G Howard

Summary

Affiliation: University of Alabama at Birmingham
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc The contributions of selected diseases to disparities in death rates and years of life lost for racial/ethnic minorities in the United States, 1999-2010
    George Howard
    Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1720 2nd Ave South, Birmingham, AL 35294 0022 E mail
    Prev Chronic Dis 11:E129. 2014
  2. ncbi request reprint Racial Differences in the Association of Insulin Resistance With Stroke Risk: The REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study
    George Howard
    From the Department of Biostatistics G H, S E J and Department of Epidemiology V J H, UAB School of Public Health Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC L E W Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT W N K Department of Medicine, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington M C Department of Health Science, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT E L T and Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, OH B M K
    Stroke 45:2257-62. 2014
  3. pmc Risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage: the REasons for geographic and racial differences in stroke (REGARDS) study
    George Howard
    Department of Biostatistics, UAB School of Public Health, 1665 University Blvd, Birmingham, AL 35294 0022, USA
    Stroke 44:1282-7. 2013
  4. pmc Racial differences in the impact of elevated systolic blood pressure on stroke risk
    George Howard
    Departments of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    JAMA Intern Med 173:46-51. 2013
  5. pmc Population shifts and the future of stroke: forecasts of the future burden of stroke
    George Howard
    Department of Biostatistics, UAB School of Public Health, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1268:14-20. 2012
  6. pmc Association between family risk of stroke and myocardial infarction with prevalent risk factors and coexisting diseases
    Richard E Kennedy
    Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, 1665 University Boulevard, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 0022, USA
    Stroke 43:974-9. 2012
  7. pmc A simple, assumption-free, and clinically interpretable approach for analysis of modified Rankin outcomes
    George Howard
    Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Public Health Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Stroke 43:664-9. 2012
  8. doi request reprint Observational epidemiology within randomized clinical trials: getting a lot for (almost) nothing
    George Howard
    Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 0022, USA
    Prog Cardiovasc Dis 54:367-71. 2012
  9. pmc The association of remotely-sensed outdoor temperature with blood pressure levels in REGARDS: a cross-sectional study of a large, national cohort of African-American and white participants
    Shia T Kent
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Environ Health 10:7. 2011
  10. pmc Imputation of incident events in longitudinal cohort studies
    George Howard
    Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Ryals Building, Room 327D, 1665 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294 0022, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 174:718-26. 2011

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications97

  1. pmc The contributions of selected diseases to disparities in death rates and years of life lost for racial/ethnic minorities in the United States, 1999-2010
    George Howard
    Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1720 2nd Ave South, Birmingham, AL 35294 0022 E mail
    Prev Chronic Dis 11:E129. 2014
    ..The objective of this study was to identify causes of death that are the largest contributors to health disparities among racial/ethnic groups...
  2. ncbi request reprint Racial Differences in the Association of Insulin Resistance With Stroke Risk: The REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study
    George Howard
    From the Department of Biostatistics G H, S E J and Department of Epidemiology V J H, UAB School of Public Health Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC L E W Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT W N K Department of Medicine, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington M C Department of Health Science, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT E L T and Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, OH B M K
    Stroke 45:2257-62. 2014
    ..Insulin resistance is associated with increased stroke risk, but the effect has not been adequately examined separately in white and black populations...
  3. pmc Risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage: the REasons for geographic and racial differences in stroke (REGARDS) study
    George Howard
    Department of Biostatistics, UAB School of Public Health, 1665 University Blvd, Birmingham, AL 35294 0022, USA
    Stroke 44:1282-7. 2013
    ..Risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) have been largely identified in case-control studies, with few longitudinal studies available...
  4. pmc Racial differences in the impact of elevated systolic blood pressure on stroke risk
    George Howard
    Departments of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    JAMA Intern Med 173:46-51. 2013
    ..Between the ages 45 and 65 years, incident stroke is 2 to 3 times more common in blacks than in whites, a difference not explained by traditional stroke risk factors...
  5. pmc Population shifts and the future of stroke: forecasts of the future burden of stroke
    George Howard
    Department of Biostatistics, UAB School of Public Health, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1268:14-20. 2012
    ..These increases are likely to present major logistical, scientific, and ethnical issues in the near future...
