S M Hall

Summary

Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Mood management and nicotine gum in smoking treatment: a therapeutic contact and placebo-controlled study
    S M Hall
    Department of Psychology, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    J Consult Clin Psychol 64:1003-9. 1996
  2. ncbi request reprint Cost-effectiveness of bupropion, nortriptyline, and psychological intervention in smoking cessation
    Sharon M Hall
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, 94143, USA
    J Behav Health Serv Res 32:381-92. 2005
  3. ncbi request reprint Extended nortriptyline and psychological treatment for cigarette smoking
    Sharon M Hall
    University of California San Francisco, 401 Parnassus Ave, Box 0984, San Francisco, CA 94143 0984, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 161:2100-7. 2004
  4. ncbi request reprint Psychological intervention and antidepressant treatment in smoking cessation
    Sharon M Hall
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, 94143 0984, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 59:930-6. 2002
  5. ncbi request reprint Statistical analysis of randomized trials in tobacco treatment: longitudinal designs with dichotomous outcome
    S M Hall
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, 94143, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 3:193-202. 2001
  6. ncbi request reprint Psychological interventions: state of the art
    S M Hall
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0984, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 1:S169-73; discussion S207-10. 1999
  7. ncbi request reprint Development of major depression after treatment for smoking cessation
    J Y Tsoh
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 157:368-74. 2000
  8. doi request reprint Changes in psychiatric patients' thoughts about quitting smoking during a smoke-free hospitalization
    Dikla Shmueli
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0984, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 10:875-81. 2008
  9. ncbi request reprint Older adults' and case managers' perceptions of smoking and smoking cessation
    Eva M Schmitt
    Institute On Aging Research Center, 3330 Geary Blvd, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    J Aging Health 17:717-33. 2005
  10. ncbi request reprint Factors associated with lapses to heroin use during methadone maintenance
    D A Wasserman
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 52:183-92. 1998

Detail Information

Publications60

  1. ncbi request reprint Mood management and nicotine gum in smoking treatment: a therapeutic contact and placebo-controlled study
    S M Hall
    Department of Psychology, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    J Consult Clin Psychol 64:1003-9. 1996
    ..History-positive smokers may be best treated by interventions providing additional support and contact, independent of therapeutic content...
  2. ncbi request reprint Cost-effectiveness of bupropion, nortriptyline, and psychological intervention in smoking cessation
    Sharon M Hall
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, 94143, USA
    J Behav Health Serv Res 32:381-92. 2005
    ..Prospective investigations of the cost and cost-effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological intervention, using adequate sample sizes, are warranted...
  3. ncbi request reprint Extended nortriptyline and psychological treatment for cigarette smoking
    Sharon M Hall
    University of California San Francisco, 401 Parnassus Ave, Box 0984, San Francisco, CA 94143 0984, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 161:2100-7. 2004
    ..Using a chronic disease model of smoking, the authors undertook a study to determine the effects of long-term antidepressant and psychological treatment...
  4. ncbi request reprint Psychological intervention and antidepressant treatment in smoking cessation
    Sharon M Hall
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, 94143 0984, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 59:930-6. 2002
    ..This study compared both drugs with placebo. It also examined the efficacy of these 2 drugs and placebo with and without psychological intervention...
  5. ncbi request reprint Statistical analysis of randomized trials in tobacco treatment: longitudinal designs with dichotomous outcome
    S M Hall
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, 94143, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 3:193-202. 2001
    ..A standardized method for reporting missing data is proposed. Reference and software programs for both data analysis strategies and handling of missing data are presented...
  6. ncbi request reprint Psychological interventions: state of the art
    S M Hall
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0984, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 1:S169-73; discussion S207-10. 1999
    ..Additional research is needed on interventions for smokers who are not ready to quit, both in developing new techniques, and determining the need and usefulness of adaptations of those in existence to specific populations...
  7. ncbi request reprint Development of major depression after treatment for smoking cessation
    J Y Tsoh
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 157:368-74. 2000
    ..Case studies suggest cigarette abstinence may precipitate a major depressive episode. This study examined the incidence and predictors of major depression in the 12 months after treatment for smoking cessation...
