Kun Liang Guan

Summary

Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Hippo pathway regulation of gastrointestinal tissues
    Fa Xing Yu
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 email
    Annu Rev Physiol 77:201-27. 2015
  2. pmc An emerging role for TOR signaling in mammalian tissue and stem cell physiology
    Ryan C Russell
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0815, USA
    Development 138:3343-56. 2011
  3. doi request reprint Amino acid signaling in TOR activation
    Joungmok Kim
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Annu Rev Biochem 80:1001-32. 2011
  4. doi request reprint Generation of acetyllysine antibodies and affinity enrichment of acetylated peptides
    Kun Liang Guan
    State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, School of Life Sciences and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan Unversity, Shanghai, China
    Nat Protoc 5:1583-95. 2010
  5. pmc Critical roles for the TSC-mTOR pathway in β-cell function
    Hiroyuki Mori
    Dept of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, Univ of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 081, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 297:E1013-22. 2009
  6. pmc Protein kinase A activates the Hippo pathway to modulate cell proliferation and differentiation
    Fa Xing Yu
    Department of Pharmacology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Genes Dev 27:1223-32. 2013
  7. pmc Regulation of the Hippo-YAP pathway by G-protein-coupled receptor signaling
    Fa Xing Yu
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Cell 150:780-91. 2012
  8. pmc ULK1 induces autophagy by phosphorylating Beclin-1 and activating VPS34 lipid kinase
    Ryan C Russell
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 15:741-50. 2013
  9. pmc Microtubule-associated protein/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 4 (MARK4) is a negative regulator of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)
    Li Li
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    J Biol Chem 288:703-8. 2013
  10. pmc TEAD mediates YAP-dependent gene induction and growth control
    Bin Zhao
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Genes Dev 22:1962-71. 2008