  6. pmc Association between family risk of stroke and myocardial infarction with prevalent risk factors and coexisting diseases
    Richard E Kennedy
    Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, 1665 University Boulevard, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 0022, USA
    Stroke 43:974-9. 2012
    ..We examined relationships between family risk of stroke and MI with risk factors for these phenotypes...
  7. pmc A simple, assumption-free, and clinically interpretable approach for analysis of modified Rankin outcomes
    George Howard
    Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Public Health Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Stroke 43:664-9. 2012
    ..There is debate regarding the approach for analysis of modified Rankin scale scores, the most common functional outcome scale used in acute stroke trials...
  8. doi request reprint Observational epidemiology within randomized clinical trials: getting a lot for (almost) nothing
    George Howard
    Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 0022, USA
    Prog Cardiovasc Dis 54:367-71. 2012
    ..While these assessments of associations are not protected by randomization, with proper planning these assessments within the RCT framework can be done in a powerful and effective manner...
  9. pmc The association of remotely-sensed outdoor temperature with blood pressure levels in REGARDS: a cross-sectional study of a large, national cohort of African-American and white participants
    Shia T Kent
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Environ Health 10:7. 2011
    ..Evidence is mounting regarding the clinically significant effect of temperature on blood pressure...
  10. pmc Imputation of incident events in longitudinal cohort studies
    George Howard
    Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Ryals Building, Room 327D, 1665 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294 0022, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 174:718-26. 2011
    ....
  11. pmc Advancing the hypothesis that geographic variations in risk factors contribute relatively little to observed geographic variations in heart disease and stroke mortality
    George Howard
    Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Prev Med 49:129-32. 2009
    ..Geographic variation in risk factors may underlie geographic disparities in coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke mortality...
  12. doi request reprint Advances in population studies 2007
    George Howard
    Department of Biostatistics, UAB School of Public Health, Birmingham, AL 35294 0022, USA
    Stroke 39:283-5. 2008
  13. pmc Regional differences in African Americans' high risk for stroke: the remarkable burden of stroke for Southern African Americans
    George Howard
    University of Alabama School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Birmingham, AL 35294 0022, USA
    Ann Epidemiol 17:689-96. 2007
    ..There is also a "STROKE BELT" with higher stroke mortality in the southeastern United States. This study assesses if there are also geographic variations in the magnitude of the excess stroke mortality for African Americans...
  14. ncbi request reprint Stroke symptoms in individuals reporting no prior stroke or transient ischemic attack are associated with a decrease in indices of mental and physical functioning
    George Howard
    Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Stroke 38:2446-52. 2007
    ..Stroke symptoms in the absence of recognized stroke are common, but potential associated dysfunctions have not been described...
  15. ncbi request reprint Nonconventional clinical trial designs: approaches to provide more precise estimates of treatment effects with a smaller sample size, but at a cost
    George Howard
    Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Public Health, Birmingham, AL 35294 0022, USA
    Stroke 38:804-8. 2007
    ..The opportunities for these promising approaches, and their associated "costs," are reviewed...
  16. ncbi request reprint Stroke and the statistics of the aspirin/clopidogrel secondary prevention trials
    George Howard
    Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 0022, USA
    Curr Opin Neurol 20:71-7. 2007
    ....
  17. ncbi request reprint Is Bayesian analysis ready for use in phase III randomized clinical trials? Beware the sound of the sirens
    George Howard
    Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL 35294 0022, USA
    Stroke 36:1622-3. 2005
  18. pmc Traditional risk factors as the underlying cause of racial disparities in stroke: lessons from the half-full (empty?) glass
    George Howard
    Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, 1665 University Blvd, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Stroke 42:3369-75. 2011
    ..Black/white disparities in stroke incidence are well documented, but few studies have assessed the contributions to the disparity. Here we assess the contribution of "traditional" risk factors...
  19. ncbi request reprint Decline in US stroke mortality: an analysis of temporal patterns by sex, race, and geographic region
    G Howard
    Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham AL 35294, USA
    Stroke 32:2213-20. 2001
    ..Here, we assess whether the race-sex-region groups have participated equally in this decline and whether there are groups in which stroke mortality rates are still declining, and we predict how these rates will eventually differ...
  20. ncbi request reprint Racial and geographic differences in awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension: the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke study
    George Howard
    Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Stroke 37:1171-8. 2006
    ..Because hypertension is the leading risk factor for stroke, hypertension management (raising awareness, increasing treatment, and improving control) may reduce these disparities...