  8. doi request reprint Changes in psychiatric patients' thoughts about quitting smoking during a smoke-free hospitalization
    Dikla Shmueli
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0984, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 10:875-81. 2008
    ..Hospitalization in a smoke-free environment is associated with increases in patients' expectancies about quitting and staying smoke free...
  9. ncbi request reprint Older adults' and case managers' perceptions of smoking and smoking cessation
    Eva M Schmitt
    Institute On Aging Research Center, 3330 Geary Blvd, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    J Aging Health 17:717-33. 2005
    ..This study explores older smokers' and case managers' perceptions of smoking and smoking cessation...
  10. ncbi request reprint Factors associated with lapses to heroin use during methadone maintenance
    D A Wasserman
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 52:183-92. 1998
    ..This line of research suggests that factors influencing lapses are similar across drug treatment populations and the role of stress in precipitating relapse remains unresolved...
  11. doi request reprint Longitudinal analysis of abstinence-specific social support and smoking cessation
    Dawn Lawhon
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Health Psychol 28:465-72. 2009
    ..2) To describe time-related changes in abstinence-specific support, including how support provided during middle and later phases of the quitting process is associated with treatment outcome...
  12. ncbi request reprint Contingency contracting with monetary reinforcers for abstinence from multiple drugs in a methadone program
    N A Piotrowski
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 7:399-411. 1999
    ..04). Effects were limited, however, to the contracting period. The authors conclude that contingency contracting using monetary reinforcers may be a useful adjunct for achieving abstinence from multiple drugs of abuse during MTT...
  13. ncbi request reprint Gender differences among HIV-positive methadone maintenance patients enrolled in a medication adherence trial
    N A Haug
    San Francisco General Hospital, CA 94110, USA
    AIDS Care 17:1022-9. 2005
    ..Extensive assessment, specialized medical care and mental health services may be warranted in the treatment of HIV-positive female drug abusers...
  14. ncbi request reprint Nicotine interventions with comorbid populations
    Sharon M Hall
    Department of Health Psychology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0984, USA
    Am J Prev Med 33:S406-13. 2007
    ..It is reasonable to offer existing treatments to these subgroups of smokers, since there is some evidence of efficacy and little evidence of harm...
  15. ncbi request reprint Nicotine and carcinogen exposure with smoking of progressively reduced nicotine content cigarette
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:2479-85. 2007
    ..This study examined whether gradual reduction in nicotine exposure increases exposure to tobacco smoke toxins...
  16. pmc Tobacco use among individuals with schizophrenia: what role has the tobacco industry played?
    Judith J Prochaska
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0984, USA
    Schizophr Bull 34:555-67. 2008
    ....
  17. pmc Treating tobacco dependence in clinically depressed smokers: effect of smoking cessation on mental health functioning
    Judith J Prochaska
    University of California San Francisco, 401 Parnassus Ave, Box TRC 0984, San Francisco, CA 94143 0984, USA
    Am J Public Health 98:446-8. 2008
    ..Individuals in treatment for clinical depression can be helped to stop smoking without adversely affecting their mental health functioning...
  18. ncbi request reprint Belief about drug assignment and abstinence in treatment of cigarette smoking using nortriptyline
    Sharon M Hall
    University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0984, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 9:467-71. 2007
    ....
  19. ncbi request reprint Addressing nicotine dependence in psychodynamic psychotherapy: perspectives from residency training
    Judith J Prochaska
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Acad Psychiatry 31:8-14. 2007
    ..The ease with which this occurs may vary by treatment model. This study examined perspectives in residency training to identify a framework for addressing nicotine dependence within psychodynamic psychotherapy...
  20. ncbi request reprint Training in tobacco treatments in psychiatry: a national survey of psychiatry residency training directors
    Judith J Prochaska
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Acad Psychiatry 30:372-8. 2006
    ..This study examines training in tobacco treatment in psychiatry residency programs across the United States...
  21. pmc Treatment for cigarette smoking among depressed mental health outpatients: a randomized clinical trial
    Sharon M Hall
    University of California, San Francisco, Treatment Research Center, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Am J Public Health 96:1808-14. 2006
    ..Using a brief contact control, we tested the efficacy of a staged care intervention to reduce cigarette smoking among psychiatric patients in outpatient treatment for depression...
