Robert H Howland

Summary

Affiliation: University of Pittsburgh
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Managing common Side effects of SSRIs
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 45:15-8. 2007
  2. ncbi request reprint Unusual & serious adverse effects of SSRIs: recognition & management
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 45:15-8. 2007
  3. ncbi request reprint Lithium: underappreciated and underused?
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 45:13-7. 2007
  4. ncbi request reprint Medication adherence
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 45:15-9. 2007
  5. ncbi request reprint Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D). Part 1: study design
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylavania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 46:21-4. 2008
  6. ncbi request reprint Lisdexamfetamine: a prodrug stimulant for ADHD
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 46:19-22. 2008
  7. ncbi request reprint Neurosurgical approaches to therapeutic brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 46:15-9. 2008
  8. doi request reprint Potential adverse effects of discontinuing psychotropic drugs: part 2: antidepressant drugs
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, 3811 O Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 48:9-12. 2010
  9. doi request reprint Update on newer antipsychotic drugs
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 49:13-5. 2011
  10. ncbi request reprint Pharmacotherapy for psychotropic drug-related weight gain
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 46:15-8. 2008

Research Grants

  1. Pharmacotherapy for Minor Depression
    Robert Howland; Fiscal Year: 2001
  2. Pharmacotherapy for Minor Depression
    Robert Howland; Fiscal Year: 2002
  3. Pharmacotherapy for Minor Depression
    Robert Howland; Fiscal Year: 2003
  4. Pharmacotherapy for Minor Depression
    Robert Howland; Fiscal Year: 2004

Detail Information

Publications108 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Managing common Side effects of SSRIs
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 45:15-8. 2007
  2. ncbi request reprint Unusual & serious adverse effects of SSRIs: recognition & management
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 45:15-8. 2007
  3. ncbi request reprint Lithium: underappreciated and underused?
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 45:13-7. 2007
    ..In this article, I describe the history of lithium and review important aspects of its clinical use...
  4. ncbi request reprint Medication adherence
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 45:15-9. 2007
    ..In this article, I discuss the importance of medication adherence, the factors associated with poor adherence, and some approaches for improving adherence...
  5. ncbi request reprint Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D). Part 1: study design
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylavania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 46:21-4. 2008
    ..Patients who did not reach full remission were encouraged to enter subsequent levels...
  6. ncbi request reprint Lisdexamfetamine: a prodrug stimulant for ADHD
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 46:19-22. 2008
    ..The clinical implications stemming from LDX's unique characteristics are also discussed...
  7. ncbi request reprint Neurosurgical approaches to therapeutic brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 46:15-9. 2008
    ..Deep brain stimulation and cortical brain stimulation are two such neurosurgical approaches to therapeutic brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression...
  8. doi request reprint Potential adverse effects of discontinuing psychotropic drugs: part 2: antidepressant drugs
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, 3811 O Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 48:9-12. 2010
    ..To minimize adverse discontinuation effects and to reduce the risk of relapse or recurrence of the underlying treated condition, tapering antidepressant medication is prudent for all patients...
  9. doi request reprint Update on newer antipsychotic drugs
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 49:13-5. 2011
    ..Because of their unique pharmacologies and different tolerability profiles, they may be a more effective alternative for patients who do not respond to or cannot tolerate other antipsychotic drugs...
  10. ncbi request reprint Pharmacotherapy for psychotropic drug-related weight gain
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 46:15-8. 2008
    ..However, even if such drugs are effective, all patients should receive ongoing dietary and physical activity counseling...
  11. doi request reprint Update on St. John's Wort
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 48:20-4. 2010
    ..A small number of studies suggest SJW is safe to use during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Although SJW is relatively well tolerated, it is prone to many important drug-drug interactions...
  12. doi request reprint Drug therapies for tardive dyskinesia: Part 1
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 49:13-6. 2011
    ..Bromocriptine (Parlodel®), selegiline (Deprenyl®), and cholinergic-modulating drugs are not considered effective for TD...
  13. ncbi request reprint Pharmacotherapy for insomnia
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 43:13-6. 2005
  14. ncbi request reprint Herbal therapies
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 43:16-9. 2005
  15. ncbi request reprint Understanding the placebo effect. Part 2: underlying psychological & neurobiological processes
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 46:15-8. 2008
    ..Understanding these effects is important for designing clinical treatment studies and interpreting their results and is highly relevant for clinical practices...
  16. ncbi request reprint Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D). Part 2: Study outcomes
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Pychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 46:21-4. 2008
    ..There were few differences among treatments within each level related to efficacy or tolerability, although patients had clear preferences for or against certain treatments...
