REUBEN HARRIS

Summary

Affiliation: University of Minnesota
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc APOBEC3 inhibits DEAD-END function to regulate microRNA activity
    Sara Ali
    Department of Genetics, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    BMC Mol Biol 14:16. 2013
  2. pmc The restriction factors of human immunodeficiency virus
    Reuben S Harris
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:40875-83. 2012
  3. pmc Vif proteins of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses require cellular CBFβ to degrade APOBEC3 restriction factors
    Judd F Hultquist
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Center for Genome Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    J Virol 86:2874-7. 2012
  4. pmc The artiodactyl APOBEC3 innate immune repertoire shows evidence for a multi-functional domain organization that existed in the ancestor of placental mammals
    Rebecca S LaRue
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Beckman Center for Genome Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    BMC Mol Biol 9:104. 2008
  5. ncbi request reprint Retroviral restriction by APOBEC proteins
    Reuben S Harris
    University of Minnesota, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics Department, 321 Church Street South East, 6 155 Jackson Hall, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 4:868-77. 2004
  6. pmc Evolutionarily conserved and non-conserved retrovirus restriction activities of artiodactyl APOBEC3F proteins
    Stefán R Jónsson
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 34:5683-94. 2006
  7. ncbi request reprint The retroviral hypermutation specificity of APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G is governed by the C-terminal DNA cytosine deaminase domain
    Guylaine Haché
    University of Minnesota, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics and the Institute for Molecular Virology, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:10920-4. 2005
  8. pmc APOBEC3G hypermutates genomic DNA and inhibits Ty1 retrotransposition in yeast
    April J Schumacher
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics and Institute for Molecular Virology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:9854-9. 2005
  9. ncbi request reprint APOBEC3F properties and hypermutation preferences indicate activity against HIV-1 in vivo
    Mark T Liddament
    University of Minnesota, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics, 321 Church St S E, 6 155 Jackson Hall, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Curr Biol 14:1385-91. 2004
  10. ncbi request reprint Directed DNA deamination by AID/APOBEC3 in immunity
    Donna A MacDuff
    University of Minnesota, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Beckman Center for Transposon Research, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Curr Biol 16:R186-9. 2006

Collaborators

  • Kuan Ming Chen
  • LOUIS MANSKY
  • Valgerdur Andresdottir
  • Mathieu Lajoie
  • Isidro Hötzel
  • Nadia El-Mabrouk
  • M S Neuberger
  • B Berkhout
  • Svend K Petersen-Mahrt
  • Silvestro G Conticello
  • Michael H Malim
  • J E Sale
  • ALAN N ENGELMAN
  • Mark D Stenglein
  • Guylaine Haché
  • Donna A MacDuff
  • Rebecca S LaRue
  • William L Brown
  • John S Albin
  • Judd F Hultquist
  • Stefán R Jónsson
  • April J Schumacher
  • Zachary L Demorest
  • Eric W Refsland
  • Keisuke Shindo
  • Sara Ali
  • Mark T Liddament
  • Holly A Sadler
  • Joy Lengyel
  • Elena Harjes
  • Hiroshi Matsuo
  • Jason L Dehart
  • Jean L Mbisa
  • Adam J L Cook
  • Scott C Fahrenkrug
  • Rupert C L Beale
  • Sita Aggarwal
  • Angabin Matin
  • Rui Zhu
  • Namrata Karki
  • Chitralekha Bhattacharya
  • Viviana Simon
  • Mawuena Binka
  • Lela Lackey
  • Joy A Lengyel
  • Leslie V Parise
  • Scott G Morham
  • Michael B Burns
  • Ming Li
  • Roni Nowarski
  • Yongjian Lu
  • Phillip J Gross
  • Truus E M Abbink
  • John D Gross
  • Moshe Kotler
  • Alberto Bosque
  • Denis Bertrand
  • Timothy P L Smith
  • Vicente Planelles
  • Kevin A T Silverstein
  • Robert J Gorelick
  • Vinay K Pathak
  • Joanna M Raftery
  • Irene J Dorweiler
  • Shunichi Takeda
  • Andrew Jessup
  • Christopher J Jolly
  • James A Thomas
  • K K Edwin Lau
  • Evguenia S Svarovskaia
  • Nick Vandegraaff
  • Rebekah Barr
  • Dwight V Nissley
  • Ian N Watt
  • Cristina Rada