  22. doi request reprint Cigarette smoking in opioid-using patients presenting for hospital-based medical services
    Amie L Haas
    San Francisco Treatment Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Am J Addict 17:65-9. 2008
    ..Caucasians tended to smoke more than other ethnicities and exhibited greater dependence. Out-of-treatment drug users continue to be at high risk for continued smoking...
  23. pmc Older versus younger treatment-seeking smokers: differences in smoking behavior, drug and alcohol use, and psychosocial and physical functioning
    Sharon M Hall
    University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0984, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 10:463-70. 2008
    ..Implications for the assessment and treatment of older adults are discussed...
  24. pmc Smokers' expectancies for abstinence: preliminary results from focus groups
    Peter S Hendricks
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Psychol Addict Behav 23:380-5. 2009
    ..This study provides a preliminary step in understanding smokers' expectancies for abstinence from cigarettes...
  25. pmc Mechanisms of change in extended cognitive behavioral treatment for tobacco dependence
    Peter S Hendricks
    University of California, San Francisco, 401 Parnassus Ave, TRC Box 0984, San Francisco, CA 94143, United States
    Drug Alcohol Depend 109:114-9. 2010
    ..To evaluate potential mediators of an extended cognitive behavioral smoking cessation intervention...
  26. pmc Characteristics of HIV-positive cigarette smokers: a sample of smokers facing multiple challenges
    Gary L Humfleet
    University of California, San Francisco, 1426 Fillmore St, Suite 216, San Francisco, CA 94115, USA
    AIDS Educ Prev 21:54-64. 2009
    ..Both licit and illicit drug use was common and there were significant rates of lifetime psychiatric diagnoses in this cohort of smokers. It is critical to evaluate interventions that consider the specific needs of this group...
  27. pmc Extended treatment of older cigarette smokers
    Sharon M Hall
    University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0984, USA
    Addiction 104:1043-52. 2009
    ..The aims of the present study were to determine the efficacy of extended cognitive behavioral and pharmacological interventions in smokers > or = 50 years of age, and to determine if gender differences in efficacy existed...
  28. pmc Treatment of smokers with co-occurring disorders: emphasis on integration in mental health and addiction treatment settings
    Sharon M Hall
    Psychiatry Department, University of California San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Annu Rev Clin Psychol 5:409-31. 2009
    ..The outcome research for adult and adolescent comorbid smokers is reviewed, and barriers to treatment are discussed. The review closes with a brief discussion of models of integration and thoughts about prevention...
  29. pmc Progressive commercial cigarette yield reduction: biochemical exposure and behavioral assessment
    Neal L Benowitz
    Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, and Department of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18:876-83. 2009
    ..We examined the effects of gradual reduction of nicotine yield in commercial cigarettes on smoking behavior, with an assessment of nicotine intake and exposure to tobacco smoke toxins...
  30. pmc Evaluation of an evidence-based tobacco treatment curriculum for psychiatry residency training programs
    Judith J Prochaska
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0984, USA
    Acad Psychiatry 32:484-92. 2008
    ..The current study evaluated the Rx for Change in Psychiatry curriculum, developed for psychiatry residency programs and focused on identifying and treating tobacco dependence among individuals with mental illness...
  31. pmc Physical activity as a strategy for maintaining tobacco abstinence: a randomized trial
    Judith J Prochaska
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, 401 Parnassus Avenue, Box TRC 0984, San Francisco, CA 94143 0984, USA
    Prev Med 47:215-20. 2008
    ....
  32. pmc Reaching young adult smokers through the internet: comparison of three recruitment mechanisms
    Danielle E Ramo
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, 401 Parnassus Avenue, Box CPT 0984, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 12:768-75. 2010
    ....
  33. pmc Evaluating the validities of different DSM-IV-based conceptual constructs of tobacco dependence
    Peter S Hendricks
    University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Addiction 103:1215-23. 2008
    ....
  34. pmc Investigation into the cause of death of a 56-year-old man with serious mental illness
    Judith J Prochaska
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0984, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 165:453-6. 2008
  35. ncbi request reprint Psychometric evaluation of the Quality of Life Interview, Brief Version, in injection drug users
    David A Wasserman
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94114, USA
    Psychol Addict Behav 20:316-21. 2006
    ..Unexpectedly, lower baseline QOLI-BV scores predicted opiate abstinence at follow-up. The QOLI-BV appears to be an acceptable quality-of-life measure for use in clinical trials of opioid dependence treatments...
