Hospital, Building 100, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 20:2345-53. 2011
    ..Many perceive water pipe smoking to be less hazardous than cigarette smoking. We studied systemic absorption of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carcinogens from one water pipe smoking session...
  19. ncbi request reprint Concentrations of ephedra alkaloids and caffeine in commercial dietary supplements
    Christine A Haller
    University of California, San Francisco, Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, San Francisco General Hospital, 1001 Potrero Avenue, Building 30, 3rd Floor, San Francisco, California 94110, USA
    J Anal Toxicol 28:145-51. 2004
    ..We conclude that product inconsistency is common among some commercially available dietary supplements that contain ephedra alkaloids and caffeine...
  20. ncbi request reprint Short-term metabolic and hemodynamic effects of ephedra and guarana combinations
    Christine A Haller
    Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 77:560-71. 2005
    ..We sought to determine whether repeated dosing and multi-ingredient formulations contribute to the adverse effects of these supplements...
  21. ncbi request reprint Carcinogen exposure during short-term switching from regular to "light" cigarettes
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Department of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, Box 1220, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:1376-83. 2005
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Human pharmacology of the methamphetamine stereoisomers
    John Mendelson
    Addiction Pharmacology Research Laboratory, California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute, St Luke s Hospital, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 80:403-20. 2006
    ..To help predict the consequences of precursor regulation, we compared the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the methamphetamine (INN, metamfetamine) stereoisomers...
  23. pmc Smoking behavior and exposure to tobacco toxicants during 6 months of smoking progressively reduced nicotine content cigarettes
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 21:761-9. 2012
    ..We conducted a trial of progressive nicotine content tapering over 6 months to determine the effects on smoking behaviors and biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure and cardiovascular effects...
  24. pmc Reproducibility of the nicotine metabolite ratio in cigarette smokers
    Gideon St Helen
    Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 21:1105-14. 2012
    ....
  25. pmc Estimation of nicotine dose after low-level exposure using plasma and urine nicotine metabolites
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, and Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, Box 1220, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19:1160-6. 2010
    ..We sought to determine the optimal plasma and urine nicotine metabolites, alone or in combination, to estimate the systemic dose of nicotine after low-level exposure...
  26. ncbi request reprint Pharmacology of ephedra alkaloids and caffeine after single-dose dietary supplement use
    Christine A Haller
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, 94143, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 71:421-32. 2002
    ..We assessed the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a dietary supplement that contains these herbal stimulants...
  27. ncbi request reprint Enhanced stimulant and metabolic effects of combined ephedrine and caffeine
    Christine A Haller
    Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 75:259-73. 2004
    ..We sought to determine whether ephedrine and caffeine have clinically significant pharmacologic interactions that explain these toxicities...
  28. pmc Elimination kinetics of the tobacco-specific biomarker and lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol
    Maciej L Goniewicz
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18:3421-5. 2009
    ....
  29. pmc Subpicogram per milliliter determination of the tobacco-specific carcinogen metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol in human urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
    Peyton Jacob
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, UCSF Box 1220, San Francisco, California 94143 1220, USA
    Anal Chem 80:8115-21. 2008
    ..The lower limit of quantitation is 0.25 pg/mL for 5-mL urine specimens. Applications to studies of people with a range of different SHS exposure levels is described...
  30. ncbi request reprint Nicotine and carcinogen exposure with smoking of progressively reduced nicotine content cigarette
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:2479-85. 2007
    ..This study examined whether gradual reduction in nicotine exposure increases exposure to tobacco smoke toxins...
  31. pmc Determination of the nicotine metabolites cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine in biologic fluids of smokers and non-smokers using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: biomarkers for tobacco smoke exposure and for phenotyping cytochrome P450 2
    Peyton Jacob
    Department of Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, 1001 Potrero Avenue, University of California, San Francisco, UCSF Box 1220, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 879:267-76. 2011
    ..Concentrations of both metabolites in urine of non-smokers with different levels of secondhand smoke exposure are presented...
  32. ncbi request reprint Mentholated cigarette smoking inhibits nicotine metabolism
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of California, San Francisco, Box 1220, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 310:1208-15. 2004
    ..Our finding of impaired metabolism of nicotine while mentholated cigarette smoking suggests that mentholated cigarette smoking enhances systemic nicotine exposure...
  33. ncbi request reprint Hemodynamic effects of ephedra-free weight-loss supplements in humans
    Christine A Haller
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 94143, USA
    Am J Med 118:998-1003. 2005
    ..These supplements may have some of the health risks associated with ephedra, but studies in humans are lacking. Our aim was to characterize the pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects of C. aurantium dietary supplements...
  34. ncbi request reprint Metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine
    Janne Hukkanen
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco Genreral Hospital Medical Center, and the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, Box 1220, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Pharmacol Rev 57:79-115. 2005
    ..Due to the significance of the CYP2A6 enzyme in nicotine clearance, special emphasis is given to the effects and population distributions of CYP2A6 alleles and the regulation of CYP2A6 enzyme...
  35. pmc Prevalence of smoking assessed biochemically in an urban public hospital: a rationale for routine cotinine screening
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 170:885-91. 2009
    ....
