Clyde Hodge

Summary

Affiliation: University of North Carolina
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Allopregnanolone and pentobarbital infused into the nucleus accumbens substitute for the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol
    C W Hodge
    Department of Psychiatry and Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7178, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 25:1441-7. 2001
  2. pmc The mGluR5 antagonist MPEP selectively inhibits the onset and maintenance of ethanol self-administration in C57BL/6J mice
    Clyde W Hodge
    Department of Psychiatry, Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies School of Medicine, CB 7178, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7178, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 183:429-38. 2006
  3. ncbi request reprint Understanding how the brain perceives alcohol: neurobiological basis of ethanol discrimination
    Clyde W Hodge
    Department of Psychiatry and Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 5679, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 30:203-13. 2006
  4. pmc Deletion of the 5-HT(3A)-receptor subunit blunts the induction of cocaine sensitization
    C W Hodge
    Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Genes Brain Behav 7:96-102. 2008
  5. pmc Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 activity in the nucleus accumbens is required for the maintenance of ethanol self-administration in a rat genetic model of high alcohol intake
    Joyce Besheer
    Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 67:812-22. 2010
  6. pmc Differential modulation of ethanol-induced sedation and hypnosis by metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists in C57BL/6J mice
    Amanda C Sharko
    Department of Pharmacology, Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7178, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 32:67-76. 2008
  7. pmc Increased operant responding for ethanol in male C57BL/6J mice: specific regulation by the ERK1/2, but not JNK, MAP kinase pathway
    Sara Faccidomo
    Department of Psychiatry, Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 204:135-47. 2009
  8. pmc GABAA receptor regulation of voluntary ethanol drinking requires PKCepsilon
    Joyce Besheer
    Department of Psychiatry, Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599, USA
    Synapse 60:411-9. 2006
  9. pmc Nonselective suppression of operant ethanol and sucrose self-administration by the mGluR7 positive allosteric modulator AMN082
    Michael C Salling
    Department of Psychiatry and Pharmacology, Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Thurston Bowles Building CB 7178, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 91:14-20. 2008
  10. ncbi request reprint The mGluR5 antagonist MPEP decreases operant ethanol self-administration during maintenance and after repeated alcohol deprivations in alcohol-preferring (P) rats
    Jason P Schroeder
    Department of Psychiatry and Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 179:262-70. 2005

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications41

  1. ncbi request reprint Allopregnanolone and pentobarbital infused into the nucleus accumbens substitute for the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol
    C W Hodge
    Department of Psychiatry and Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7178, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 25:1441-7. 2001
    ..However, it is not known whether allosteric binding sites on GABA(A) receptors located within specific limbic brain regions contribute to the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol...
  2. pmc The mGluR5 antagonist MPEP selectively inhibits the onset and maintenance of ethanol self-administration in C57BL/6J mice
    Clyde W Hodge
    Department of Psychiatry, Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies School of Medicine, CB 7178, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7178, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 183:429-38. 2006
    ..Emerging evidence implicates metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in the biobehavioral effects of ethanol and other drugs of abuse, but there is little information regarding the role of mGluRs in the reinforcing effects of ethanol...
  3. ncbi request reprint Understanding how the brain perceives alcohol: neurobiological basis of ethanol discrimination
    Clyde W Hodge
    Department of Psychiatry and Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 5679, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 30:203-13. 2006
    ....
  4. pmc Deletion of the 5-HT(3A)-receptor subunit blunts the induction of cocaine sensitization
    C W Hodge
    Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Genes Brain Behav 7:96-102. 2008
    ....
  5. pmc Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 activity in the nucleus accumbens is required for the maintenance of ethanol self-administration in a rat genetic model of high alcohol intake
    Joyce Besheer
    Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 67:812-22. 2010
    ..This study sought to evaluate the functional role of Group I (mGluR5) and Group II (mGluR2/3) in mesocorticolimbic brain regions in ethanol self-administration...
  6. pmc Differential modulation of ethanol-induced sedation and hypnosis by metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists in C57BL/6J mice
    Amanda C Sharko
    Department of Pharmacology, Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7178, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 32:67-76. 2008
    ..The purpose of the present study was to determine if mGluRs modulate the acute sedative-hypnotic properties of ethanol in mice...
  7. pmc Increased operant responding for ethanol in male C57BL/6J mice: specific regulation by the ERK1/2, but not JNK, MAP kinase pathway
    Sara Faccidomo
    Department of Psychiatry, Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 204:135-47. 2009
    ..Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK(1/2)) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and a key molecular target for ethanol (EtOH) and other drugs of abuse...
