John Hughes

Summary

Affiliation: University of Vermont
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Natural history of attempts to stop smoking
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT
    Nicotine Tob Res 16:1190-8. 2014
  2. pmc Marijuana use and intoxication among daily users: An intensive longitudinal study
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, United States Department of Psychology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, United States Department of Family Practice, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, United States Electronic address
    Addict Behav 39:1464-70. 2014
  3. ncbi request reprint Association of deferring a quit attempt with smoking cessation success: a secondary analysis
    John R Hughes
    University of Vermont, Dept of Psychiatry, UHC Campus, Mailstop 482, 1 South Prospect Street, Burlington, VT 05401 United States Electronic address
    J Subst Abuse Treat 46:264-7. 2014
  4. ncbi request reprint An updated algorithm for choosing among smoking cessation treatments
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA
    J Subst Abuse Treat 45:215-21. 2013
  5. doi request reprint Nicotine don't get no respect: a replication test
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 15:588-90. 2013
  6. pmc The natural history of efforts to stop smoking: a prospective cohort study
    John R Hughes
    Departments of Psychiatry, Psychology and Family Practice, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 128:171-4. 2013
  7. doi request reprint Use of nicotine replacement after a smoking lapse
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 14:751-4. 2012
  8. ncbi request reprint Does smoking reduction increase future cessation and decrease disease risk? A qualitative review
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 8:739-49. 2006
  9. ncbi request reprint Effects of abstinence from tobacco: etiology, animal models, epidemiology, and significance: a subjective review
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401 1419, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 9:329-39. 2007
  10. ncbi request reprint Depression during tobacco abstinence
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401 1419, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 9:443-6. 2007

Detail Information

Publications109 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Natural history of attempts to stop smoking
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT
    Nicotine Tob Res 16:1190-8. 2014
    ..This study provides a prospective fine-grain description of the incidence and pattern of intentions to quit, quit attempts, abstinence, and reduction in order to address several clinical questions about self-quitting...
  2. pmc Marijuana use and intoxication among daily users: An intensive longitudinal study
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, United States Department of Psychology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, United States Department of Family Practice, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, United States Electronic address
    Addict Behav 39:1464-70. 2014
    ..Most of the harm from marijuana use is experienced by daily users. Despite this, there has not been a detailed prospective description of daily marijuana use...
  3. ncbi request reprint Association of deferring a quit attempt with smoking cessation success: a secondary analysis
    John R Hughes
    University of Vermont, Dept of Psychiatry, UHC Campus, Mailstop 482, 1 South Prospect Street, Burlington, VT 05401 United States Electronic address
    J Subst Abuse Treat 46:264-7. 2014
    ..001). The only statistically significant difference was between the last week and prior weeks. Whether a later quit attempt actually causes less success or is a marker for other variables (e.g., low motivation) is unclear...
  4. ncbi request reprint An updated algorithm for choosing among smoking cessation treatments
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA
    J Subst Abuse Treat 45:215-21. 2013
    ..Further research is needed to determine whether algorithms improve treatment outcomes. ..
  5. doi request reprint Nicotine don't get no respect: a replication test
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 15:588-90. 2013
    ..This analysis tested if this finding is still true in journals published in 2010-2011...
  6. pmc The natural history of efforts to stop smoking: a prospective cohort study
    John R Hughes
    Departments of Psychiatry, Psychology and Family Practice, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 128:171-4. 2013
    ..The current study attempted to replicate those results...
  7. doi request reprint Use of nicotine replacement after a smoking lapse
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 14:751-4. 2012
    ..What percent of clinicians recommend continuation of NRT upon a lapse and what percent of NRT users continue NRT postlapse are unclear...
  8. ncbi request reprint Does smoking reduction increase future cessation and decrease disease risk? A qualitative review
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 8:739-49. 2006
    ..We conclude that (a) smoking reduction increases the probability of future cessation and (b) whether smoking reduction decreases the risks of smoking-related diseases has not been adequately tested...
  9. ncbi request reprint Effects of abstinence from tobacco: etiology, animal models, epidemiology, and significance: a subjective review
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401 1419, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 9:329-39. 2007
    ..Tobacco withdrawal is common and can be distressing. Withdrawal-induced depression appears to undermine the smoker's ability to remain abstinent...