  21. pmc Why is environmental tobacco smoke more strongly associated with coronary heart disease than expected? A review of potential biases and experimental data
    G Howard
    Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 0022, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 107:853-8. 1999
    ..Because exposure to ETS affects multiple physiologic pathways, it appears biologically plausible that ETS could cause the substantial increase in CHD risk that has been observed in epidemiologic studies...
  22. ncbi request reprint Ethnic disparities in stroke: the scope of the problem
    G Howard
    Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 32594 0022, USA
    Ethn Dis 11:761-8. 2001
    ..As such, efforts to reduce ethnic disparities in stroke mortality have been unsuccessful...
  23. ncbi request reprint Does the association of risk factors and atherosclerosis change with age? An analysis of the combined ARIC and CHS cohorts. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) investigators
    G Howard
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1063, USA
    Stroke 28:1693-701. 1997
    ..In this paper, the differential magnitude of the association of risk factors with atherosclerosis across the age spectrum from 45 years to older than 75 years is presented...
  24. ncbi request reprint Ethnic differences in carotid wall thickness. The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study
    R B D'Agostino
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1063, USA
    Stroke 27:1744-9. 1996
    ..This study was undertaken to determine whether there were ethnic differences in carotid wall IMT...
  25. ncbi request reprint Cigarette smoking and other risk factors for silent cerebral infarction in the general population
    G Howard
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Stroke 29:913-7. 1998
    ..This report focuses on the role of cigarette smoking and other risk factors for SCI in the general population...
  26. ncbi request reprint The confounding of race and geography: how much of the excess stroke mortality among African Americans is explained by geography?
    Dongyan Yang
    Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Ala, USA
    Neuroepidemiology 23:118-22. 2004
    ..e., race and geography are 'confounded'). In this paper we estimate the proportion of the excess stroke mortality among African Americans that is attributable to geography...
  27. ncbi request reprint The reasons for geographic and racial differences in stroke study: objectives and design
    Virginia J Howard
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA
    Neuroepidemiology 25:135-43. 2005
    ..Participants are followed via telephone at 6-month intervals for identification of stroke events. The novel aspects of the REGARDS study allow for the creation of a national cohort to address geographic and ethnic differences in stroke...
  28. ncbi request reprint Cigarette smoking and progression of atherosclerosis: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study
    G Howard
    Department of Public Health Sciences of Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1063, USA
    JAMA 279:119-24. 1998
    ..Cigarette smoking is a powerful risk factor for incident heart disease and stroke, but the relationship of active and passive smoking with the progression of atherosclerosis has not been described...
  29. ncbi request reprint Prospective associations of fasting insulin, body fat distribution, and diabetes with risk of ischemic stroke. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study Investigators
    A R Folsom
    Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55454 1015, USA
    Diabetes Care 22:1077-83. 1999
    ..We tested the hypothesis that diabetes, body fat distribution, and (in nondiabetic subjects) fasting insulin levels are positively associated with ischemic stroke incidence in the general population...
  30. ncbi request reprint Early rheumatoid arthritis in African-Americans: the CLEAR Registry
    S L Bridges
    Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, Division of Clinical Immu nology and Rheumatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 415 Lyons Harrison Research Building, 701 19th Street South, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 0007, USA
    Clin Exp Rheumatol 21:S138-45. 2003
    ..The Consortium for the Longitudinal Evaluation of African-Americans with early RA (CLEAR) Registry, a collaborative effort among four institutions in the southeast USA, will hopefully provide a useful resource to study these issues...
  31. ncbi request reprint Communication between older adults and their physicians about urinary incontinence
    S J Cohen
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina, USA
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 54:M34-7. 1999
    ..Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common but undertreated condition in older adults. The study objective was to determine older patients' characteristics related to communication patterns with their physicians about UI...
  32. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of social status as a contributing factor to the stroke belt region of the United States
    G Howard
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1063, USA
    Stroke 28:936-40. 1997
    ..In this report we assess the proportion of the excess stroke mortality attributable to SES...
  33. ncbi request reprint Effect of postmenopausal hormone therapy on glucose and insulin concentrations. PEPI Investigators. Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions
    M A Espeland
    Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1063, USA
    Diabetes Care 21:1589-95. 1998
    ..To characterize the long-term impact of four hormone therapy regimens on insulin and glucose concentrations measured during a standard oral glucose tolerance test...