  36. ncbi request reprint Female sex and oral contraceptive use accelerate nicotine metabolism
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco 94143 1220, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 79:480-8. 2006
    ..This study tested the hypothesis that women metabolize nicotine more rapidly than men and that, among women, oral contraceptive users metabolize nicotine more rapidly than nonusers of oral contraceptives...
  37. ncbi request reprint Nicotine metabolite ratio as a predictor of cigarette consumption
    Neal L Benowitz
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 5:621-4. 2003
    ..This finding supports the hypothesis that the rate of nicotine metabolism is a determinant of the level of cigarette consumption and supports the use of the 3-HC:cotinine ratio as a noninvasive marker of nicotine metabolism...
  38. ncbi request reprint Effects of cigarette smoking and carbon monoxide on chlorzoxazone and caffeine metabolism
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 74:468-74. 2003
    ....
  39. doi request reprint Thirty minute-exposure to aged cigarette smoke increases nasal congestion in nonsmokers
    Suzaynn F Schick
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, Box 0843, California 94143 0843, USA
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 76:601-13. 2013
    ..Data indicate a 30-min exposure to secondhand smoke at 1 mg/m³ PM increases subjective upper respiratory symptoms, increases urinary cotinine and NNAL, and produces objective nasal airflow obstruction in human subjects...
  40. pmc Exposure to nicotine and carcinogens among Southwestern Alaskan Native cigarette smokers and smokeless tobacco users
    Neal L Benowitz
    University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 21:934-42. 2012
    ..To investigate possible mechanisms of increased cancer risk we studied levels of nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) in tobacco products and biomarkers of tobacco toxicant exposure in Southwestern AN people...
  41. pmc The clinical pharmacology of intranasal l-methamphetamine
    John E Mendelson
    Addiction Pharmacology Research Laboratory, The California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute, St Luke s Hospital, 7th Floor, 3555 Cesar Chavez Street, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    BMC Clin Pharmacol 8:4. 2008
    ..We studied the pharmacology of l-methamphetamine, the less abused isomer, when used as a nasal decongestant...
  42. pmc Human pharmacology of a performance-enhancing dietary supplement under resting and exercise conditions
    Christine A Haller
    Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 65:833-40. 2008
    ..The effect of exercise on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of stimulant herbals is unknown...
  43. ncbi request reprint Nicotine intake and dose response when smoking reduced-nicotine content cigarettes
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143 1220, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 80:703-14. 2006
    ..As a first step in evaluating this strategy, we studied smokers smoking cigarettes containing tobacco with differing nicotine content...
  44. pmc Urine nicotine metabolite concentrations in relation to plasma cotinine during low-level nicotine exposure
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Department of Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, Box 1220, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 11:954-60. 2009
    ....
  45. ncbi request reprint Nicotine and carcinogen exposure after water pipe smoking in hookah bars
    Gideon St Helen
    Authors Affiliations Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California, San Francisco Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center Departments of Medicine, and Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CaliforniaAuthors Affiliations Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California, San Francisco Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center Departments of Medicine, and Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CaliforniaAuthors Affiliations Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California, San Francisco Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center Departments of Medicine, and Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, California
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 23:1055-66. 2014
    ..We investigated biomarkers of nicotine intake and carcinogen exposure from water pipe smoking in the naturalistic setting of hookah bars...
  46. ncbi request reprint Nicotine metabolite ratio as an index of cytochrome P450 2A6 metabolic activity
    Delia Dempsey
    Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, University of California, 94143 1220, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 76:64-72. 2004
    ..Our objective was to evaluate the use of oral nicotine with measurement of the trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3HC)/cotinine (COT) metabolite ratio as a noninvasive probe of CYP2A6 activity...
  47. pmc GHB urine concentrations after single-dose administration in humans
    Christine Haller
    Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco General Hospital, California, USA
    J Anal Toxicol 30:360-4. 2006
    ..We conclude that the detection time for GHB in urine may be shorter than the previously reported 12-h window in some people taking therapeutic doses of GHB...
  48. ncbi request reprint Cardiovascular effects of nasal and transdermal nicotine and cigarette smoking
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, San Francisco, USA nbeno itsa ucsf edu
    Hypertension 39:1107-12. 2002
    ..We conclude that, at recommended doses, TDN and NNS have fewer effects on biomarkers of cardiovascular risk than does cigarette smoking...
  49. pmc Biomarkers of secondhand smoke exposure in automobiles
    Ian A Jones
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA
    Tob Control 23:51-7. 2014
    ....
  50. pmc Influence of CYP2B6 genetic variants on plasma and urine concentrations of bupropion and metabolites at steady state
    Neal L Benowitz
    Department of Medicine, Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 1220, USA
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 23:135-41. 2013
    ..Bupropion, an antidepressant and smoking cessation medication, is metabolized to hydroxybupropion (HB), an active metabolite, primarily by CYP2B6...
  51. pmc Nicotine metabolism in pregnant and nonpregnant rabbits
    Piotr Tutka
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, 1550 4th Street, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 10:1385-90. 2008
    ..However, a molecular understanding of these effects is essential for prediction of the pharmacological and toxicological consequences of smoking during pregnancy...