  10. ncbi request reprint Depression during tobacco abstinence
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401 1419, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 9:443-6. 2007
    ..Whether treatment with antidepressants prevented postcessation MDD also was unclear. This review makes methodological recommendations for more definitive studies...
  11. ncbi request reprint Interest in gradual cessation
    John R Hughes
    University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 9:671-5. 2007
    ..1) and was similar to that for abrupt cessation (7.0). In both scenarios, over three-fourths of smokers were at least as interested in gradual cessation as they were in abrupt cessation...
  12. ncbi request reprint Measurement of the effects of abstinence from tobacco: a qualitative review
    John R Hughes
    University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, Ira Allen School, Burlington, VT 05401 1419, USA
    Psychol Addict Behav 21:127-37. 2007
    ..multiple items to describe each symptom. Of the measures, 6 consistently increase with abstinence, but no single measure appears superior...
  13. ncbi request reprint Defining dependence: describing symptom clusters versus central constructs
    John R Hughes
    University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, Ira Allen School, 38 Fletcher Place, Burlington, VT 05401 1419, USA
    Addiction 102:1531-2; discussion 1537-8. 2007
  14. ncbi request reprint Should criteria for drug dependence differ across drugs?
    John R Hughes
    University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA
    Addiction 101:134-41. 2006
    ..To examine the pros and cons of using the same diagnostic criteria for dependence across all drugs versus using dependence criteria specific to the drug of interest...
  15. ncbi request reprint Clinical significance of tobacco withdrawal
    John R Hughes
    University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, Ira Allen School, Burlington, VT 05401 1419, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 8:153-6. 2006
    ..8) but during abstinence (M = 5 days), the scores had increased (M = 27.4) to be similar to that of psychiatric outpatient norms (M = 25.1). These results and others suggest stopping smoking causes clinically significant distress...
  16. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of DSM/ICD-defined nicotine dependence
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, The University of Vermont, 38 Fletcher Place, Burlington, VT 05401 1419, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 85:91-102. 2006
    ..Nicotine dependence is one of the most common mental disorders; however, about half of current smokers do not meet DSM/ICD dependence criterion...
  17. ncbi request reprint Do smokers with alcohol problems have more difficulty quitting?
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, 38 Fletcher Place, Burlington, 05401, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 82:91-102. 2006
    ..Our results that smokers with past alcohol problems can quit as easily as those without alcohol problems suggest that smokers with past alcohol problems may respond to minimal treatments for smoking cessation...
  18. ncbi request reprint Nortriptyline for smoking cessation: a review
    John R Hughes
    Departments of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Family Practice, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 7:491-9. 2005
    ..Until further studies can verify a low incidence of significant adverse events, nortriptyline should be a second-line treatment for smoking cessation...
  19. pmc The feasibility of smoking reduction: an update
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, Psychology and Family Practice, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Addiction 100:1074-89. 2005
    ....
  20. ncbi request reprint Intentions to quit smoking change over short periods of time
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, Ira Allen School, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401 1419, United States
    Addict Behav 30:653-62. 2005
    ..Results were similar in Swedish and US participants and replicate the results of prior studies. We conclude intention to quit often spontaneously changes over short periods of time, especially with repeated testing...
  21. ncbi request reprint The effect of a novel smoking system--Accord--on ongoing smoking and toxin exposure
    John R Hughes
    University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 6:1021-7. 2004
    ..Because most PREPs will probably be used along with traditional cigarettes, their net health impact is a function of not only their toxicological profile but also their effect on ongoing smoking...
  22. pmc A prospective study of off-label use of, abuse of, and dependence on nicotine inhaler
    J R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, Psychology and Family Practice, University of Vermont, 38 Fletcher Place, Burlington, VT 05401 1419, USA
    Tob Control 14:49-54. 2005
    ..To determine the incidence of off-label use of, abuse of, and dependence on prescription nicotine inhaler...
  23. ncbi request reprint Concordance of different measures of nicotine dependence: two pilot studies
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington 05401 1419, USA
    Addict Behav 29:1527-39. 2004
    ..One interpretation of these results is that generic, Fagerström, consumption, and self-rating criteria each tap different aspects of nicotine dependence...
  24. pmc An algorithm for choosing among smoking cessation treatments
    John Hughes
    University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401 1419, USA
    J Subst Abuse Treat 34:426-32. 2008
    ..If a smoker fails to quit, the algorithm suggests an assessment of why relapse occurred and then a more intense treatment, a new treatment, or both...