Research Grants

  1. S6K and mTOR as targets for tuberous sclerosis
    Kun Liang Guan; Fiscal Year: 2003

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications52

  1. doi request reprint Hippo pathway regulation of gastrointestinal tissues
    Fa Xing Yu
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 email
    Annu Rev Physiol 77:201-27. 2015
    ..Here we provide a brief overview of the Hippo pathway and discuss the physiological and pathological functions of this tumor suppressor pathway in gastrointestinal tissues. ..
  2. pmc An emerging role for TOR signaling in mammalian tissue and stem cell physiology
    Ryan C Russell
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0815, USA
    Development 138:3343-56. 2011
    ..Here, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of TOR signaling and review recent in vitro and in vivo studies of mTOR tissue-specific activities in mammals...
  3. doi request reprint Amino acid signaling in TOR activation
    Joungmok Kim
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Annu Rev Biochem 80:1001-32. 2011
    ....
  4. doi request reprint Generation of acetyllysine antibodies and affinity enrichment of acetylated peptides
    Kun Liang Guan
    State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, School of Life Sciences and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan Unversity, Shanghai, China
    Nat Protoc 5:1583-95. 2010
    ..The entire characterization procedure takes ∼2-3 d to complete...
  5. pmc Critical roles for the TSC-mTOR pathway in β-cell function
    Hiroyuki Mori
    Dept of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, Univ of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 081, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 297:E1013-22. 2009
    ..Thus, mTOR promulgates a dominant signal to promote β-cell/islet size and insulin production, and this pathway is crucial for β-cell function and glycemic control...
  6. pmc Protein kinase A activates the Hippo pathway to modulate cell proliferation and differentiation
    Fa Xing Yu
    Department of Pharmacology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Genes Dev 27:1223-32. 2013
    ..Taken together, our study demonstrates that Hippo-YAP is a key signaling branch of cAMP and PKA and reveals new insight into mechanisms of PKA in regulating a broad range of cellular functions...
  7. pmc Regulation of the Hippo-YAP pathway by G-protein-coupled receptor signaling
    Fa Xing Yu
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Cell 150:780-91. 2012
    ..Our study identifies extracellular diffusible signals that modulate the Hippo pathway and also establishes the Hippo-YAP pathway as a critical signaling branch downstream of GPCR...
  8. pmc ULK1 induces autophagy by phosphorylating Beclin-1 and activating VPS34 lipid kinase
    Ryan C Russell
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 15:741-50. 2013
    ..Our study reveals a molecular link from ULK1 to activation of the autophagy-specific VPS34 complex and autophagy induction...
  9. pmc Microtubule-associated protein/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 4 (MARK4) is a negative regulator of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)
    Li Li
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    J Biol Chem 288:703-8. 2013
    ..In addition, we found that MARK4 phosphorylates Raptor, a key component of mTORC1, and this phosphorylation may interfere with Raptor-Rag interaction. Our data demonstrate MARK4 as a new negative regulator of mTORC1...
  10. pmc TEAD mediates YAP-dependent gene induction and growth control
    Bin Zhao
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Genes Dev 22:1962-71. 2008
    ..Our study reveals TEAD as a new component in the Hippo pathway playing essential roles in mediating biological functions of YAP...
  11. pmc Regulation of mTORC1 by the Rab and Arf GTPases
    Li Li
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:19705-9. 2010
    ..Our data demonstrate a key role of Rab and Arf family small GTPases and intracellular trafficking in mTORC1 activation, particularly in response to amino acids...
  12. pmc IkappaB kinase epsilon and TANK-binding kinase 1 activate AKT by direct phosphorylation
    Xiaoduo Xie
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:6474-9. 2011
    ..Our observations suggest a physiological function of IKKε/TBK1 in AKT regulation and a possible mechanism of IKKε/TBK1 in oncogenesis by activating AKT...
  13. pmc A coordinated phosphorylation by Lats and CK1 regulates YAP stability through SCF(beta-TRCP)
    Bin Zhao
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0815, USA
    Genes Dev 24:72-85. 2010
    ....
  14. pmc The Hippo-YAP pathway in organ size control and tumorigenesis: an updated version
    Bin Zhao
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Genes Dev 24:862-74. 2010
    ....
  15. pmc Angiomotin is a novel Hippo pathway component that inhibits YAP oncoprotein
    Bin Zhao
    Department of Pharmacology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Genes Dev 25:51-63. 2011
    ..These observations provide a potential link between the Hippo pathway and cell contact inhibition...
  16. pmc Regulation of the Hippo-YAP pathway by protease-activated receptors (PARs)
    Jung Soon Mo
    Department of Pharmacology, Moores Cancer Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Genes Dev 26:2138-43. 2012
    ..PAR1 acts through G(12/13) and Rho GTPase to inhibit the Lats1/2 kinase. Our observations establish thrombin as a physiological signal for the Hippo pathway and implicate Hippo-YAP as a key downstream signaling branch of PAR activation...
  17. pmc The Hippo-YAP pathway: new connections between regulation of organ size and cancer
    Bin Zhao
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0815, USA
    Curr Opin Cell Biol 20:638-46. 2008
    ..Dysregulation of the Hippo pathway contributes to the loss of contact inhibition observed in cancer cells. Therefore, the Hippo-YAP pathway connects the regulation of organ size and tumorigenesis...
  18. pmc Acetylation regulates gluconeogenesis by promoting PEPCK1 degradation via recruiting the UBR5 ubiquitin ligase
    Wenqing Jiang
    State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 20032, China
    Mol Cell 43:33-44. 2011
    ..Given that increased levels of PEPCK are linked with type II diabetes, this study also identifies potential therapeutic targets for diabetes...
  19. pmc Tumour suppressor SIRT3 deacetylates and activates manganese superoxide dismutase to scavenge ROS
    Yaohui Chen