  8. pmc GABAA receptor regulation of voluntary ethanol drinking requires PKCepsilon
    Joyce Besheer
    Department of Psychiatry, Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599, USA
    Synapse 60:411-9. 2006
    ..This suggests that PKCepsilon may be required for GABA(A) receptor regulation of chronic ethanol drinking...
  9. pmc Nonselective suppression of operant ethanol and sucrose self-administration by the mGluR7 positive allosteric modulator AMN082
    Michael C Salling
    Department of Psychiatry and Pharmacology, Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Thurston Bowles Building CB 7178, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 91:14-20. 2008
    ..These data suggest that activation of mGluR7 by AMNO82 produces nonspecific reductions in motivated behavior that are associated with negative effects on motor activity...
  10. ncbi request reprint The mGluR5 antagonist MPEP decreases operant ethanol self-administration during maintenance and after repeated alcohol deprivations in alcohol-preferring (P) rats
    Jason P Schroeder
    Department of Psychiatry and Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 179:262-70. 2005
    ..Recent research indicates that blockade of mGluR5 modifies the reinforcing properties of ethanol...
  11. pmc Abstinence following alcohol drinking produces depression-like behavior and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis in mice
    Jennie R Stevenson
    Department of Psychiatry, Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, Curriculum in Neurobiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 34:1209-22. 2009
    ..e. behavioral) and structural changes occur during abstinence from alcohol use and suggest that antidepressant treatment may alleviate some of these pathological neurobehavioral adaptations...
  12. pmc Cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior is associated with increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in specific limbic brain regions: blockade by the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP
    Jason P Schroeder
    Department of Psychiatry, Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Thurston Bowles Building CB 7178, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Neuropharmacology 55:546-54. 2008
    ..Pharmacological compounds, such as mGluR5 antagonists, that reduce cue-induced ERK1/2 activation may be useful for treatment of relapse in alcoholics that is triggered by exposure to environmental events...
  13. ncbi request reprint Adolescent cortical development: a critical period of vulnerability for addiction
    Fulton Crews
    Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, School of Medecine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 86:189-99. 2007
    ..This review presents findings supporting adolescence as a critical period of cortical development important for establishing life long adult characteristics that are disrupted by alcohol and drug use...
  14. pmc Preclinical evaluation of riluzole: assessments of ethanol self-administration and ethanol withdrawal symptoms
    Joyce Besheer
    Department of Psychiatry, Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7178, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 33:1460-8. 2009
    ..This study was designed to determine the preclinical efficacy of riluzole to modulate ethanol self-administration and withdrawal...
  15. ncbi request reprint Concurrent dietary administration of D-SAL and ethanol diminishes ethanol's teratogenesis
    Scott E Parnell
    Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 31:2059-64. 2007
    ..The present study tested the hypothesis that D-SAL provided in a liquid diet containing ethanol will prevent ethanol-induced teratogenicity in mice...
  16. pmc Interoceptive effects of alcohol require mGlu5 receptor activity in the nucleus accumbens
    Joyce Besheer
    Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    J Neurosci 29:9582-91. 2009
    ..These results show that mGlu5 receptor activity in the nucleus accumbens is required for the expression of the interoceptive effects of alcohol...
  17. ncbi request reprint Maternal oral intake mouse model for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: ocular defects as a measure of effect
    Scott E Parnell
    Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 30:1791-8. 2006
    ..The ocular defects are readily identifiable and their degree of severity is expected to correlate with concurrently developing defects of the central nervous system (CNS)...
  18. pmc Ethanol-induced alterations of c-Fos immunoreactivity in specific limbic brain regions following ethanol discrimination training
    Joyce Besheer
    Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Brain Res 1232:124-31. 2008
    ..This suggests that learning about the subjective properties of ethanol produces adaptive changes in how the brain responds to acute ethanol exposure...
  19. doi request reprint Alcohol, cocaine, and brain stimulation-reward in C57Bl6/J and DBA2/J mice
    Eric W Fish
    Department of Neurology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 34:81-9. 2010
    ..These experiments had 2 objectives: first, to establish the effects of alcohol on ICSS responding in the C57Bl6/J (C57) and DBA2/J (DBA) mouse strains; and second, to compare these effects to those of the psychostimulant cocaine...
  20. pmc mGlu5 receptors are involved in the discriminative stimulus effects of self-administered ethanol in rats
    Joyce Besheer
    Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 551:71-5. 2006
    ..These results indicate that mGlu(5) receptors are involved in the expression of the discriminative stimulus properties of self-administered ethanol...