  25. pmc Attempts to stop or reduce marijuana use in non-treatment seekers
    John R Hughes
    Human Behavioral Pharmacology Laboratory, Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 97:180-4. 2008
    ....
  26. doi request reprint Efficacy of a flexible quit date versus an a priori quit date approach to smoking cessation: a cross-study analysis
    John R Hughes
    University of Vermont, Dept of Psychiatry, Burlington, Vermont 05401, USA
    Addict Behav 36:1288-91. 2011
    ..Also, a study of whether different subpopulations of smokers may be more interested in or especially benefit from, one or the other approach to quitting is indicated...
  27. pmc Efficacy of varenicline to prompt quit attempts in smokers not currently trying to quit: a randomized placebo-controlled trial
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 13:955-64. 2011
    ..We tested whether varenicline, a partial nicotine agonist, would also increase future quit attempts...
  28. pmc Effectiveness of over-the-counter nicotine replacement therapy: a qualitative review of nonrandomized trials
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, UHC Campus, 1 South Prospect Street, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 13:512-22. 2011
    ..Randomized trials conducted in over-the-counter (OTC) settings have shown that nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is effective. This paper reviews nonrandomized tests of the effectiveness of OTC NRT...
  29. pmc The hardening hypothesis: is the ability to quit decreasing due to increasing nicotine dependence? A review and commentary
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, UHC Campus, Stop 482, Burlington, VT, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 117:111-7. 2011
    ..Future studies should include questions about quit attempts, ability to abstain, treatment use, and multi-item dependence measures...
  30. pmc Definition of a quit attempt: a replication test
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, UHC Campus, Mailstop 482, 1 South Prospect Street, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 12:1176-9. 2010
    ....
  31. pmc A randomized, controlled trial of NRT-aided gradual vs. abrupt cessation in smokers actively trying to quit
    John R Hughes
    University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 111:105-13. 2010
    ..One liability of gradual reduction may be that it allows smokers to delay their quit date...
  32. pmc Do point prevalence and prolonged abstinence measures produce similar results in smoking cessation studies? A systematic review
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, University Health Center, Mailstop 482, 1 South Prospect Street, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 12:756-62. 2010
    ..e., not smoking since a quit date, with or without a grace period) or point prevalence (PP) abstinence rates (i.e., no smoking one or more days prior to the follow-up), but how these two relate is unclear...
  33. pmc Craving among long-abstinent smokers: an Internet survey
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, UHC Campus, Mail Stop 482, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 12:459-62. 2010
    ..This survey estimated the prevalence and correlates of craving among long-abstinent smokers...
  34. pmc How confident should we be that smoking cessation treatments work?
    John R Hughes
    Departments of Psychiatry, Psychology and Family Practice, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Addiction 104:1637-40. 2009
    ....
  35. pmc Smokers' beliefs about the inability to stop smoking
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Addict Behav 34:1005-9. 2009
    ..Given the several unexpected findings, qualitative research into smokers' conceptualizations about smokers' inability to stop smoking is indicated...
  36. pmc Are differences in guidelines for the treatment of nicotine dependence and non-nicotine dependence justified?
    John R Hughes
    Departments of Psychiatry, Psychology and Family Practice, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Addiction 104:1951-7. 2009
    ..However, it is unclear whether these treatment differences are, in fact, justifiable because of the scarcity of empirical tests. We suggest several possible empirical tests...
  37. pmc Treatment seeking for smoking cessation among young adults
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    J Subst Abuse Treat 37:211-3. 2009
    ..58%; relative risk = 0.42) or psychosocial (28% vs. 53%; relative risk = 0.54) treatment than middle-aged smokers (25-44 year olds). We conclude that reasons other than awareness and cost cause young adult smokers to not seek treatment...
  38. pmc Ethical concerns about non-active conditions in smoking cessation trials and methods to decrease such concerns
    John R Hughes
    University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, UHC Campus, OH3 Stop 482, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 100:187-93. 2009
    ..standard treatment. Empirical research to inform ethical analysis of non-active conditions in drug abuse research is suggested...
  39. pmc Relapse to smoking after 1 year of abstinence: a meta-analysis
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Addict Behav 33:1516-20. 2008
    ..We conclude a non-significant amount of relapse occurs after 1 year. Better quantification of this relapse rate is important to improve estimates of life-long abstinence and reductions in morbidity and mortality from smoking cessation...