  34. pmc Association of higher diastolic blood pressure levels with cognitive impairment
    G Tsivgoulis
    Comprehensive Stroke Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, RWUH M226, 1530 3rd Avenue S, Birmingham, AL 35294 3280, USA
    Neurology 73:589-95. 2009
    ..We evaluated the cross-sectional relationship of blood pressure (BP) components with cognitive impairment after adjusting for potential confounders...
  35. ncbi request reprint Cancer incidence among a cohort of smokeless tobacco users (United States)
    Neil A Accortt
    Medical Statistics Section, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Cancer Causes Control 16:1107-15. 2005
    ..Smokeless tobacco (ST) use remains a prevalent form of tobacco use among certain US populations. The purpose of this paper is to clarify its role in cancer development...
  36. doi request reprint Statistical power, the Belmont report, and the ethics of clinical trials
    Sara H Vollmer
    Department of Philosophy, UAB Center for Ethics and Values in the Sciences, 900 13th St South, 414A, Birmingham, AL 35294 1260, USA
    Sci Eng Ethics 16:675-91. 2010
    ..The paper also argues that good trial design is required for true informed consent...
  37. ncbi request reprint Understanding racial disparities in hypertension control: intensity of hypertension medication treatment in the REGARDS study
    Monika M Safford
    University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, USA
    Ethn Dis 17:421-6. 2007
    ..Intensity of hypertension treatment may play a role. We examined whether AA with treated hypertension received less-intense medication regimens than EA, as reflected in the number of antihypertensive medication classes...
  38. pmc Race and gender differences in perceived caregiver availability for community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults
    David L Roth
    Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 327 Ryals Building, Birmingham, AL 35294 0022, USA
    Gerontologist 47:721-9. 2007
    ..This study examined race and gender differences in perceived informal caregiver availability for participants aged 45 and older in a large national epidemiological study...
  39. doi request reprint Is there a role for echocardiography in intracerebral haemorrhage?
    Karen C Albright
    Comprehensive Stroke Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Int J Stroke 5:383-4. 2010
    ..Further study is required to determine whether angiotensin directed therapies provide optimal secondary prevention in ICH patients with HHD...
  40. pmc Kidney function, albuminuria, and all-cause mortality in the REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) study
    David G Warnock
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Am J Kidney Dis 56:861-71. 2010
    ..Chronic kidney disease and albuminuria are associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality...
  41. pmc The association of statin use and statin type and cognitive performance: analysis of the reasons for geographic and racial differences in stroke (REGARDS) study
    Stephen P Glasser
    University of Alabama at Birmingham, Division of Preventive Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama 35205, USA
    Clin Cardiol 33:280-8. 2010
    ..Statin use and type have been variably associated with impaired or improved cognitive performance...
  42. pmc Awareness, treatment, and control of vascular risk factors among stroke survivors
    David A Brenner
    Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Public Health, Birmingham, Mobile, Alabama, USA
    J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 19:311-20. 2010
    ..We therefore assessed the prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia among stroke survivors versus stroke-free control subjects...
  43. pmc Prevalence of hypertension by duration and age at exposure to the stroke belt
    Virginia J Howard
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 0022, USA
    J Am Soc Hypertens 4:32-41. 2010
    ..That adolescence and early adulthood periods are more predictive than residence in the stroke belt for most recent 20-year period suggests community and environmental strategies to prevent hypertension need to start earlier in life...
  44. pmc Does differential prophylactic aspirin use contribute to racial and geographic disparities in stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD)?
    Stephen P Glasser
    Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35205, USA
    Prev Med 47:161-6. 2008
    ..Aspirin use may reduce the risk of stroke and coronary heart disease. Differential use for vascular prophylaxis may contribute to racial and geographic disparities in stroke and coronary heart disease morbidity or mortality...
  45. pmc Tooth loss, systemic inflammation, and prevalent stroke among participants in the reasons for geographic and racial difference in stroke (REGARDS) study
    Zhiying You
    Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, United States
    Atherosclerosis 203:615-9. 2009
    ....