  17. doi request reprint A critical evaluation of the cardiac toxicity of citalopram: part 2
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylviania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 49:13-6. 2011
    ..Based on evidence taken from a wide variety of studies, the citalopram dose limitations described in the safety announcement do not have strong clinical justification...
  18. ncbi request reprint Vagus nerve stimulation for depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 44:11-4. 2006
  19. doi request reprint The use of dopaminergic and stimulant drugs for the treatment of depression
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 50:11-4. 2012
    ..Based on this work, several ongoing trials are investigating the use of the stimulant drug lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse®) as an adjunctive treatment for depression...
  20. ncbi request reprint Categorizing the safety of medications during pregnancy and lactation
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 47:17-20. 2009
    ..The proposed change to the labeling system would provide more detailed, comprehensible, and practical information about the use and effects of drugs during pregnancy and lactation...
  21. ncbi request reprint What is vagus nerve stimulation?
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 44:11-4. 2006
  22. doi request reprint Understanding and assessing adverse drug reactions
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 49:13-5. 2011
    ..A systematic and validated method for estimating the probability of an ADR has been described by Naranjo et al. This method solicits answers to 10 questions; the total score is then used to quantify the probability of an ADR...
  23. doi request reprint Sleep interventions for the treatment of depression
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 49:17-20. 2011
    ..Sleep deprivation, which is also associated with a transient antidepressant effect, is difficult to use in routine clinical practice but might be an appropriate strategy for treatment-resistant forms of depression...
  24. doi request reprint Where are we today with personalized medicine?
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 50:11-3. 2012
    ....
  25. doi request reprint Baclofen for the treatment of alcohol dependence
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 50:11-4. 2012
    ..Baclofen is a safe and well-tolerated novel drug treatment for alcohol dependence...
  26. ncbi request reprint What should patients be told about their medications?
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 47:17-20. 2009
    ..The information should be practical, understandable, unbiased, and scientifically accurate, but also tailored to the individual needs of the patient...
  27. ncbi request reprint A question about the potential cardiac toxicity of escitalopram
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 50:17-20. 2012
    ..There is no strong evidence from human and animal studies that the cardiac safety of escitalopram is significantly superior to that of citalopram...
  28. doi request reprint Use of endocrine hormones for treating depression
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 48:13-6. 2010
    ..The adrenal steroid hormone dehydroepiandrosterone has an important role in mood regulation and may have significant antidepressant effects...
  29. pmc Critical appraisal and update on the clinical utility of agomelatine, a melatonergic agonist, for the treatment of major depressive disease in adults
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh PA, USA
    Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 5:563-76. 2009
    ..Because of its unique pharmacology and relatively benign tolerability profile, however, it may be a useful alternative for patients who do not respond to or cannot tolerate other antidepressant drugs...
  30. ncbi request reprint Antidepressant drugs and infectious disease
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 51:11-4. 2013
    ....
  31. ncbi request reprint Mifepristone as a therapeutic agent in psychiatry
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 51:11-4. 2013
    ..This article will review some of the work in these areas...
  32. doi request reprint Therapies for obesity and medication-associated weight gain
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 51:13-6. 2013
    ..Behavioral lifestyle interventions to promote weight loss are effective and should be implemented along with or instead of drug therapies or surgery...
  33. doi request reprint Diagnostic classification past, present, and future: implications for pharmacotherapy
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 51:13-6. 2013
    ....
  34. doi request reprint Antidepressant medication and pregnancy: time for randomized controlled trials
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institue and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 51:11-4. 2013
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint Future prospects for pharmacogenetics in the quest for personalized medicine
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 50:13-6. 2012
    ....
  36. ncbi request reprint Ketamine for the treatment of depression
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 51:11-4. 2013
    ..e., oral, intranasal, or intramuscular) needs to be determined, intravenous ketamine could be conceptualized as a clinic-based procedural therapy for treatment resistant forms of depression...
  37. ncbi request reprint Off-label medication use
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 50:11-3. 2012
    ..Patients should be given adequate informed consent about how the drug is being used off label and why, along with appropriate information about known risks and side effects...
  38. doi request reprint Questions to ask when selecting medication
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 50:13-5. 2012
    ....
  39. doi request reprint Dietary supplement drug therapies for depression
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 50:13-6. 2012
    ....
  40. doi request reprint The challenges of clinical psychopharmacological management
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 50:17-20. 2012
    ..Accurate communication among providers-and between the patient and providers-is important to avoid misinformation or misunderstandings in the care of patients with complicated problems...
  41. doi request reprint Effective medication management
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 50:13-5. 2012
    ..Nurses have an essential role in providing effective medication management, given their direct level of patient contact and their collaborative relationship with physicians...