  40. pmc Interest in treatments to stop smoking
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    J Subst Abuse Treat 36:18-24. 2009
    ..Why smokers do not use these treatments needs to be determined...
  41. pmc Is delaying a quit attempt associated with less success?
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, UHC Campus, Mailstop 482, 1 South Prospect Street, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 13:1228-32. 2011
    ..Delaying a quit date until later may be a cause of, or marker for, low motivation to quit. We tested this possibility in a secondary analysis of a recent clinical trial that allowed smokers flexibility in setting a quit date...
  42. ncbi request reprint Effects of abstinence from tobacco: valid symptoms and time course
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401 1419, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 9:315-27. 2007
    ..Future studies need to investigate several possible new symptoms of withdrawal and to define more clearly the time course of symptoms...
  43. ncbi request reprint The future of smoking cessation therapy in the United States
    J R Hughes
    Human Behavioral Pharmacology Laboratory, University of Vermont, USA
    Addiction 91:1797-802. 1996
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Are higher doses of nicotine replacement more effective for smoking cessation?
    J R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington 05401 1419, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 1:169-74. 1999
    ..s.). Our results are similar to most prior smaller studies; i.e., in heavy smokers higher doses increase quit rates slightly. Longer durations of treatment may be necessary to show greater advantages from higher doses...
  45. ncbi request reprint Effect of smoking abstinence on the subjective effects of caffeine
    J R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington 05401 1419, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 1:229-32. 1999
    ..These results and those of prior studies suggest smokers who are trying to stop smoking do not need to change their caffeine intake...
  46. ncbi request reprint A critical view of past NIH research funding on tobacco and nicotine
    J R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington 05401 1419, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 2:117-20. 2000
    ..Nicotine/tobacco research has no home institute. Funding for nicotine/tobacco research needs to be increased and better coordinated...
  47. ncbi request reprint Measures of abstinence in clinical trials: issues and recommendations
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, Psychology and Family Practice University of Vermont, Burlington 05401 1419, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 5:13-25. 2003
    ..Trials that use short-term follow-ups (< or = 3 months) to demonstrate possible efficacy should report a prolonged abstinence measure of > or = 4 weeks. We again recommend a 2-week grace period; however, that period can vary...
  48. ncbi request reprint Shape of the relapse curve and long-term abstinence among untreated smokers
    John R Hughes
    University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, Burlington, VT 05401 1419, USA
    Addiction 99:29-38. 2004
    ..To describe the relapse curve and rate of long-term prolonged abstinence among smokers who try to quit without treatment...
  49. ncbi request reprint Nicotine is more reinforcing in smokers with a past history of alcoholism than in smokers without this history
    J R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington 05401 1419, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 24:1633-8. 2000
    ..Whether smokers with a past history (PH) but not current history of alcohol dependence are more nicotine dependent than smokers with no such history (NH) is unclear. The present study was an experimental test of this hypothesis...
  50. pmc Why does smoking so often produce dependence? A somewhat different view
    J R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05401 1419, USA
    Tob Control 10:62-4. 2001
    ..This article reviews the evidence for the above views and the tobacco control activities these views suggest...
  51. ncbi request reprint How helpful are drug abuse helplines?
    J R Hughes
    Human Behavioral Pharmacology Laboratory, Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Vermont, 38 Fletcher Place, Burlington, VT 05401 1419, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 62:191-4. 2001
    ..These preliminary results indicate that much of the time responses to calls to national helplines are not consistent and not helpful...
  52. ncbi request reprint Comorbidity and smoking
    J R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry of the University of Vermont, Burlington, 05401 1419, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 1:S149-52; discussion S165-6. 1999
    ..g., poverty) be helpful?..
  53. ncbi request reprint Do smokers with current or past alcoholism need different or more intensive treatment?
    John Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, Psychology and Family Practice, University of Vermont, Burlington 05401 1419, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 26:1934-5. 2002
  54. ncbi request reprint Past alcohol problems do not predict worse smoking cessation outcomes
    John R Hughes
    Departments of Psychiatry, Psychology and Family Practice, University of Vermont, 38 Fletcher Place, Burlington, VT 05401 1419, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 71:269-73. 2003
    ..We conclude that a past history of alcohol problems per se does not predict inability to stop smoking...
  55. pmc A meta-analysis of the efficacy of over-the-counter nicotine replacement
    J R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington 05401, USA
    Tob Control 12:21-7. 2003
    ....