  46. pmc Racial differences in Parkinson's disease medication use in the reasons for geographic and racial differences in stroke cohort: a cross-sectional study
    Talene A Yacoubian
    Department of Neurology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Neuroepidemiology 33:329-34. 2009
    ..We evaluated data from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study to describe potential racial differences in PD prevalence...
  47. pmc A new estimate of family disease history providing improved prediction of disease risks
    Rui Feng
    Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Stat Med 28:1269-83. 2009
    ..The results show that assessing family history can improve the prediction of disease risks and the SLFS has strongest positive associations with both myocardial infarction and stroke...
  48. ncbi request reprint Comparing longitudinal binary outcomes in an observational oral health study
    Brent J Shelton
    Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1665 University Boulevard, RPHB 327 H, Birmingham, AL 35294 0022, U S A
    Stat Med 22:2057-70. 2003
    ..Our application of sample selection models to binary longitudinal observational outcome data should serve as impetus for increased utilization of this promising set of models to other health outcomes studies...
  49. pmc Disparities in stroke incidence contributing to disparities in stroke mortality
    Virginia J Howard
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1665 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294 0022, USA
    Ann Neurol 69:619-27. 2011
    ..We provide national estimates of stroke incidence by race and region, contrasting these to publicly available stroke mortality data...
  50. ncbi request reprint Reduced medication access: a marker for vulnerability in US stroke survivors
    Deborah A Levine
    Deep South Center on Effectiveness Research, Birmingham VA Medical Center, AL, USA
    Stroke 38:1557-64. 2007
    ..Medication access is crucial to secondary stroke prevention. We assessed medication access and associated barriers to care across region and time in a national sample of US stroke survivors...
  51. pmc The association between self-reported tooth loss and cognitive function in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke study: an assessment of potential pathways
    Jonathan C Matthews
    Institute of Oral Health Research, School of Dentistry, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA
    J Am Dent Assoc 142:379-90. 2011
    ..Several mechanisms may associate tooth loss and related oral inflammation with cognitive impairment. The authors studied the relationship between tooth loss and cognitive function...
  52. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and anemia among participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Cohort Study: baseline results
    David G Warnock
    Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Kidney Int 68:1427-31. 2005
  53. pmc Population-based fracture risk assessment and osteoporosis treatment disparities by race and gender
    Jeffrey R Curtis
    Division of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham 35294, USA
    J Gen Intern Med 24:956-62. 2009
    ..Undertreatment of osteoporosis has been recognized as a common problem in selected patient subgroups. However, primary prevention has been hampered by limited risk assessment tools that can be applied to large populations...
  54. pmc Race and gender differences in 1-year outcomes for community-dwelling stroke survivors with family caregivers
    David L Roth
    Department of Biostatistics, UAB, 1530 3rd Avenue South, Birmingham, AL 35294 0022, USA
    Stroke 42:626-31. 2011
    ..Race and gender differences in 1-year stroke outcomes were examined using an epidemiologically derived sample of first-time stroke survivors from the national REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study...
  55. ncbi request reprint Changes in plasma homocyst(e)ine in the acute phase after stroke
    Virginia J Howard
    Department of Epidemiology and International Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Ala 35294 0022, USA
    Stroke 33:473-8. 2002
    ..Although the literature suggests that H(e) increases from the acute to the convalescent phase after a stroke, it is not known whether H(e) changes within the acute period...
  56. ncbi request reprint Meta-analysis of data from the six primary prevention trials of cardiovascular events using aspirin
    Alfred A Bartolucci
    The Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Am J Cardiol 98:746-50. 2006
    ..In conclusion, primary prevention with aspirin decreased the risk of total CHD, nonfatal MI, and total CV events, but there were no significant differences in the incidences of stroke or CV mortality...
  57. ncbi request reprint Cognitive status, stroke symptom reports, and modifiable risk factors among individuals with no diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study
    Virginia G Wadley
    Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 2041, USA
    Stroke 38:1143-7. 2007
    ..This study evaluates relationships among cognitive status, stroke symptom reports, and cardiovascular and behavioral factors...
  58. pmc An approach to coordinate efforts to reduce the public health burden of stroke: the Delta States Stroke Consortium
    Virginia J Howard
    School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294 0022, USA
    Prev Chronic Dis 1:A19. 2004
    ..The Delta States Stroke Consortium members propose that together these domains and activities define a structure to guide interventions to reduce the public health burden of stroke in this region...
