Linda Z Holland


Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA


  1. Holland L, Ocampo Daza D. A new look at an old question: when did the second whole genome duplication occur in vertebrate evolution?. Genome Biol. 2018;19:209 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparison of this karyotype to the 17 chordate linkage groups previously inferred in the ancestral chordate indicated that two whole genome duplications probably occurred in the lineage preceding the ancestral vertebrate. ..
  2. Ono H, Koop D, Holland L. Nodal and Hedgehog synergize in gill slit formation during development of the cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae. Development. 2018;145: pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, during the neurula stage, Nodal and Hh cooperate in gill slit development - Hh mediates gill slit formation and Nodal establishes their left-right position. ..
  3. Yue J, Yu J, Putnam N, Holland L. The transcriptome of an amphioxus, Asymmetron lucayanum, from the Bahamas: a window into chordate evolution. Genome Biol Evol. 2014;6:2681-96 pubmed publisher
    ..lucayanum and B. floridae. The divisions between cephalochordates and vertebrates, and that between chordates and the hemichordate plus echinoderm clade likely occurred before the Cambrian. ..
  4. Holland L, Onai T. Analyses of gene function in amphioxus embryos by microinjection of mRNAs and morpholino oligonucleotides. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;770:423-38 pubmed publisher
    ..This chapter details methods for microinjection of amphioxus eggs with mRNAs or morpholino antisense oligonucleotides to analyze gene networks operating in early development. ..
  5. Holland L. The origin and evolution of chordate nervous systems. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2015;370: pubmed publisher
    ..The minority view is that this ancestor had no nerve cord; those in chordates and hemichordates evolved independently. New techniques such as phylostratigraphy may help resolve this conundrum. ..
  6. Holland L. Evolution of basal deuterostome nervous systems. J Exp Biol. 2015;218:637-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The apparent loss of this opposition in hemichordates is, therefore, compatible with the scenario, suggested by Dawydoff over 65 years ago, that a true centralized nervous system was lost in hemichordates. ..
  7. Holland L. Tunicates. Curr Biol. 2016;26:R146-52 pubmed publisher
    ..An outstanding question is what happened to allow tunicates to evolve so much faster than their nearest relatives, cephalochordates and vertebrates. ..
  8. Holland L. Chordate roots of the vertebrate nervous system: expanding the molecular toolkit. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2009;10:736-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent advances in genomics have provided insights into the elaboration of the molecular toolkit at the invertebrate-vertebrate transition that may have facilitated the evolution of these vertebrate characteristics. ..
  9. Holland L, Short S. Alternative splicing in development and function of chordate endocrine systems: a focus on Pax genes. Integr Comp Biol. 2010;50:22-34 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Holland L. Evolution of new characters after whole genome duplications: insights from amphioxus. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2013;24:101-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, while cis-regulatory changes are likely of primary importance in evolution of vertebrate-specific structures, changes in protein structure including alternative splicing are non-trivial. ..
  2. Holland L, Carvalho J, Escriva H, Laudet V, Schubert M, Shimeld S, et al. Evolution of bilaterian central nervous systems: a single origin?. Evodevo. 2013;4:27 pubmed publisher
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    Holland L, Schubert M, Kozmik Z, Holland N. AmphiPax3/7, an amphioxus paired box gene: insights into chordate myogenesis, neurogenesis, and the possible evolutionary precursor of definitive vertebrate neural crest. Evol Dev. 1999;1:153-65 pubmed
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    Holland L, Panfilio K, Chastain R, Schubert M, Holland N. Nuclear beta-catenin promotes non-neural ectoderm and posterior cell fates in amphioxus embryos. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:1430-43 pubmed
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    Holland L, Laudet V, Schubert M. The chordate amphioxus: an emerging model organism for developmental biology. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2004;61:2290-308 pubmed
    ..This relative structural and genomic simplicity in a vertebrate-like organism makes amphioxus ideal as a model organism for understanding mechanisms of vertebrate development...
  6. Holland L, Albalat R, Azumi K, Benito GutiƩrrez E, Blow M, Bronner Fraser M, et al. The amphioxus genome illuminates vertebrate origins and cephalochordate biology. Genome Res. 2008;18:1100-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the amphioxus genome is elemental to an understanding of the biology and evolution of nonchordate deuterostomes, invertebrate chordates, and vertebrates...
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    Holland L. Body-plan evolution in the Bilateria: early antero-posterior patterning and the deuterostome-protostome dichotomy. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2000;10:434-42 pubmed
    ..Comparisons with Drosophila and Cnidarians suggest a scheme for evolution of the Bilaterian body plan and emphasize the pressing need for similar studies in a wider variety of organisms, especially more basal protostomes. ..
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    Holland L. Non-neural ectoderm is really neural: evolution of developmental patterning mechanisms in the non-neural ectoderm of chordates and the problem of sensory cell homologies. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2005;304:304-23 pubmed
    ..Thus, similarities between the ectodermal sensory cells of any one species of tunicate and craniate hair cells may well represent convergent evolution rather than homology...
  9. Yue J, Kozmikova I, Ono H, Nossa C, Kozmik Z, Putnam N, et al. Conserved Noncoding Elements in the Most Distant Genera of Cephalochordates: The Goldilocks Principle. Genome Biol Evol. 2016;8:2387-405 pubmed publisher
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    Holland L. Heads or tails? Amphioxus and the evolution of anterior-posterior patterning in deuterostomes. Dev Biol. 2002;241:209-28 pubmed
    ..Thus, roles for Wnt-signaling in dorso-ventral patterning of embryos may be a vertebrate innovation that arose in connection with the evolution of yolky eggs and gastrulation by extensive involution. ..