  56. ncbi request reprint Is dependence on one drug associated with dependence on other drugs? The cases of alcohol, caffeine and nicotine
    J R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington 05401 1419, USA
    Am J Addict 9:196-201. 2000
    ..22 & .31). Nicotine and caffeine dependence were not correlated. These results fail to confirm theories of commonality that hypothesize dependence on one drug predisposes to dependence on another drug...
  57. pmc Motivating and helping smokers to stop smoking
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401 1419, USA
    J Gen Intern Med 18:1053-7. 2003
    ..The writing of this article was supported in part by Senior Scientist Award DA-00450 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse...
  58. pmc Bibliographical analysis of research on smoking cessation therapy
    J R Hughes
    University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, Burlington 05401 1419, USA
    Tob Control 6:111-4. 1997
    ..To compare the growth of research on treatments for smoking with that for similar medical/behavioural disorders...
  59. ncbi request reprint Effects of three doses of transdermal nicotine on post-cessation eating, hunger and weight
    J R Hughes
    University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, Burlington 05401 1419, USA
    J Subst Abuse 9:151-9. 1997
    ..We conclude nicotine replacement reduces post-cessation increases in eating but does not have a specific effect on sweet intake...
  60. ncbi request reprint Behavioral effects of caffeine and other methylxanthines on children
    J R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington 05401 1419, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 6:87-95. 1998
    ..Early studies suggest caffeine self-administration and withdrawal can occur in some adolescent soda drinkers...
  61. ncbi request reprint Endorsement of DSM-IV dependence criteria among caffeine users
    J R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington 05401 1419, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 52:99-107. 1998
    ..Further studies are needed to determine whether such users exhibit a clinically significant syndrome of drug dependence...
  62. ncbi request reprint Caffeine and schizophrenia
    J R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Family Practice at the University of Vermont, Burlington 05401 1419, USA
    Psychiatr Serv 49:1415-7. 1998
    ..On the other hand, caffeine might increase the level of clozapine, and more research in this area is needed...
  63. ncbi request reprint Smoking reduction in the Lung Health Study
    John Hughes
    Departments of Psychiatry, Psychology and Family Practice, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401 1419, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 6:275-80. 2004
    ..We conclude that reduction can be maintained but such reduction neither predicts an increased nor decreased probability of future cessation...
  64. pmc Smoking behaviour and toxin exposure during six weeks use of a potential reduced exposure product: Omni
    J R Hughes
    University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, Burlington 05401 1419, USA
    Tob Control 13:175-9. 2004
    ..To determine smoking behaviour, acceptability, and toxin exposure when smokers switch to the potential reduced exposure product-Omni cigarette...
  65. pmc Four beliefs that may impede progress in the treatment of smoking
    J R Hughes
    University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, Burlington 05401 1419, USA
    Tob Control 8:323-6. 1999
    ....
  66. ncbi request reprint Recent advances in the pharmacotherapy of smoking
    J R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington 05401 1419, USA
    JAMA 281:72-6. 1999
    ....
  67. ncbi request reprint Ability of smokers to reduce their smoking and its association with future smoking cessation
    J R Hughes
    University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, Burlington 05401, USA
    Addiction 94:109-14. 1999
    ..We examined whether cigarette smokers in the United States can significantly reduce their smoking and maintain this reduction and, if so, whether this predicts an increase or decrease in the probability of smoking cessation in the future...
  68. ncbi request reprint Data to estimate the similarity of tobacco research samples to intended populations
    John R Hughes
    University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, Burlington, VT, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 6:177-9. 2004
    ..S. current smokers based on the 2000 National Health Interview Survey. Researchers can use these data to estimate the similarity of their sample to those of the typical U.S. smoker...
  69. ncbi request reprint Misuse of and dependence on over-the-counter nicotine gum in a volunteer sample
    John R Hughes
    University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, Burlington, VT, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 6:79-84. 2004
    ....
  70. ncbi request reprint Effect of smoking reduction on later cessation: a pilot experimental study
    Matthew J Carpenter
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont Burlington, VT, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 5:155-62. 2003
    ..Higher than expected rates of attempted cessation and quitting in the usual-care group suggest that we recruited smokers whose motivation to quit was above average. Thus, a replication test in a less-motivated group of smokers is needed...