Detail Information

Publications42

  1. pmc APOBEC3 inhibits DEAD-END function to regulate microRNA activity
    Sara Ali
    Department of Genetics, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    BMC Mol Biol 14:16. 2013
    ..In summary, our results show that APOBEC3 is able to modulate DND1 function to regulate miRNA mediated translational regulation in cells but DND1 does not affect known APOBEC3 function. ..
  2. pmc The restriction factors of human immunodeficiency virus
    Reuben S Harris
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:40875-83. 2012
    ..These HIV restriction and counter-restriction mechanisms suggest strategies for new therapeutic interventions...
  3. pmc Vif proteins of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses require cellular CBFβ to degrade APOBEC3 restriction factors
    Judd F Hultquist
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Center for Genome Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    J Virol 86:2874-7. 2012
    ....
  4. pmc The artiodactyl APOBEC3 innate immune repertoire shows evidence for a multi-functional domain organization that existed in the ancestor of placental mammals
    Rebecca S LaRue
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Beckman Center for Genome Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    BMC Mol Biol 9:104. 2008
    ....
  5. ncbi request reprint Retroviral restriction by APOBEC proteins
    Reuben S Harris
    University of Minnesota, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics Department, 321 Church Street South East, 6 155 Jackson Hall, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 4:868-77. 2004
    ..This APOBEC abundance might help to tip the balance in favour of cellular defences...
  6. pmc Evolutionarily conserved and non-conserved retrovirus restriction activities of artiodactyl APOBEC3F proteins
    Stefán R Jónsson
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 34:5683-94. 2006
    ..Together, these studies indicate that some properties of the mammal-specific, APOBEC3-dependent retroelement restriction system are necessary and conserved, but others are simultaneously modular and highly adaptable...
  7. ncbi request reprint The retroviral hypermutation specificity of APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G is governed by the C-terminal DNA cytosine deaminase domain
    Guylaine Haché
    University of Minnesota, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics and the Institute for Molecular Virology, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:10920-4. 2005
    ....
  8. pmc APOBEC3G hypermutates genomic DNA and inhibits Ty1 retrotransposition in yeast
    April J Schumacher
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics and Institute for Molecular Virology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:9854-9. 2005
    ..We postulate that the APOBEC3-dependent innate cellular defense constitutes a tightly regulated arm of a conserved mobile nucleic acid restriction mechanism that is poised to limit internal as well as external assaults...
  9. ncbi request reprint APOBEC3F properties and hypermutation preferences indicate activity against HIV-1 in vivo
    Mark T Liddament
    University of Minnesota, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics, 321 Church St S E, 6 155 Jackson Hall, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Curr Biol 14:1385-91. 2004
    ..Thus, APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G are likely to function alongside one another in the provision of an innate immune defense, with APOBEC3F functioning as the major contributor to HIV-1 hypermutation in vivo...
  10. ncbi request reprint Directed DNA deamination by AID/APOBEC3 in immunity
    Donna A MacDuff
    University of Minnesota, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Beckman Center for Transposon Research, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Curr Biol 16:R186-9. 2006
  11. pmc Extensive mutagenesis experiments corroborate a structural model for the DNA deaminase domain of APOBEC3G
    Kuan Ming Chen
    University of Minnesota, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Minneapolis, MN 55455, United States
    FEBS Lett 581:4761-6. 2007
    ..These data corroborated an APOBEC2-based structural model for the catalytic domain of APOBEC3G indicating that most non-essential residues are solvent accessible and most essential residues cluster within the protein core...
  12. ncbi request reprint MDM2 can interact with the C-terminus of AID but it is inessential for antibody diversification in DT40 B cells
    Donna A MacDuff
    University of Minnesota, Department of Biochemistry, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Mol Immunol 43:1099-108. 2006
    ..Intriguingly, the same carboxy-terminal residues of AID were recently shown to be inessential for somatic hypermutation and immunoglobulin gene conversion but they were strictly required for class switch recombination...
  13. pmc Two regions within the amino-terminal half of APOBEC3G cooperate to determine cytoplasmic localization
    Mark D Stenglein
    University of Minnesota, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics, 321 Church St S E, 6 155 Jackson Hall, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Virol 82:9591-9. 2008
    ....
  14. pmc APOBEC3 proteins mediate the clearance of foreign DNA from human cells
    Mark D Stenglein
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Center for Genome Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 17:222-9. 2010
    ..The efficiency and fidelity of genetic engineering, gene therapy, and DNA vaccination are likely to be influenced by this anti-DNA defense system...
  15. ncbi request reprint APOBEC3B and APOBEC3F inhibit L1 retrotransposition by a DNA deamination-independent mechanism
    Mark D Stenglein
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, The Institute for Molecular Virology and The Beckman Center for Transposon Research, The University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:16837-41. 2006