  59. ncbi request reprint Chronic disease mortality in a cohort of smokeless tobacco users
    Neil A Accortt
    Department of Epidemiology and International Health, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 156:730-7. 2002
    ..Furthermore, combined use of smokeless tobacco and cigarettes did not increase overall mortality beyond that expected from use of the individual products...
  60. pmc Prehypertension, racial prevalence and its association with risk factors: Analysis of the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study
    Stephen P Glasser
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA
    Am J Hypertens 24:194-9. 2011
    ..There are few available data on the epidemiology of prehypertension (preHTN). To determine racial, clinical, and demographic differences in the prevalence of preHTN and its cross-sectional association with vascular risk factors...
  61. ncbi request reprint Need to educate primary caregivers about the risk factor profile of smokeless tobacco users
    Neil A Accortt
    University of Alabama at Birmingham, Biostatics Unit, Comprehensive Cancer Center, USA
    J Cancer Educ 20:222-8. 2005
    ..In this article, we focus on smokeless tobacco (ST), a known risk factor for oral leukoplakia and oral cancer, and the cancer risk factors associated with its use...
  62. ncbi request reprint Age-related underutilization of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in older hospitalized heart failure patients
    Ali Ahmed
    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Center for Aging, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA
    South Med J 95:703-10. 2002
    ..The extent to which age plays a role in the underutilization of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in heart failure patients has not been well studied...
  63. ncbi request reprint Trends in severity of hospitalized myocardial infarction: the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study, 1987-1994
    D C Goff
    Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1063, USA
    Am Heart J 139:874-80. 2000
    ..Declining mortality rates of coronary heart disease in the United States could be attributable to declining incidence, declining severity, and/or improvements in treatment...
  64. pmc National variation in United States sepsis mortality: a descriptive study
    Henry E Wang
    Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA
    Int J Health Geogr 9:9. 2010
    ..We defined sepsis deaths as deaths attributed to an infection, classified according to the International Classification of Diseases, Version 10. We calculated national and state age-adjusted sepsis-attributed mortality rates...
  65. doi request reprint Adjuvant radiotherapy for pancreatic cancer is associated with a survival benefit primarily in stage IIB patients
    John S Moody
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL 35294 3300, USA
    J Gastroenterol 44:84-91. 2009
    ..This study examines the survival impact of postoperative RT in a large population-based database...
  66. ncbi request reprint Age-related underutilization of left ventricular function evaluation in older heart failure patients
    Ali Ahmed
    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Center for Aging, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA
    South Med J 95:695-702. 2002
    ..Underutilization of left ventricular function (LVF) evaluation in older patients with heart failure has been well documented, but age-related variation in the use of LVF evaluation has not been...
  67. ncbi request reprint Ability of alternative indices of insulin sensitivity to predict cardiovascular risk: comparison with the "minimal model". Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) Investigators
    G Howard
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Ann Epidemiol 8:358-69. 1998
    ..This report evaluates previously described alternative indices of insulin sensitivity with the goal of identifying a reliable, but logistically simpler, alternative...
  68. pmc Tobacco farmers and diversification: opportunities and barriers
    D G Altman
    Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1063, USA
    Tob Control 5:192-8. 1996
    ..To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours of tobacco growers and allotment owners in the southeastern United States...
  69. pmc Genetic association of htSNPs across the major histocompatibility complex with rheumatoid arthritis in an African-American population
    R J Reynolds
    Section on Statistical Genetics, Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham UAB, Birmingham, AL 35294 2182, USA
    Genes Immun 11:94-7. 2010
    ..28 in cases versus 0.27 in controls). This study points to the potential association of a SNP in the HLA-DOA gene with RA in African Americans, but also underscores the importance of replication of findings in larger patient cohorts...
  70. pmc Value of orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, and medications in prospective population studies of incident heart failure
    O James Ekundayo
    University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Am J Cardiol 104:259-64. 2009
    ....
  71. doi request reprint PaCO2 and neurodevelopment in extremely low birth weight infants
    Lara A McKee
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35233, USA
    J Pediatr 155:217-21.e1. 2009
    ..To determine the relationship between PaCO2 in the first 4 days of life and neurodevelopment at 18 to 22 months...