  71. ncbi request reprint Both smoking reduction with nicotine replacement therapy and motivational advice increase future cessation among smokers unmotivated to quit
    Matthew J Carpenter
    Department of Psychology, University of Vermont, USA
    J Consult Clin Psychol 72:371-81. 2004
    ..01). Results indicate smoking reduction using NRT does not undermine cessation but rather increases the likelihood of quitting to a degree similar to motivational advice...
  72. ncbi request reprint Efficacy of nicotine patch in smokers with a history of alcoholism
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, 054001 1419, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 27:946-54. 2003
    ..Smokers with a history of alcohol dependence may have more difficulty quitting, might relapse to alcohol use, and might especially benefit from nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation...
  73. ncbi request reprint A cross-study comparison of cannabis and tobacco withdrawal
    Ryan G Vandrey
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, South Burlington, VT 05403, USA
    Am J Addict 14:54-63. 2005
    ..These findings are consistent with other evidence supporting the clinical importance of the cannabis withdrawal syndrome. There remains a need for prospective experimental studies to replicate these findings...
  74. ncbi request reprint Review of the validity and significance of cannabis withdrawal syndrome
    Alan J Budney
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, 54 W Twin Oaks Terrace, Suite 12, S Burlington, VT 05403, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 161:1967-77. 2004
    ..The magnitude and severity of these symptoms appear substantial, and these findings suggest that the syndrome has clinical importance. Diagnostic criteria for cannabis withdrawal syndrome are proposed...
  75. pmc The influence of response mode on study results: offering cigarette smokers a choice of postal or online completion of a survey
    Peter W Callas
    Medical Biostatistics, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405 0082, USA
    J Med Internet Res 12:e46. 2010
    ..It is unclear whether offering online data collection to study participants affects compliance or produces bias...
  76. pmc Cognitive barriers to calling a smoking quitline
    Laura J Solomon
    Health Promotion Research, University of Vermont, 429 AR4, 1 South Prospect Street, Burlington, VT 05401 3444, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 11:1339-46. 2009
    ..This study examined cognitive barriers that might prevent cigarette smokers who are interested in quitting from calling a smoking quitline...
  77. ncbi request reprint Oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol suppresses cannabis withdrawal symptoms
    Alan J Budney
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W Markham, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 86:22-9. 2007
    ..The primary aims were to establish the pharmacological specificity of the withdrawal syndrome and to obtain information relevant to determining the potential use of THC to assist in the treatment of cannabis dependence...
  78. pmc The day-to-day process of stopping or reducing smoking: a prospective study of self-changers
    Erica N Peters
    Department of Psychology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 11:1083-92. 2009
    ..The current study examined the day-to-day process preceding a quit or reduction attempt in addition to the daily process after a failure to quit or reduce...
  79. ncbi request reprint Goals indicate motivation to quit smoking
    Erica N Peters
    Departmentsof Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 5401, USA
    Addiction 102:1158-63. 2007
    ..To test if goals indicate motivation to quit smoking and predict which smokers will make a quit attempt...
  80. ncbi request reprint The time course and significance of cannabis withdrawal
    Alan J Budney
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, South Burlington 05403, USA
    J Abnorm Psychol 112:393-402. 2003
    ..These effects likely contribute to the development of dependence and difficulty stopping use. Criteria for cannabis withdrawal are proposed...
  81. ncbi request reprint The cannabis withdrawal syndrome
    Alan J Budney
    Center for Addiction Research, Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205, USA
    Curr Opin Psychiatry 19:233-8. 2006
    ..Skepticism is typically focused on whether cannabis use can result in 'physiological' dependence or withdrawal, and whether withdrawal is of clinical importance...
  82. ncbi request reprint Errors in interpreting abstinence curves in studies of smoking cessation
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 8:7-12. 2006
    ..They should also report both additive and multiplicative effect sizes...
  83. ncbi request reprint Ever users versus never users of a "less risky" cigarette
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401 1419, USA
    Psychol Addict Behav 19:439-42. 2005
    ..The authors conclude that almost all users believe Eclipse is safer than low-tar cigarettes...
  84. pmc Data to assess the generalizability of samples from studies of adult smokers
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, UHC Campus, Stop 482, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 12:73-6. 2010
    ..One major determinant of external validity is the representativeness of the sample. This article provides data to help authors and readers assess the generalizability of samples from smoking studies..