    State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, School of Life Science, Novartis Fudan Joint Research Laboratory, Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
    EMBO Rep 12:534-41. 2011
    ..These results reveal a new post-translational regulation of SOD2 by means of acetylation and SIRT3-dependent deacetylation in response to oxidative stress...
  20. pmc LATS2 suppresses oncogenic Wnt signaling by disrupting β-catenin/BCL9 interaction
    Jiong Li
    Laboratory of Molecular Signaling, Division of Oral Biology and Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Cell Rep 5:1650-63. 2013
    ..Our results suggest that LATS2 is not only a key tumor suppressor in human cancer but may also be an important target for anticancer therapy...
  21. doi request reprint Metabolism. Differential regulation of mTORC1 by leucine and glutamine
    Jenna L Jewell
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Science 347:194-8. 2015
    ..Our results uncover a signaling cascade to mTORC1 activation independent of the Rag GTPases and suggest that mTORC1 is differentially regulated by specific amino acids. ..
  22. pmc Regulation of TORC1 by Rag GTPases in nutrient response
    Eunjung Kim
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 081, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 10:935-45. 2008
    ..Genetic studies in Drosophila also show that Rag GTPases regulate cell growth, autophagy and animal viability during starvation. Our studies establish a function of Rag GTPases in TORC1 activation in response to amino acid signals...
  23. pmc AMPK and mTOR regulate autophagy through direct phosphorylation of Ulk1
    Joungmok Kim
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92130, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 13:132-41. 2011
    ..This coordinated phosphorylation is important for Ulk1 in autophagy induction. Our study has revealed a signalling mechanism for Ulk1 regulation and autophagy induction in response to nutrient signalling...
  24. doi request reprint Both TEAD-binding and WW domains are required for the growth stimulation and oncogenic transformation activity of yes-associated protein
    Bin Zhao
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0815, USA
    Cancer Res 69:1089-98. 2009
    ..Our data suggest a model in which YAP induces gene expression and exerts its biological functions by interacting with transcription factors through both the TEAD-binding and WW domains...
  25. pmc The autophagy initiating kinase ULK1 is regulated via opposing phosphorylation by AMPK and mTOR
    Dan Egan
    Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory, Dulbecco Center for Cancer Research, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, USA
    Autophagy 7:643-4. 2011
    ..These studies have revealed a molecular mechanism of ULK1 regulation by nutrient signals via the actions of AMPK and mTORC1...
  26. pmc Nutrient signaling to mTOR and cell growth
    Jenna L Jewell
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Trends Biochem Sci 38:233-42. 2013
    ..Here we review the current knowledge of nutrient-dependent regulation of mTORC1...
  27. pmc Amino acid signalling upstream of mTOR
    Jenna L Jewell
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 14:133-9. 2013
    ..Recently, a model has emerged whereby mTORC1 activation occurs at the lysosome and is mediated through an amino acid sensing cascade involving RAG GTPases, Ragulator and vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (v-ATPase)...
  28. pmc The role of YAP transcription coactivator in regulating stem cell self-renewal and differentiation
    Ian Lian
    Moores Cancer Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Genes Dev 24:1106-18. 2010
    ..Moreover, YAP binds directly to promoters of a large number of genes known to be important for stem cells and stimulates their expression. Our observations establish a critical role of YAP in maintaining stem cell pluripotency...
  29. pmc Transcription and processing: multilayer controls of RNA biogenesis by the Hippo pathway
    Fa Xing Yu
    Department of Pharmacology, Moores Cancer Center University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
    EMBO J 33:942-4. 2014
    ..The results also suggest that this novel YAP function may contribute to cell growth control and tumorigenesis. ..
  30. pmc Rag GTPases are cardioprotective by regulating lysosomal function
    Young Chul Kim
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nat Commun 5:4241. 2014
    ..Our study uncovers RagA/B GTPases as key regulators of lysosomal function and cardiac protection. ..
  31. pmc MTORC1 regulates cardiac function and myocyte survival through 4E-BP1 inhibition in mice
    Denghong Zhang
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0613, USA
    J Clin Invest 120:2805-16. 2010
    ..Because the effects of reduced MTOR activity were mediated through increased 4E-BP1 inhibitory activity, blunting this mechanism may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for improving cardiac function in clinical HF...
  32. pmc YAP mediates crosstalk between the Hippo and PI(3)K–TOR pathways by suppressing PTEN via miR-29
    Karen Tumaneng
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, School of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 14:1322-9. 2012
    ..Our studies reveal a functional link between Hippo and PI(3)K–mTOR, providing a molecular basis for the coordination of these two pathways in organ size regulation...
  33. pmc Mutant Gq/11 promote uveal melanoma tumorigenesis by activating YAP
    Fa Xing Yu
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Cancer Cell 25:822-30. 2014
    ..This study reveals an essential role of the Hippo-YAP pathway in Gq/11-induced tumorigenesis and suggests YAP as a potential drug target for UM patients carrying mutations in GNAQ or GNA11. ..
  34. doi request reprint Cellular energy stress induces AMPK-mediated regulation of YAP and the Hippo pathway
    Jung Soon Mo
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 17:500-10. 2015
    ..Our study establishes a molecular mechanism and functional significance of AMPK in linking cellular energy status to the Hippo-YAP pathway. ..
  35. doi request reprint Mst out and HCC in
    Bin Zhao
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0815, USA
    Cancer Cell 16:363-4. 2009
    ..2009) reported that Mst1/2 ablation leads to hepatocellular carcinomas. Unexpectedly, Mst1/2 may activate another kinase besides Lats1 and Lats2 to phosphorylate YAP, and the role of Mst1/2 in YAP regulation is cell type dependent...
  36. pmc The Hippo pathway: regulators and regulations
    Fa Xing Yu
    Department of Pharmacology, Moores Cancer Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Genes Dev 27:355-71. 2013