    ..A particularly high level of APOBEC3F protein in human testes and an inverse correlation between L1 activity and APOBEC3 gene number suggest the relevance of this mechanism to mammals...
  16. pmc The restriction of zoonotic PERV transmission by human APOBEC3G
    Stefán R Jónsson
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 2:e893. 2007
    ....
  17. pmc Optimal translation initiation enables Vif-deficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to escape restriction by APOBEC3G
    Guylaine Haché
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Center for Genome Engineering, Institute for Molecular Virology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    J Virol 83:5956-60. 2009
    ..Here we show that the A200-to-C/T mutation functions posttranscriptionally by inactivating an upstream start codon, which in turn enables optimal viral mRNA translation from canonical start codons...
  18. pmc An extended structure of the APOBEC3G catalytic domain suggests a unique holoenzyme model
    Elena Harjes
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55455, USA
    J Mol Biol 389:819-32. 2009
    ....
  19. pmc Lentiviral Vif degrades the APOBEC3Z3/APOBEC3H protein of its mammalian host and is capable of cross-species activity
    Rebecca S LaRue
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Center for Genome Engineering, and Comparative and Molecular Biology Graduate Program, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    J Virol 84:8193-201. 2010
    ..Our results thereby suggest that the Vif-A3Z3 interaction is relevant to lentivirus biology...
  20. doi request reprint Structure of the DNA deaminase domain of the HIV-1 restriction factor APOBEC3G
    Kuan Ming Chen
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Nature 452:116-9. 2008
    ..The structure of the APOBEC3G catalytic domain will help us to understand functions of other family members and interactions that occur with pathogenic proteins such as HIV-1 Vif...
  21. pmc APOBEC3G contributes to HIV-1 variation through sublethal mutagenesis
    Holly A Sadler
    Institute for Molecular Virology, 18 242 Moos Tower, 515 Delaware St SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Virol 84:7396-404. 2010
    ..Such mutations have the potential to contribute significantly to HIV-1 evolution, pathogenesis, immune escape, and drug resistance...
  22. pmc Long-term restriction by APOBEC3F selects human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants with restored Vif function
    John S Albin
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Center for Genome Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Virol 84:10209-19. 2010
    ..These data combine to indicate that A3F and A3G exert at least partly distinct selective pressures and that Vif function may be essential for the virus to replicate in the presence of A3F...
  23. pmc AID can restrict L1 retrotransposition suggesting a dual role in innate and adaptive immunity
    Donna A MacDuff
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Center for Genome Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 37:1854-67. 2009
    ..Together with evidence for AID expression in the ovary, our data combined to suggest that AID has innate immune functions in addition to its integral roles in creating antibody diversity...
  24. pmc Evolution of HIV-1 isolates that use a novel Vif-independent mechanism to resist restriction by human APOBEC3G
    Guylaine Haché
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Beckman Center for Genome Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Curr Biol 18:819-24. 2008
    ..These data support the development of antiretrovirals that antagonize Vif and thereby enable endogenous APOBEC3G to suppress HIV-1 replication...
  25. pmc The DNA deaminase activity of human APOBEC3G is required for Ty1, MusD, and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 restriction
    April J Schumacher
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Beckman Center for Genome Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Virol 82:2652-60. 2008
    ..In conclusion, the absolute requirement for the catalytic glutamate of APOBEC3G in Ty1, MusD, and HIV-1 restriction strongly indicates that DNA cytosine deamination is an essential part of the mechanism...
  26. pmc The interaction between AID and CIB1 is nonessential for antibody gene diversification by gene conversion or class switch recombination
    Zachary L Demorest
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Beckman Center for Genome Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    PLoS ONE 5:e11660. 2010
    ..These combined data demonstrate that CIB1 is not required for AID to mediate antibody gene diversification processes. It remains possible that CIB1 has an alternative, a redundant or a subtle non-limiting regulatory role in AID biology...
  27. pmc Human and rhesus APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H demonstrate a conserved capacity to restrict Vif-deficient HIV-1
    Judd F Hultquist
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Center for Genome Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Virol 85:11220-34. 2011
    ..These data strongly implicate a combination of four APOBEC3 proteins--APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H--in HIV-1 restriction...
  28. pmc Quantitative profiling of the full APOBEC3 mRNA repertoire in lymphocytes and tissues: implications for HIV-1 restriction
    Eric W Refsland
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Center for Genome Engineering, Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:4274-84. 2010
    ....
  29. ncbi request reprint Human APOBEC3 proteins, retrovirus restriction, and HIV drug resistance
    Guylaine Haché
    University of Minnesota, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    AIDS Rev 8:148-57. 2006
    ..Here we review the current knowledge on the mechanism of APOBEC3-dependent retrovirus restriction and discuss whether this innate host-defense system actively contributes to HIV genetic variation...