  85. pmc Smoking and suicide: a brief overview
    John R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, UHC Campus, 1 South Prospect Street, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 98:169-78. 2008
    ..Most prior data have come from post hoc analyses. Studies that a priori focus on understanding smoking and suicide are now needed...
  86. ncbi request reprint Do former smokers respond to nicotine differently from never smokers? A pilot study
    J R Hughes
    University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, Burlington 05401 1419, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 2:255-62. 2000
    ..Our results fail to confirm theories that those destined to be smokers are more or less sensitive to nicotine and that nicotine use causes irreversible brain changes that increase nicotine reinforcement...
  87. ncbi request reprint Nicotine concentrations with concurrent use of cigarettes and nicotine replacement: a review
    Karl Olov Fagerstrom
    Fagerström Consulting AB and Smokers Information Center, Helsingborg, Sweden
    Nicotine Tob Res 4:S73-9. 2002
    ..Despite substantially increased nicotine concentrations (e.g., up to 3 times the approved dose) there were no significant adverse reactions. Concurrent use of NR products and cigarette smoking appears to be safe...
  88. ncbi request reprint Long-term effects of the Eclipse cigarette substitute and the nicotine inhaler in smokers not interested in quitting
    Karl Olov Fagerstrom
    Fagerström Consulting AB and Smokers Information Center, Helsingborg, Sweden
    Nicotine Tob Res 4:S141-5. 2002
    ..For Eclipse this was accompanied by maintenance of nicotine levels but increases in CO whereas for the inhaler this was accompanied by a reduction in CO intake...
  89. ncbi request reprint A comparison of the psychometric properties of three cigarette withdrawal scales
    Jean Francois Etter
    Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Geneva, Switzerland
    Addiction 101:362-72. 2006
    ..To compare the psychometric properties of three cigarette withdrawal scales...
  90. ncbi request reprint Clarification of SRNT workgroup guidelines for measures in clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies
    John R Hughes
    Nicotine Tob Res 6:863-4. 2004
  91. ncbi request reprint Defining quit attempts: what difference does a day make?
    Matthew J Carpenter
    Addiction 100:257-8. 2005
  92. ncbi request reprint A softer view of hardening
    John R Hughes
    Nicotine Tob Res 5:961-2. 2003
  93. ncbi request reprint Mechanism of action of a decision aid for smoking cessation treatment
    John R Hughes
    Addiction 101:1362; author reply 1362-3. 2006
  94. ncbi request reprint Smokers' interest in using nicotine replacement to aid smoking reduction
    Saul Shiffman
    Pinney Associates, Inc, and University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 9:1177-82. 2007
    ..We conclude that many smokers are interested in gradually reducing prior to quitting and that promoting reduction is unlikely to undermine motivation to quit smoking...
  95. ncbi request reprint Patterns of over-the-counter nicotine gum use: persistent use and concurrent smoking
    Saul Shiffman
    Pinney Associates, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Addiction 98:1747-53. 2003
    ..To examine the occurrence of persistent use (i.e. use beyond 12 weeks) and concurrent use of nicotine gum with cigarettes among consumers who purchase nicotine gum over-the-counter (OTC)...
  96. ncbi request reprint Reduction in amount smoked predicts future cessation
    Andrew Hyland
    Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA
    Psychol Addict Behav 19:221-5. 2005
    ..7 times more likely to quit smoking by 2001 compared with those who did not reduce. Few smokers are able to reduce their consumption by 50% or more, although those who do are more likely to quit compared with those who do not...
  97. ncbi request reprint EEG in seizure prognosis: association of slow wave activity and other factors in patients with apparent misleading epileptiform findings
    John R Hughes
    Laboratory of Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Neurology, University of Illinois Medical Center in Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    Clin EEG Neurosci 35:181-4. 2004
    ..The change in the number of spikes over time also led to a more accurate prognosis...
  98. ncbi request reprint The photoparoxysmal response: the probable cause of attacks during video games
    John R Hughes
    Department of Neurology, University of Illinois, Medical Center at Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    Clin EEG Neurosci 39:1-7. 2008
    ..Drug therapy has emphasized valproic acid, but Levetiracetam has also been successful in eliminating the PPR...
  99. ncbi request reprint The relationship between bilateral spike and wave complexes and focal discharges in patients with partial epilepsy
    John R Hughes
    Department of Neurology, University of Illinois Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    Clin EEG Neurosci 35:147-50. 2004
    ..The discussion deals with the possibility that these bilateral spike and wave complexes may represent a reflection of a lowered threshold to a seizure...