  72. ncbi request reprint Clinical trial design issues: at least 10 things you should look for in clinical trials
    Stephen P Glasser
    Division of Preventive Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    J Clin Pharmacol 46:1106-15. 2006
    ..Each of these is discussed, and examples of published articles are used to highlight the main points...
  73. ncbi request reprint Cerebrovascular diseases as primary hospital discharge diagnoses: national trend (1970-2000) among older adults
    Ali Ahmed
    Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 60:1328-32. 2005
    ..Cerebrovascular diseases are a common cause of mortality, morbidity, and hospitalization among older adults. However, the long-term national trends in cerebrovascular disease-related hospitalizations in this age group are not well known...
  74. pmc Care seeking after stroke symptoms
    Virginia J Howard
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 0022, USA
    Ann Neurol 63:466-72. 2008
    ..To assess risk factors associated with care for stroke symptoms...
  75. ncbi request reprint Association of consultation between generalists and cardiologists with quality and outcomes of heart failure care
    Ali Ahmed
    aDivision of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Center for Aging, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA
    Am Heart J 145:1086-93. 2003
    ..The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to determine whether consultation between generalists and cardiologists was associated with better quality and outcomes of HF care...
  76. doi request reprint Stage-specific survival differences associated with postoperative radiotherapy for gastrointestinal cancers
    John S Moody
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, USA
    J Gastrointest Cancer 39:86-99. 2008
    ..To study the frequency and effect associated with postoperative radiotherapy (RT) for patients with resected gastrointestinal (GI) cancers...
  77. ncbi request reprint Risk factors for progression of common carotid atherosclerosis: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, 1987-1998
    Lloyd E Chambless
    Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 4145, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 155:38-47. 2002
    ..In summary, established risk factors for coronary heart disease are associated with the rate of change of subclinical atherosclerosis...
  78. ncbi request reprint Primary prevention of high blood cholesterol concentrations in the United States
    David C Goff
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1063, USA
    Arch Intern Med 162:913-9. 2002
    ..Mean concentrations of total cholesterol (TC) among adults have declined in the United States for decades. Whether the decline has been owing to prevention of high TC levels or treatment of high TC levels once present is not known...
  79. ncbi request reprint Prevention Conference VII: Obesity, a worldwide epidemic related to heart disease and stroke: Group II: age-dependent risk factors for obesity and comorbidities
    Sachiko T St Jeor
    Circulation 110:e471-5. 2004
  80. ncbi request reprint Racial differences in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease among participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Cohort Study
    William McClellan
    Emory University School of Medicine, Renal Division, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    J Am Soc Nephrol 17:1710-5. 2006
    ..Factors that are responsible for the increasing prevalence of severely impaired kidney function among black patients remain to be determined...
  81. ncbi request reprint Prevalence and characteristics of a family history of end-stage renal disease among adults in the United States population: Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) renal cohort study
    William McClellan
    Georgia Medical Care Foundation, Emory University, Suite 200, Executive Park South NE, Atlanta, GA 30329 2224, USA
    J Am Soc Nephrol 18:1344-52. 2007
    ..If confirmed, then these findings suggest that individuals with FH-ESRD may benefit from interventions to improve the detection and treatment of chronic kidney disease risk factors such as diabetes and obesity...
  82. ncbi request reprint Standards for statistical models used for public reporting of health outcomes: an American Heart Association Scientific Statement from the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Writing Group: cosponsored by the Council on Epidemiology an
    Harlan M Krumholz
    Circulation 113:456-62. 2006
    ....
  83. ncbi request reprint Insulin resistance and hypertension: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis study
    Mohammed F Saad
    Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, UCLA Medical School, 924 Westwood Blvd, Suite 335 Mail Box 15, Los Angeles, Calif 90024, USA
    Hypertension 43:1324-31. 2004
    ..Neither insulin resistance nor insulinemia was related to hypertension or blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes in the 3 ethnic groups...
  84. ncbi request reprint Site-specific progression of carotid artery intimal-medial thickness
    Mark A Espeland
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Atherosclerosis 171:137-43. 2003
    ..To characterize the intercorrelation of changes in intimal-medial thickness (IMT) among carotid artery sites and examine the influence of diabetes and sex on these correlations...
  85. pmc The HLA-DRB1 shared epitope is associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis in African Americans through European genetic admixture
    Laura B Hughes
    University of Alabama at Birmingham 35294 2182, USA
    Arthritis Rheum 58:349-58. 2008
    ....