  30. pmc Interactions of host APOBEC3 restriction factors with HIV-1 in vivo: implications for therapeutics
    John S Albin
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Center for Genome Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Expert Rev Mol Med 12:e4. 2010
    ..We also summarise, for the first time, current clinical data on the in vivo effects of APOBEC3 proteins, and survey strategies and progress towards developing therapeutics aimed at the APOBEC3-Vif axis...
  31. ncbi request reprint The Vif protein of HIV triggers degradation of the human antiretroviral DNA deaminase APOBEC3G
    Silvestro G Conticello
    Medical Research Council, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QH, United Kingdom
    Curr Biol 13:2009-13. 2003
    ..Inhibitors of this interaction might therefore prove therapeutically useful in blocking Vif-mediated APOBEC3G destruction...
  32. ncbi request reprint AID mutates E. coli suggesting a DNA deamination mechanism for antibody diversification
    Svend K Petersen-Mahrt
    Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK
    Nature 418:99-103. 2002
    ....
  33. ncbi request reprint RNA editing enzyme APOBEC1 and some of its homologs can act as DNA mutators
    Reuben S Harris
    Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QH, United Kingdom
    Mol Cell 10:1247-53. 2002
    ..However, each protein exhibits a distinct local target sequence specificity. The results reveal the existence of a family of potential active dC/dG mutators, with possible implications for cancer...
  34. ncbi request reprint Dancin' deaminase
    Reuben S Harris
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 13:380-1. 2006
    ..New biochemical experiments with the retroelement restriction protein APOBEC3G indicate that it processively deaminates single-stranded DNA cytosines by a unique jumping and sliding mechanism...
  35. ncbi request reprint DNA deamination: not just a trigger for antibody diversification but also a mechanism for defense against retroviruses
    Reuben S Harris
    Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QH, UK
    Nat Immunol 4:641-3. 2003
  36. ncbi request reprint Comparison of the differential context-dependence of DNA deamination by APOBEC enzymes: correlation with mutation spectra in vivo
    Rupert C L Beale
    Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QH, UK
    J Mol Biol 337:585-96. 2004
    ....
  37. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cDNAs produced in the presence of APOBEC3G exhibit defects in plus-strand DNA transfer and integration
    Jean L Mbisa
    HIV Drug Resistance Program, SAIC Frederick, Inc, National Cancer Institute Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702 1201, USA
    J Virol 81:7099-110. 2007
    ..These novel observations suggest that HIV-1 cDNA produced in the presence of A3G exhibits defects in primer tRNA processing, plus-strand DNA transfer, and integration...
  38. ncbi request reprint DNA deamination mediates innate immunity to retroviral infection
    Reuben S Harris
    Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, CB2 2QH, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Cell 113:803-9. 2003
    ..These findings imply that targeted DNA deamination is a major strategy of innate immunity to retroviruses and likely also contributes to the sequence variation observed in many viruses (including HIV)...
  39. ncbi request reprint AID is essential for immunoglobulin V gene conversion in a cultured B cell line
    Reuben S Harris
    Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, CB2 2QH, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Curr Biol 12:435-8. 2002
    ....
  40. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif induces cell cycle delay via recruitment of the same E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that targets APOBEC3 proteins for degradation
    Jason L Dehart
    Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, 15 North Medical Drive East no 2100, Room 2520, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA
    J Virol 82:9265-72. 2008
    ..We conclude that cell cycle delay by Vif is a result of ubiquitination and degradation of a cellular protein that is different from the known APOBEC3 family members...
  41. ncbi request reprint Immunity through DNA deamination
    Michael S Neuberger
    Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge, UK CB2 2QH
    Trends Biochem Sci 28:305-12. 2003
    ..Furthermore, the observation that members of the DNA deaminase family can target inappropriate genes suggests they might also contribute to mutations during genome evolution, as well as in cancer...
  42. pmc DNA-dependent protein kinase inhibits AID-induced antibody gene conversion
    Adam J L Cook
    Centenary Institute and University of Sydney Faculty of Medicine, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    PLoS Biol 5:e80. 2007
    ..The data provide strong evidence that double-strand DNA ends capable of recruiting the DNA-dependent protein kinase complex are important intermediates in Ig V gene conversion...

Research Grants12

  1. Mechanisms of AID-dependent Adaptive and Innate Immunity
    Reuben S Harris; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  2. APOBEC proteins and uracil in retrovirus restriction
    REUBEN HARRIS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The consequences of failing to appreciate these fundamental steps could be catastrophic as mis-regulation/expression of APOBEC family members has been associated with carcinogenesis. ..
  3. Mechanisms of AID-dependent Adaptive and Innate Immunity
    REUBEN HARRIS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  4. Mechanisms of AID-dependent Adaptive and Innate Immunity
    REUBEN HARRIS; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  5. Mechanisms of AID-dependent Adaptive and Innate Immunity
    Reuben S Harris; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..