  100. ncbi request reprint The EEG profile of patients with uncontrolled vs. controlled seizures
    John R Hughes
    Epilepsy Clinic, USA
    Clin EEG Neurosci 35:69-77. 2004
    ..The time between unilateral to bilateral slow waves varied between 4-9 yrs...
  101. ncbi request reprint Long-term electro-clinical changes in the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome before, during, and after the slow spike-wave pattern
    John R Hughes
    Epilepsy Clinic, University of Illinois Medical Center, M C 796, 912 S Wood St, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Clin Electroencephalogr 33:1-7. 2002
    ..This study has emphasized the importance of the cortex in the LGS and also the instability of the pattern that occasionally appears...

Research Grants22

  1. EVALUATION OF A CIGARETTE SUBSTITUTE
    John Hughes; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..We believe it imperative to begin studying these substitutes so that, unlike low-tar/low nicotine cigarettes, we will know whether their introduction is good or bad for public health. ..
  2. Gradual vs Abrupt Cessation Treatment for Smoking
    John Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This study will be the first large, systematic test of gradual vs. abrupt cessation. ..
  3. Research on Tobacco and Marijuana Cessation and Reduction
    John Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The continuation will also include collaborating with other drug abuse researchers at UVM and elsewhere. The applicant will continue to mentor 4-6 students/yr and to be actively engaged in media and policy initiatives. ..
  4. Internal Barriers to Seeking Smoking Cessation Treatment
    John Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Our results will suggest messages for media campaigns and for clinicians to use to motivate smokers to access proven treatments. ..
  5. Natural History of Attempts to Stop Smoking
    John Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  6. Attempts to Stop/Reduce Marijuana Among Dependent Users
    John Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Or if reducing marijuana often leads to cessation, then convincing those not interested in quitting marijuana to first try reducing may be helpful. ..
  7. Natural History of Attempts to Stop Smoking
    John R Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  8. Gradual vs Abrupt Cessation Treatment for Smoking
    John Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This study will be the first large, systematic test of gradual vs. abrupt cessation. ..
  9. Internal Barriers to Seeking Smoking Cessation Treatment
    John Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Our results will suggest messages for media campaigns and for clinicians to use to motivate smokers to access proven treatments. ..
  10. REDUCED SMOKING TO PROMPT SMOKING CESSATION
    John Hughes; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Current public health strategies discourage reduced smoking. If we show reduced smoking prompts quit attempts, it will suggest reconsideration of reduced smoking as an intermediary step toward quitting smoking. ..
  11. REDUCED SMOKING TO PROMPT SMOKING CESSATION
    John Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Current public health strategies discourage reduced smoking. If we show reduced smoking prompts quit attempts, it will suggest reconsideration of reduced smoking as an intermediary step toward quitting smoking. ..
  12. EVALUATION OF A CIGARETTE SUBSTITUTE
    John Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..We believe it imperative to begin studying these substitutes so that, unlike low-tar/low nicotine cigarettes, we will know whether their introduction is good or bad for public health. ..
  13. REDUCED SMOKING TO PROMPT SMOKING CESSATION
    John Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Current public health strategies discourage reduced smoking. If we show reduced smoking prompts quit attempts, it will suggest reconsideration of reduced smoking as an intermediary step toward quitting smoking. ..
  14. EVALUATION OF A CIGARETTE SUBSTITUTE
    John Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..We believe it imperative to begin studying these substitutes so that, unlike low-tar/low nicotine cigarettes, we will know whether their introduction is good or bad for public health. ..
  15. REDUCED SMOKING TO PROMPT SMOKING CESSATION
    John Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Current public health strategies discourage reduced smoking. If we show reduced smoking prompts quit attempts, it will suggest reconsideration of reduced smoking as an intermediary step toward quitting smoking. ..
  16. Gradual vs Abrupt Cessation Treatment for Smoking
    John Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This study will be the first large, systematic test of gradual vs. abrupt cessation. ..
  17. Gradual vs Abrupt Cessation Treatment for Smoking
    John Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This study will be the first large, systematic test of gradual vs. abrupt cessation. ..
  18. Attempts to Stop/Reduce Marijuana Among Dependent Users
    John R Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Or if reducing marijuana often leads to cessation, then convincing those not interested in quitting marijuana to first try reducing may be helpful. ..