  21. pmc Pharmacological and anatomical evidence for an interaction between mGluR5- and GABA(A) alpha1-containing receptors in the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol
    Joyce Besheer
    Department of Psychiatry, Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 30:747-57. 2005
    ..Together, these findings suggest an interaction between mGluR5- and benzodiazepine-sensitive GABA(A) receptors in mediating ethanol discrimination...
  22. ncbi request reprint Coregulation of ethanol discrimination by the nucleus accumbens and amygdala
    Joyce Besheer
    Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, Thurston Bowles Building CB 7178, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 27:450-6. 2003
    ..This study was conducted to determine if GABA(A) receptors in the amygdala and nucleus accumbens interactively modulate ethanol discrimination...
  23. pmc Regulation of motivation to self-administer ethanol by mGluR5 in alcohol-preferring (P) rats
    Joyce Besheer
    Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 32:209-21. 2008
    ..The purpose of this work was to further characterize involvement of Group I mGluRs in the reinforcing effects of ethanol using a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement...
  24. ncbi request reprint 5-HT(3A) receptor subunit is required for 5-HT3 antagonist-induced reductions in alcohol drinking
    Clyde W Hodge
    Department of Psychiatry and Bowles Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 29:1807-13. 2004
    ..These findings indicate that reduction of alcohol drinking produced by 5-HT3 antagonism is dependent on the presence of 5-HT(3A)-containing receptors...
  25. ncbi request reprint GABA(B) receptor agonists reduce operant ethanol self-administration and enhance ethanol sedation in C57BL/6J mice
    Joyce Besheer
    Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, Department of Psychiatry, Thurston Bowles Building, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB 7178, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 174:358-66. 2004
    ..A growing number of studies suggest that gamma-aminobutyric acid type-B (GABA(B)) receptor agonists reduce alcohol use and craving...
  26. ncbi request reprint Intra-amygdala infusion of the NPY Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP 3226 attenuates operant ethanol self-administration
    Jason P Schroeder
    Department of Psychiatry and Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 27:1884-91. 2003
    ..The purpose of the present study was to test the involvement of NPY Y1 receptors in the amygdala in the reinforcing effects of alcohol...
  27. ncbi request reprint Neuropeptide-Y Y5 receptors modulate the onset and maintenance of operant ethanol self-administration
    Jason P Schroeder
    Department of Psychiatry and Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 27:1912-20. 2003
    ..Recent pharmacological and mutant mouse data indicate that NPY activity at its receptors can influence ethanol self-administration, although the direction and strength of this influence are not clear...
  28. ncbi request reprint The neuropeptide-Y Y5 receptor antagonist L-152,804 decreases alcohol self-administration in inbred alcohol-preferring (iP) rats
    Jason P Schroeder
    Department of Psychiatry and Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Thurston Bowles Building, CB 7178, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Alcohol 36:179-86. 2005
    ..For this reason, NPY Y5 receptor antagonists may be useful in medical management of alcohol abuse and alcoholism in the human population...
  29. pmc CRF-1 antagonist and CRF-2 agonist decrease binge-like ethanol drinking in C57BL/6J mice independent of the HPA axis
    Emily G Lowery
    Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:1241-52. 2010
    ..Furthermore, normal HPA axis signaling is not necessary to achieve binge-like drinking behavior...
  30. pmc Acute ethanol administration rapidly increases phosphorylation of conventional protein kinase C in specific mammalian brain regions in vivo
    Mary Beth Wilkie
    Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7178, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 31:1259-67. 2007
    ....
  31. pmc Comparison of ethanol locomotor sensitization in adolescent and adult DBA/2J mice
    Rebekah A Stevenson
    Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, Department of Psychiatry, Curriculum in Neurobiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 197:361-70. 2008
    ..Behavioral sensitization in rodents is a model of neurobehavioral plasticity that occurs following repeated drug exposure and may underlie components of addiction...
  32. ncbi request reprint Effects of acute acamprosate and homotaurine on ethanol intake and ethanol-stimulated mesolimbic dopamine release
    M Foster Olive
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, UCSF Department of Neurology, 5858 Horton Street, Suite 200, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 437:55-61. 2002
    ....
  33. ncbi request reprint Elevated extracellular CRF levels in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis during ethanol withdrawal and reduction by subsequent ethanol intake
    M Foster Olive
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, 5858 Horton Street, Suite 200, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 72:213-20. 2002
    ..These data demonstrate that extracellular CRF levels are increased in the BNST during ethanol withdrawal, and that these increases are reduced by subsequent ethanol intake...