  86. pmc Factors contributing to global cognitive impairment in heart failure: results from a population-based cohort
    Patrick M Pullicino
    Kent Institute of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, United Kingdom
    J Card Fail 14:290-5. 2008
    ..Heart failure (HF) and cognitive impairment are both common in older adults. However, the association between the two has not been well studied...
  87. pmc A propensity-matched study of hypertension and increased stroke-related hospitalization in chronic heart failure
    Gerasimos S Filippatos
    University of Athens, Athens, Greece
    Am J Cardiol 101:1772-6. 2008
    ..81; p=0.044). In conclusion, a history of hypertension was associated with increased risk of hospitalization for stroke among patients with heart failure who were balanced in all measured baseline covariates, including blood pressure...
  88. pmc An assessment of the joint associations of aspirin and statin use with C-reactive protein concentration
    Matt Fisher
    Bayer HealthCare, Morristown, NJ 07962 1910, USA
    Am Heart J 156:106-11. 2008
    ..The use of aspirin alone and statins alone has been shown to reduce markers of inflammation, including C-reactive protein (CRP); however, their combination has been poorly studied...
  89. pmc Kidney function and cognitive impairment in US adults: the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study
    Manjula Kurella Tamura
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Am J Kidney Dis 52:227-34. 2008
    ..The association between kidney function and cognitive impairment has not been assessed in a national sample with a wide spectrum of kidney disease severity...
  90. ncbi request reprint Primary prevention of ischemic stroke: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council: cosponsored by the Atherosclerotic Peripheral Vascular Disease Interdisciplinary Working Group; Cardiovascular Nursing Counc
    Larry B Goldstein
    Stroke 37:1583-633. 2006
    ..This guideline provides an overview of the evidence on various established and potential stroke risk factors and provides recommendations for the reduction of stroke risk...
  91. pmc Comparison of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging-measured adipose tissue depots in HIV-infected and control subjects
    Rebecca Scherzer
    University of California, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 88:1088-96. 2008
    ....
  92. ncbi request reprint Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody and rheumatoid factor isotypes in African Americans with early rheumatoid arthritis
    Ted R Mikuls
    University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha Veterans Administration Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA
    Arthritis Rheum 54:3057-9. 2006
  93. ncbi request reprint Carotid artery stenting is associated with increased complications in octogenarians: 30-day stroke and death rates in the CREST lead-in phase
    Robert W Hobson
    University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey New Jersey Medical School, Newark 07101, USA
    J Vasc Surg 40:1106-11. 2004
    ..The occurrence of stroke and death was reviewed by an independent clinical events committee...
  94. ncbi request reprint Primary prevention of ischemic stroke: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council: cosponsored by the Atherosclerotic Peripheral Vascular Disease Interdisciplinary Working Group; Cardiovascular Nursing Counc
    Larry B Goldstein
    Circulation 113:e873-923. 2006
    ..This guideline provides an overview of the evidence on various established and potential stroke risk factors and provides recommendations for the reduction of stroke risk...
  95. ncbi request reprint Air pollution and cardiovascular disease: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Expert Panel on Population and Prevention Science of the American Heart Association
    Robert D Brook
    Circulation 109:2655-71. 2004
    ..Practical recommendations for healthcare providers and their patients are outlined. In the final section, suggestions for future research are made to address a number of remaining scientific questions...
  96. pmc Simple anthropometric measures correlate with metabolic risk indicators as strongly as magnetic resonance imaging-measured adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects
    Rebecca Scherzer
    Northern California Institute for Research and Education, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 87:1809-17. 2008
    ..Studies in persons without HIV infection have compared percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference as markers of risk for the complications of excess adiposity, but only limited study has been conducted in HIV-infected subjects...
  97. ncbi request reprint Second births among teenage mothers: program results and statistical methods
    Lorraine V Klerman
    Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University, p O Box 9110 MS 035, Waltham, Massachusetts 02454 9110, USA
    J Adolesc Health 32:452-5. 2003
    ..Delaying second pregnancies among teenagers requires intensive efforts. Survival analysis is a more accurate and useful way of presenting program results than simple analysis of the proportion of women with a second birth...

Research Grants3

  1. Etiology of Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke
    George Howard; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  2. Etiology of Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke
    George Howard; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..