  42. ncbi request reprint Now take a deep breath: inhaled loxapine for the treatment of acute agitation
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 50:16-8. 2012
    ..These studies found that inhaled loxapine was rapidly effective and generally well tolerated, although there are potential concerns about adverse pulmonary effects...
  43. doi request reprint Potential adverse effects of discontinuing psychotropic drugs. Part 1: Adrenergic, cholinergic, and histamine drugs
    Robert H Howland
    Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 48:11-4. 2010
    ..Tapering, rather than abruptly discontinuing, medication can avoid or minimize medication discontinuation effects...
  44. ncbi request reprint The diverse clinical uses of opioid receptor drugs
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 48:11-4. 2010
    ..This class of drugs is likely to be further developed for the treatment of addictions and mood disorders...
  45. doi request reprint Drug therapies for cognitive impairment and dementia
    Robert H Howland
    Psychiatry, University of Pittburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 48:11-4. 2010
    ..Other therapies discussed in this article include Ginkgo biloba, a nonprescription natural supplement, and Axona", designated by the FDA as a medical food...
  46. doi request reprint Potential adverse effects of discontinuing psychotropic drugs. Part 3: Antipsychotic, dopaminergic, and mood-stabilizing drugs
    Robert H Howland
    Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 48:11-4. 2010
    ..If necessary, these medications should be gradually tapered to minimize all types of adverse discontinuation effects. Patients should be educated about the possible adverse effects of abrupt medication discontinuation...
  47. doi request reprint When is a "generic" medication not really a generic?
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 48:13-6. 2010
    ..Switching to a pharmaceutical alternative requires a change in prescription. Finally, the use, labeling, and cost of branded, alternative, and generic medications may be different...
  48. ncbi request reprint Evaluating the bioavailability and bioequivalence of generic medications
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 48:13-6. 2010
    ..Information about generic and pharmaceutical alternative drugs can be found in the Orange Book and via Drugs@FDA...
  49. doi request reprint An overview of seasonal affective disorder and its treatment options
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Phys Sportsmed 37:104-15. 2009
    ..Patients should be informed of the benefits of diet and exercise. Light therapy should be clinically monitored in the same manner, as it is done for other antidepressant treatments...
  50. doi request reprint What makes a generic medication generic?
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 47:17-20. 2009
    ....
  51. doi request reprint Prescribing psychotropic medications for elderly patients
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburg School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, O Hara Street, Pittburg, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 47:17-20. 2009
    ..In their role of providing, monitoring, and coordinating treatment, nurses should be knowledgeable about the appropriate use of medication in elderly patients...
  52. doi request reprint Are generic medications safe and effective?
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine WPIC, 3811 O Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 48:13-6. 2010
    ..It is still clinically prudent to monitor a patient whose medication has been switched...
  53. ncbi request reprint Therapeutic armamentarium for treating depression
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Postgrad Med 122:66-93. 2010
    ..Because depressive disorders are common in primary care and other medical settings, medical practitioners should be aware of the therapeutic armamentarium available for treating depression...
  54. ncbi request reprint A benefit-risk assessment of agomelatine in the treatment of major depression
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA, USA
    Drug Saf 34:709-31. 2011
    ..Because of the unique pharmacology of agomelatine and its reported tolerability profile, it should only be considered as an alternative drug for patients who do not respond to or cannot tolerate other antidepressant drugs...
  55. ncbi request reprint What you see depends on where you're looking and how you look at it: publication bias and outcome reporting bias
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 49:13-5. 2011
    ....
  56. doi request reprint Drug therapies for tardive dyskinesia: part 2
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 49:17-20. 2011
    ..Essential fatty acids have not been shown to be effective. Antioxidant therapies, including vitamin E, melatonin, and vitamin B₆, could conceivably be used together with other drug therapies for the treatment of TD...
  57. doi request reprint Alternative drug therapies for dementia
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburg School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 49:17-20. 2011
    ....
  58. doi request reprint Vilazodone: another novel atypical antidepressant drug
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, 3811 O Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 49:19-22. 2011
    ..However, because of its unique pharmacology and relatively benign tolerability profile, it may be a more effective alternative for patients who do not respond to or cannot tolerate currently available antidepressant drugs...
  59. ncbi request reprint The emerging use of technology for the treatment of depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders
    Robert H Howland
    Department of Psychiatry, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Ann Clin Psychiatry 23:48-62. 2011
    ..Our objective is to review emerging technologies intended for the treatment of depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders...