  34. ncbi request reprint The corticotropin-releasing factor/urocortin system and alcohol
    Andrey E Ryabinin
    Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland 97201 3098, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 26:714-22. 2002
    ..Mehmert, R. Camarini, Joseph A. Kim, Heather N. Koenig, Michelle A. Nannini, and Clyde W. Hodge; and (5) Selective sensitivity of urocortin-containing neurons to alcohol self-administration, by Andrey E. Ryabinin and Ryan K. Bachtell...
  35. pmc Decreased anxiety-like behavior, reduced stress hormones, and neurosteroid supersensitivity in mice lacking protein kinase Cepsilon
    Clyde W Hodge
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
    J Clin Invest 110:1003-10. 2002
    ..The findings also suggest PKCepsilon as a possible therapeutic target for development of anxiolytics...
  36. ncbi request reprint Ethanol preexposure increases ethanol self-administration in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice
    Rosana Camarini
    Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Av Prof Lineu Prestes 1524, 05508 900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 79:623-32. 2004
    ..In general, the results of this study suggest that genetic factors may interact with previous exposure to ethanol to modify ethanol self-administration...
  37. ncbi request reprint The mGluR5 antagonist 6-methyl-2-(phenylethynyl)pyridine decreases ethanol consumption via a protein kinase C epsilon-dependent mechanism
    M Foster Olive
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, Department of Neurology, University of California at San Francisco, 5858 Horton St, Suite 200, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 67:349-55. 2005
    ..Our data indicate that mGluR5 is coupled to PKCepsilon via a PI3K-dependent pathway and that PKCepsilon is required for the ability of the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP to reduce ethanol consumption...
  38. ncbi request reprint The 5-HT3 antagonist Y-25130 blocks cocaine-induced lowering of ICSS reward thresholds in the rat
    Stephen P Kelley
    Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, DD1 9SY Scotland, UK
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 74:297-302. 2003
    ..3 and 3.0 mg/kg) did attenuate the threshold-lowering effect of cocaine. These findings suggest that the rewarding effects of cocaine are mediated through 5-HT(3) receptor activity...
  39. ncbi request reprint Reduced 5-HT3 receptor binding and lower baseline plus maze anxiety in the alcohol-preferring inbred fawn-hooded rat
    Julie G Hensler
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, MC 7764, 7707 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229 3900, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 77:281-9. 2004
    ..Further research into 5-HT(3) receptor function in the alcohol-preferring FH/Wjd rats is needed to elucidate the relationship among 5-HT(3) receptors, alcohol drinking, and anxiety...
  40. ncbi request reprint A role for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in ethanol consumption, sensitivity, and reward as revealed by CRF-deficient mice
    M Foster Olive
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California at San Francisco, 5858 Horton Street, Suite 200, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 165:181-7. 2003
    ..Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays an integral role in mediating stress responses and anxiety. However, little is known regarding the role of CRF in ethanol consumption, a behavior often associated with stress and anxiety in humans...
  41. ncbi request reprint Targeted gene deletion of the 5-HT3A receptor subunit produces an anxiolytic phenotype in mice
    Stephen P Kelley
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, Department of Neurology, University of California at San Francisco, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 461:19-25. 2003
    ..This evidence indicates that the 5-HT(3A) molecular subunit influences anxiety-like behavior. Pharmacotherapy that targets specifically the 5-HT(3A) receptor subunit may provide a novel treatment for anxiety disorders...

Research Grants16

  1. Molecular Mechanisms of Ethanol Reinforcement
    Clyde Hodge; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These findings will aid development of pharmacotherapeutics to treat problems associated with alcoholism. ..
  2. Behavioral and molecular mechanisms of ethanol-induced depression
    Clyde Hodge; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This information may be of major significance for the development of therapies that may benefit depression and alcoholism, as well as establishing the molecular basis of the interaction of these two mental diseases. ..
  3. Molecular Mechanisms of Ethanol Reinforcement
    Clyde Hodge; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These findings will aid development of pharmacotherapeutics to treat problems associated with alcoholism. ..
  4. CENTRAL MECHANISMS OF ETHANOL DISCRIMINATION
    Clyde Hodge; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The long range goal of these studies is to determine the specific brain mechanisms that mediate the subjective stimulus effects of alcohol with the hope of identifying novel targets for drug therapy in alcohol abuse and alcoholism. ..
  5. Behavioral and molecular mechanisms of ethanol-induced depression
    Clyde W Hodge; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This information may be of major significance for the development of therapies that may benefit depression and alcoholism, as well as establishing the molecular basis of the interaction of these two mental diseases. ..