    ..Here, we review regulatory mechanisms of the Hippo pathway and discuss potential implications involved in different physiological and pathological conditions...
  37. pmc Differential regulation of distinct Vps34 complexes by AMPK in nutrient stress and autophagy
    Joungmok Kim
    Department of Oral Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Research Center for Tooth and Periodontal Tissue Regeneration, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130 701, Korea
    Cell 152:290-303. 2013
    ..Our study reveals an intricate molecular regulation of Vps34 complexes by AMPK in nutrient stress response and autophagy...
  38. pmc Organ size control by Hippo and TOR pathways
    Karen Tumaneng
    Department of Pharmacology and Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Curr Biol 22:R368-79. 2012
    ....
  39. pmc Acetylation of metabolic enzymes coordinates carbon source utilization and metabolic flux
    Qijun Wang
    State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences and Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China
    Science 327:1004-7. 2010
    ..It represents a metabolic regulatory mechanism conserved from bacteria to mammals...
  40. pmc Regulation of G6PD acetylation by SIRT2 and KAT9 modulates NADPH homeostasis and cell survival during oxidative stress
    Yi Ping Wang
    Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine of Ministry of Education and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Shanghai Medical College College of Life Science Fudan University, Shanghai, China
    EMBO J 33:1304-20. 2014
    ..Our study uncovers a previously unknown mechanism by which acetylation negatively regulates G6PD activity to maintain cellular NADPH homeostasis during oxidative stress...
  41. doi request reprint Harness the power: new insights into the inhibition of YAP/Yorkie
    Bin Zhao
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0815, USA
    Dev Cell 16:321-2. 2009
    ..Two papers in this issue on Developmental Cell, by Badouel et al. and Nishioka et al., address this question...
  42. pmc Both decreased and increased SRPK1 levels promote cancer by interfering with PHLPP-mediated dephosphorylation of Akt
    Pingping Wang
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0651, USA
    Mol Cell 54:378-91. 2014
    ..Thus, aberrant SRPK1 expression in either direction induces constitutive Akt activation, providing a mechanistic basis for previous observations that SRPK1 is downregulated in some cancer contexts and upregulated in others. ..
  43. doi request reprint Amino acid signaling to TOR activation: Vam6 functioning as a Gtr1 GEF
    Li Li
    Department of Pharmacology, Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, 92093, USA
    Mol Cell 35:543-5. 2009
    ..In this issue of Molecular Cell, Binda et al. identify Vam6/Vps39 as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Gtr1, a Rag family GTPase, to promote TORC1 activation in response to amino acids...
  44. pmc Regulation of the Hippo pathway and implications for anticancer drug development
    Hyun Woo Park
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 34:581-9. 2013
    ..Consideration of pharmacological intervention of the Hippo pathway may provide novel avenues for future therapeutic treatment of human diseases, particularly in cancer. ..
  45. pmc The Hippo signaling pathway in stem cell biology and cancer
    Jung Soon Mo
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego La Jolla, CA, USA
    EMBO Rep 15:642-56. 2014
    ..This review focuses on the role of the Hippo pathway in stem cell biology and its potential implications in tissue homeostasis and cancer. ..
  46. pmc Autophagy regulation by nutrient signaling
    Ryan C Russell
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0815, USA
    Cell Res 24:42-57. 2014
    ..Identification of extensive crosstalk and feedback loops converging on the regulation of ULK and VPS34 can be attributed to the importance of these kinases in autophagy induction and maintaining cellular homeostasis. ..
  47. pmc Nutrient sensing, metabolism, and cell growth control
    Hai Xin Yuan
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Mol Cell 49:379-87. 2013
    ..The interplay among nutrients, metabolites, gene expression, and protein modification are involved in the coordination of cell growth with extracellular and intracellular conditions...
  48. doi request reprint Micro(RNA) Managing by mTORC1
    Jenna L Jewell
    Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla CA 92093, USA
    Mol Cell 57:575-6. 2015
    ..In this issue of Molecular Cell, Ye et al. (2015) demonstrate that mTORC1 globally regulates miRNA biogenesis under nutrient-rich conditions via the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mdm2, which promotes Drosha degradation. ..
  49. doi request reprint A gp130-Src-YAP module links inflammation to epithelial regeneration
    Koji Taniguchi
    1 Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA 2 Departments of Pharmacology and Pathology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA 3 Department of Surgery and Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812 8582, Japan 4 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
    Nature 519:57-62. 2015
    ..This signalling module is strongly activated upon mucosal injury to promote healing and maintain barrier function. ..
  50. pmc Oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate is a competitive inhibitor of α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases
    Wei Xu
    State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai 20032, China
    Cancer Cell 19:17-30. 2011
    ..Hence, tumor-derived IDH1 and IDH2 mutations reduce α-KG and accumulate an α-KG antagonist, 2-HG, leading to genome-wide histone and DNA methylation alterations...
  51. pmc IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in tumorigenesis: mechanistic insights and clinical perspectives
    Hui Yang
    Molecular and Cell Biology Lab, Institutes of Biomedical Sciences and School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, P R China
    Clin Cancer Res 18:5562-71. 2012
    ..Therapeutically, unique features of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations make them good biomarkers and potential drug targets...

Research Grants1

  1. S6K and mTOR as targets for tuberous sclerosis
    Kun Liang Guan; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..To validate S6K as a key downstream effector of TSC1/ TSC2. Biochemical, molecular and cell biological approaches will be used to accomplish these specific aims. ..