  60. doi request reprint Vitamin D and depression
    Robert H Howland
    Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 49:15-8. 2011
    ..Current evidence does not definitively demonstrate that vitamin D deficiency is a cause of or risk for developing depression or that vitamin D is an effective therapy for depression...
  61. doi request reprint A critical evaluation of the cardiac toxicity of citalopram: part 1
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 49:13-6. 2011
    ..Three studies comparing citalopram overdoses to other antidepressant overdoses do not demonstrate clinically meaningful differences in cardiotoxic effects...
  62. doi request reprint Serendipity and psychopharmacology
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 48:9-12. 2010
    ..Nurses should be familiar with the concept of serendipity, as they often are in the best position to observe, record, and report on unexpected clinical effects in patients taking any kind of prescription or nonprescription medication...
  63. doi request reprint Potential adverse effects of discontinuing psychotropic drugs
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, 3811 O Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 48:11-4. 2010
    ..Tapering medication, rather than abruptly stopping them, can avoid or minimize the potential adverse discontinuation effects associated with most psychotropic drugs...
  64. doi request reprint Publication bias and outcome reporting bias: agomelatine as a case example
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 49:11-4. 2011
    ..The risk of liver toxicity is also not prominently highlighted in the published literature...
  65. ncbi request reprint Effects of aging on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug processes
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, 3811 O Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 47:15-6, 17-8. 2009
    ....
  66. ncbi request reprint Principles & practice of polypharmacotherapy
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 44:13-6. 2006
  67. ncbi request reprint Pharmacotherapy strategies for treatment-resistant depression
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 44:11-4. 2006
  68. ncbi request reprint Glutamate-modulating drugs & the treatment of mental disorders
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 45:11-4. 2007
  69. ncbi request reprint Transdermal selegiline: a novel MAOI formulation for depression
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 44:9-12. 2006
  70. ncbi request reprint Pharmacotherapy for psychotic depression
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 44:13-7. 2006
  71. ncbi request reprint Antidepressants & suicide: putting the risk in perspective
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 45:15-9. 2007
    ..In this article, I will discuss this issue with the goal of putting the risk in perspective...
  72. ncbi request reprint Electroencephalography technology for predicting response to antidepressant medications
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 44:11-4. 2006
  73. ncbi request reprint MAOI antidepressant drugs
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 44:9-12. 2006
  74. ncbi request reprint Therapeutic brain stimulation for mental disorders
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 43:16-9. 2005
  75. ncbi request reprint Anticonvulsant drug therapies
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 43:17-20. 2005
  76. ncbi request reprint Use of atypical antipsychotics in children and adolescents
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 43:15-8. 2005
  77. ncbi request reprint Atypical antipsychotics: special formulations for acute agitation
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 43:14-7. 2005
  78. ncbi request reprint Personalized drug therapy with pharmacogenetics. Part 1: Pharmacokinetics
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 44:13-6. 2006
  79. ncbi request reprint Personalized drug therapy with pharmacogenetics--part 2: pharmacodynamics
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 44:13-6. 2006
  80. ncbi request reprint Challenges in the diagnosis & treatment of bipolar depression--Part 1: assessment
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pennsylvania, 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 44:9-12. 2006
  81. ncbi request reprint Challenges in the diagnosis & treatment of bipolar depression--part 2: treatment options
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 44:9-12. 2006
  82. ncbi request reprint Limitations of evidence in the practice of evidence-based medicine
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 45:13-6. 2007
    ..The quality of evidence is the critical component in understanding and using EBM. This article discusses the kinds and limitations of the evidence used in the practice of EBM...
  83. ncbi request reprint Agomelatine: a novel atypical antidepressant
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 45:13-7. 2007
    ..Because of its unique pharmacology and relatively benign tolerability profile, however, it may be a more effective alternative for patients who do not respond to or cannot tolerate currently available antidepressant drugs...
  84. doi request reprint Factors predicting reduced antidepressant response: experience with the SNRI duloxetine in patients with major depression
    Robert H Howland
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Ann Clin Psychiatry 20:209-18. 2008
    ..To identify putative demographic and clinical variables that correlate with antidepressant response to the SNRI duloxetine in major depression...
  85. doi request reprint Medication holidays
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 47:15-8. 2009
    ..Potential problems associated with medication holidays include the risk of destabilizing patients, difficulty in distinguishing rebound and discontinuation effects, and increasing the risk of poor medication adherence...
  86. ncbi request reprint Risks and benefits of antipsychotic drugs in elderly patients with dementia
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 46:19-23. 2008
    ..This article highlights the studies examining the risks and benefits of antipsychotic drugs for BPSAD. Weighing small but significant risks compared with possible benefits is a complex treatment decision...