  36. ncbi request reprint Cognitive interviews for measurement evaluation of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) in smokers with schizophrenia spectrum disorders
    Judith J Prochaska
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, 401 Parnassus Avenue TRC 0984, San Francisco, CA 94143 0984, USA
    Addict Behav 32:793-802. 2007
    ..Overall, the qualitative findings identified limitations in the FTND for both groups, with the limitations generally more pronounced among patients with schizophrenia...
  37. ncbi request reprint Depression and smoking: from the Transtheoretical Model of change perspective
    Janice Y Tsoh
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Francisco, 401 Parnassus Avenue 0984 TRC, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Addict Behav 29:801-5. 2004
    ..Current depressive symptoms, rather than depression history, was related to other TTM constructs: pros of smoking, temptation to smoke under habitual and negative affect situations, and the self-reevaluation process of change...
  38. ncbi request reprint Smoking and depression in Chinese Americans
    Janice Y Tsoh
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0984, USA
    Am J Med Sci 326:187-91. 2003
    ..A close link between smoking and depression has been documented by research primarily based on U.S. white populations. This study examined the association between depressive symptoms and smoking behaviors in Chinese American smokers...
  39. ncbi request reprint Cost and cost-effectiveness of standard methadone maintenance treatment compared to enriched 180-day methadone detoxification
    Carmen L Masson
    University of California, San Francisco, USA
    Addiction 99:718-26. 2004
    ..To compare the cost and cost-effectiveness of methadone maintenance treatment and 180-day methadone detoxification enriched with psychosocial services...
  40. ncbi request reprint Depressed smokers and stage of change: implications for treatment interventions
    Judith J Prochaska
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, 401 Parnassus Avenue, TRC 0984, San Francisco, CA 94143 0984, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 76:143-51. 2004
    ..The consistency in hypothesized patterns among theoretical constructs of the Stages of Change model supports the transfer of stage-tailored interventions to this clinical population...
  41. ncbi request reprint Treatment of tobacco use in an inpatient psychiatric setting
    Judith J Prochaska
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Francisco, 401 Parnassus Avenue, TRC 0984, San Francisco, CA 94143 0984, USA
    Psychiatr Serv 55:1265-70. 2004
    ..This study examined delivery of tobacco cessation services in a smoke-free inpatient psychiatric setting...
  42. ncbi request reprint A meta-analysis of smoking cessation interventions with individuals in substance abuse treatment or recovery
    Judith J Prochaska
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0984, USA
    J Consult Clin Psychol 72:1144-56. 2004
    ..Contrary to previous concerns, smoking cessation interventions during addictions treatment appeared to enhance rather than compromise long-term sobriety...
  43. ncbi request reprint Identification and treatment of substance misuse on an inpatient psychiatry unit
    Judith J Prochaska
    Department of Psyciatry, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0984, USA
    Psychiatr Serv 56:347-9. 2005
    ..Changes in assessment of and treatment planning for psychiatric inpatients may increase attention to substance misuse...
  44. ncbi request reprint Acceptance of nicotine dependence treatment among currently depressed smokers
    Nancy A Haug
    Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 7:217-24. 2005
    ..Findings have implications for the psychiatric assessment and treatment of smokers in clinical settings. Psychiatric medication may play a significant role in smoking cessation treatment acceptance by currently depressed smokers...
  45. ncbi request reprint Return to smoking following a smoke-free psychiatric hospitalization
    Judith J Prochaska
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0984, USA
    Am J Addict 15:15-22. 2006
    ..The inpatient setting provides a potential site for initiating tobacco dependence treatment; however to maintain abstinence following hospital discharge, greater support is needed...
  46. ncbi request reprint Comparing intervention outcomes in smokers treated for single versus multiple behavioral risks
    Judith J Prochaska
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0984, USA
    Health Psychol 25:380-8. 2006
    ..At 12 and 24 months follow-up, treatment of 1 or 2 coexisting risk factors did not decrease the effectiveness of smoking cessation treatment, and treatment for the coexisting factors was effective...