  52. ncbi request reprint Accelerated metabolism of nicotine and cotinine in pregnant smokers
    Delia Dempsey
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, California 94143 1220, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 301:594-8. 2002
    ..Lower cotinine levels observed during pregnancy do not necessarily reflect less smoke exposure, and cut-off levels used to classify nonsmokers, passive smokers, and active smokers need to be established for pregnancy...
  53. ncbi request reprint Determination of phenolic metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human urine as their pentafluorobenzyl ether derivatives using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
    Peyton Jacob
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94110, USA
    Anal Chem 79:587-98. 2007
    ..01 to 0.5 ng/mL. Stable isotope-labeled internal standards were synthesized or obtained commercially. Data on urinary excretion of several PAH metabolites in urine of smokers and nonsmokers are presented...
  54. ncbi request reprint Attitudes and practices of hookah smokers in the San Francisco Bay Area
    Bilaal Ahmed
    School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA
    J Psychoactive Drugs 43:146-52. 2011
    ..More definitive studies conveying the possible harm of hookah smoking are necessary to serve as a basis for health education programs and policy changes towards this potentially harmful activity...
  55. pmc Longer term exposure to secondhand smoke and health outcomes in COPD: impact of urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol
    Mark D Eisner
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 350 Parnassus Avenue, Suite 609, San Francisco, CA 94117, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 11:945-53. 2009
    ..Secondhand smoke (SHS) contains respiratory irritants and has the potential to adversely affect adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but few studies have evaluated the impact of SHS on COPD...
  56. ncbi request reprint Slower metabolism and reduced intake of nicotine from cigarette smoking in Chinese-Americans
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 94:108-15. 2002
    ..We compared the rate of nicotine metabolism and the intake of nicotine per cigarette smoked among smokers of different ethnicities...
  57. ncbi request reprint Urine toxicology samples in cocaine treatment trials: how many need to be tested?
    Kevin L Delucchi
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0984, USA
    J Addict Dis 21:17-26. 2002
    ..50 and approximately 20% disagreement among samples using cutoff values in place of quantitative levels. Both samples, however, supported similar conclusions about group-level behavior...
  58. ncbi request reprint Caffeine-herbal ephedra combination increases resting energy expenditure, heart rate and blood pressure
    Matthew D Vukovich
    Applied Physiology Laboratory, Department Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota 57007, USA
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 32:47-53. 2005
    ..5. Caffeine and herbal ephedra, at doses of 150 mg and 20 mg (ephedrine), respectively, result in a significant elevation in REE, HR and BP. Although significant, the increase in energy expenditure is negligible in terms of weight loss...
  59. ncbi request reprint Secondhand smoke exposure in Mexican discotheques
    Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce
    Center for Research in Population Health, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico
    Nicotine Tob Res 9:1021-6. 2007
    ..These findings support the need to prohibit smoking in discotheques to protect nonsmokers' health...
  60. ncbi request reprint Gene-gene interactions between CYP2B6 and CYP2A6 in nicotine metabolism
    Huijun Z Ring
    Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, USA
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 17:1007-15. 2007
    ..We investigated the influence of genetic variation in another potential nicotine-metabolizing enzyme, CYP2B6, and its interaction with CYP2A6, on the metabolism of nicotine...
  61. ncbi request reprint Relationship of human toenail nicotine, cotinine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol to levels of these biomarkers in plasma and urine
    Irina Stepanov
    The Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:1382-6. 2007
    ..53; P = 0.005). The results of this study provide essential validation data for the use of toenail biomarkers in investigations of the role of chronic tobacco smoke exposure in human cancer...
  62. ncbi request reprint Genetic and environmental sources of variation in heart rate response to infused nicotine in twins
    Gary E Swan
    Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:1057-64. 2007
    ..The contribution from genetic sources to heart rate response characteristics should be investigated further as a potential endophenotype for use in genetic studies of nicotine dependence...
  63. ncbi request reprint Pharmacogenetics of nicotine metabolism in twins: methods and procedures
    Gary E Swan
    Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA
    Twin Res 7:435-48. 2004
    ....
  64. ncbi request reprint Vitamin C supplementation decreases oxidative stress biomarker f2-isoprostanes in plasma of nonsmokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke
    Marion Dietrich
    School of Public Health, University of California Berkeley, 140 Warren Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 7360, USA
    Nutr Cancer 45:176-84. 2003
    ..Daily AO supplementation (especially with vitamin C) decreases this oxidative stress biomarker in passive smokers. This finding might be of importance for the prevention of ETS-associated adverse health effects in nonsmokers...
  65. ncbi request reprint Nicotine metabolism: the impact of CYP2A6 on estimates of additive genetic influence
    Gary E Swan
    Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 15:115-25. 2005
    ..These results suggest the involvement of additional genetic factors (e.g. uncharacterized or novel CYP2A6 alleles as well as other genes in the metabolic pathway) that remain to be identified...
  66. pmc Effect of pregnancy on a measure of FMO3 activity
    Janne Hukkanen
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 60:224-6. 2005