  87. ncbi request reprint Understanding the clinical profile of a drug on the basis of its pharmacology: mirtazapine as an example
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 46:19-23. 2008
    ..This knowledge also provides a rationale for choosing one drug over another for a particular patient or switching or combining drugs for treating nonresponders or alleviating side effects...
  88. ncbi request reprint Somatic therapies for seasonal affective disorder
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 47:17-20. 2009
    ..Studies have found that bright light therapy and antidepressant medication are both effective for the treatment of SAD. Bright light therapy may also be effective for treating nonseasonal depression...
  89. ncbi request reprint Prescribing psychotropic medications during pregnancy and lactation: principles and guidelines
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 47:19-23. 2009
    ..Available treatments and their potential risks when used during pregnancy or lactation should be discussed in the context of the risks of not treating maternal psychiatric illness effectively...
  90. ncbi request reprint The antidepressant effects of anticholinergic drugs
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 47:17-20. 2009
    ....
  91. ncbi request reprint Understanding chirality and stereochemistry: three-dimensional psychopharmacology
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 47:15-8. 2009
    ..The investigation, development, and use of stereochemically pure drugs have been encouraged by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to improve the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of marketed drugs...
  92. doi request reprint Clinical implications of chirality and stereochemistry in psychopharmacology
    Robert H Howland
    Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 47:17-21. 2009
    ..Various examples of drug therapies that show the clinical importance of chirality and stereochemistry are described...
  93. doi request reprint Concurrent anxiety and substance use disorders among outpatients with major depression: clinical features and effect on treatment outcome
    Robert H Howland
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, 3811 O Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States
    Drug Alcohol Depend 99:248-60. 2009
    ....
  94. ncbi request reprint How are drugs approved? Part 1: the evolution of the Food and Drug Administration
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, PA 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 46:15-9. 2008
    ..This will provide background for two subsequent articles in this series, which will describe the ethical foundations of clinical research and hethe stages of drug development...
  95. doi request reprint Clinical features and functioning of patients with minor depression
    Robert H Howland
    Department of Psychiatry, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Psychother Psychosom 77:384-9. 2008
    ..The two essential features of minor depression are that it has fewer symptoms than major depression and that it is less chronic than dysthymia. This study describes the clinical features and functioning of outpatients with minor depression...
  96. ncbi request reprint How are drugs approved? Part 2: ethical foundations of clinical research
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 46:15-20. 2008
    ..As part of a broad overview of the drug development process, this article reviews the ethical foundations of clinical research...
  97. ncbi request reprint Understanding the placebo effect. Part 1: placebo use in clinical trials
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 46:17-20. 2008
    ..Next month's article will describe important findings about the psychological and neurobiological processes that underlie the placebo effect...
  98. doi request reprint The need to guard against pharmaceutical industry influence
    Robert H Howland
    Department of Psychiatry, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Psychiatr Serv 59:566. 2008
  99. ncbi request reprint How are drugs approved? Part 3. The stages of drug development
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 46:17-20. 2008
    ..This drug development process involves the FDA, pharmaceutical companies (sponsors), clinical investigators, and institutional review boards. This article further describes this aspect of the drug development process...
  100. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of outcomes with citalopram for depression using measurement-based care in STAR*D: implications for clinical practice
    Madhukar H Trivedi
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Exchange Park Express, American General Tower, 6363 Forest Park Rd, Suite 1300, Dallas, TX 75390 9119, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 163:28-40. 2006
    ....
  101. ncbi request reprint Paliperidone extended-release tablets: a new atypical antipsychotic
    Robert H Howland
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 45:15-8. 2007
    ..Although Pal-ER does not have any major advantages or disadvantages compared with other antipsychotic drugs, it has unique pharmacological properties and may be a beneficial alternative medication for some patients...

Research Grants4

  1. Pharmacotherapy for Minor Depression
    Robert Howland; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The results of this study will have profound public health implications by improving our understanding of the efficacy of SJW and standard antidepressants for the treatment of MinorD. ..
  2. Pharmacotherapy for Minor Depression
    Robert Howland; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The results of this study will have profound public health implications by improving our understanding of the efficacy of SJW and standard antidepressants for the treatment of MinorD. ..
  3. Pharmacotherapy for Minor Depression
    Robert Howland; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The results of this study will have profound public health implications by improving our understanding of the efficacy of SJW and standard antidepressants for the treatment of MinorD. ..
  4. Pharmacotherapy for Minor Depression
    Robert Howland; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The results of this study will have profound public health implications by improving our understanding of the efficacy of SJW and standard antidepressants for the treatment of MinorD. ..