  47. ncbi request reprint Preliminary evidence of the association between the history of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and smoking treatment failure
    Gary L Humfleet
    University of California, San Francisco 94143 0939, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 7:453-60. 2005
    ..36, 95% CI=0.28-0.45). The current findings provide preliminary evidence for an association between childhood ADHD and smoking cessation treatment failure. Further investigation is warranted...
  48. ncbi request reprint How prepared are psychiatry residents for treating nicotine dependence?
    Judith J Prochaska
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA 94143 0984, USA
    Acad Psychiatry 29:256-61. 2005
    ..The authors examined the extent to which psychiatry residents are prepared to treat nicotine dependence in clinical practice...
  49. ncbi request reprint Predictors of health functioning in two high-risk groups of smokers
    Judith J Prochaska
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0984, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 78:169-75. 2005
    ..05). Severity of depressive symptoms, tobacco use, and opiate use contributed individually and collectively to lower health functioning. Blended treatments that target multiple risk factors are needed to improve health outcomes...
  50. ncbi request reprint Randomized trial of drug abuse treatment-linkage strategies
    James L Sorensen
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, 94110, USA
    J Consult Clin Psychol 73:1026-35. 2005
    ..Case management and vouchers can be valuable in health settings to link substance abusers with medical problems to drug abuse treatment...
  51. ncbi request reprint Violent traumatic events and drug abuse severity
    H W Clark
    Department of Psychiatry, Langley Porter Psychiatric Institute, University of California San Francisco, 401 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    J Subst Abuse Treat 20:121-7. 2001
    ....
  52. ncbi request reprint Influences of mood, depression history, and treatment modality on outcomes in smoking cessation
    Amie L Haas
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94304, USA
    J Consult Clin Psychol 72:563-70. 2004
    ..The study replicated results reported by R. A. Brown et al. (2001) and expanded upon them by evaluating the differential contribution of poor mood on cessation outcomes relative to MDD history...
  53. ncbi request reprint The construct of internalization: conceptualization, measurement, and prediction of smoking treatment outcome
    G Scott Acton
    Department of Psychology, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 5604, USA
    Psychol Med 35:395-408. 2005
    ..Depression symptoms and diagnoses are associated with failure to quit smoking in most studies, but not all...
  54. ncbi request reprint Detection of illicit opioid and cocaine use in methadone maintenance treatment
    D A Wasserman
    University of California, San Francisco, Mental Health Service, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 94121, USA
    Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 25:561-71. 1999
    ..More frequent testing, even for time-limited periods, should produce more accurate depictions of drug use prevalence and help indicate the direction of interventions...
  55. ncbi request reprint Depression and stages of change for smoking in psychiatric outpatients
    G S Acton
    Langley Porter Psychiatric Institute, University of California, San Francisco, 94143 0984, USA
    Addict Behav 26:621-31. 2001
    ....
  56. ncbi request reprint Alcohol use affects the outcome of treatment for cocaine abuse
    Matilda M Mengis
    University of California San Francisco and Department of Veterans Affaris Medical Center, San Francisco, Calif, USA
    Am J Addict 11:219-27. 2002
    ..Alcohol use at baseline did not predict worse treatment outcome for cocaine abstinence. However, alcohol use after four weeks of treatment did predict ability to achieve cocaine abstinence at assessment points during and after treatment...
  57. ncbi request reprint Hospital- versus community-based syringe exchange: a randomized controlled trial
    Carmen L Masson
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco at San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    AIDS Educ Prev 19:97-110. 2007
    ....
  58. ncbi request reprint Training psychiatry residents in evidence-based treatments for major depression
    Stuart J Eisendrath
    Psychother Psychosom 72:108-9; author reply 109. 2003
  59. ncbi request reprint The relationship between smoking history and current functioning in disabled community-living older adults
    Amie L Haas
    San Francisco Treatment Research Center and Department of Psychiatry, University of California at San Francisco, CA, USA
    Ann Behav Med 29:166-73. 2005
    ..This study was conducted to determine characteristics associated with continued cigarette use in frail older adults and to examine how smoking history relates to current psychiatric, cognitive, and occupational functioning...
  60. ncbi request reprint CPDD Policy statement. Standards for drug abuse treatment providers
    Maxine L Stizer
    Drug Alcohol Depend 71:213-5. 2003