Carl Grunfeld

Summary

Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Association of increased upper trunk and decreased leg fat with 2-h glucose in control and HIV-infected persons
    Lisa A Kosmiski
    University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado, USA
    Diabetes Care 34:2448-53. 2011
  2. pmc Preclinical atherosclerosis due to HIV infection: carotid intima-medial thickness measurements from the FRAM study
    Carl Grunfeld
    Medical Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    AIDS 23:1841-9. 2009
  3. doi request reprint Relation of coronary artery plaque location to extent of coronary artery disease studied by computed tomographic angiography
    Carl Grunfeld
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr 4:19-26. 2010
  4. pmc Regional adipose tissue measured by MRI over 5 years in HIV-infected and control participants indicates persistence of HIV-associated lipoatrophy
    Carl Grunfeld
    Office of the Principal Investigator, The FRAM Study, University of California, San Francisco and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    AIDS 24:1717-26. 2010
  5. doi request reprint HDL and innate immunity: a tale of two apolipoproteins
    Carl Grunfeld
    Metabolism Section, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Lipid Res 49:1605-6. 2008
  6. pmc Association of upper trunk and visceral adipose tissue volume with insulin resistance in control and HIV-infected subjects in the FRAM study
    Carl Grunfeld
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 46:283-90. 2007
  7. ncbi request reprint Downregulation of liver X receptor-alpha in mouse kidney and HK-2 proximal tubular cells by LPS and cytokines
    Yuwei Wang
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    J Lipid Res 46:2377-87. 2005
  8. pmc Effects of ritonavir and amprenavir on insulin sensitivity in healthy volunteers
    Grace A Lee
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    AIDS 21:2183-90. 2007
  9. pmc Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1 decrease RXRalpha, PPARalpha, PPARgamma, LXRalpha, and the coactivators SRC-1, PGC-1alpha, and PGC-1beta in liver cells
    Min Sun Kim
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Metabolism 56:267-79. 2007
  10. pmc LPS and proinflammatory cytokines decrease lipin-1 in mouse adipose tissue and 3T3-L1 adipocytes
    Biao Lu
    Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 295:E1502-9. 2008

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications103 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Association of increased upper trunk and decreased leg fat with 2-h glucose in control and HIV-infected persons
    Lisa A Kosmiski
    University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado, USA
    Diabetes Care 34:2448-53. 2011
    ..We hypothesized that HIV-infected participants would have a higher prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) compared with control subjects...
  2. pmc Preclinical atherosclerosis due to HIV infection: carotid intima-medial thickness measurements from the FRAM study
    Carl Grunfeld
    Medical Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    AIDS 23:1841-9. 2009
    ..However, it is controversial whether HIV infection contributes to accelerated atherosclerosis independent of traditional CVD risk factors...
  3. doi request reprint Relation of coronary artery plaque location to extent of coronary artery disease studied by computed tomographic angiography
    Carl Grunfeld
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr 4:19-26. 2010
    ..Distal coronary artery disease (CAD) is less amenable to surgery or stenting compared with proximal disease. However, little is known about the epidemiology of distal versus proximal CAD...
  4. pmc Regional adipose tissue measured by MRI over 5 years in HIV-infected and control participants indicates persistence of HIV-associated lipoatrophy
    Carl Grunfeld
    Office of the Principal Investigator, The FRAM Study, University of California, San Francisco and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    AIDS 24:1717-26. 2010
    ..controls. Therefore, we determined change in regional adipose tissue from baseline examination to 5 years later among participants in the study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection...
  5. doi request reprint HDL and innate immunity: a tale of two apolipoproteins
    Carl Grunfeld
    Metabolism Section, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Lipid Res 49:1605-6. 2008
  6. pmc Association of upper trunk and visceral adipose tissue volume with insulin resistance in control and HIV-infected subjects in the FRAM study
    Carl Grunfeld
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 46:283-90. 2007
    ..Thus, VAT and upper trunk SAT are independently associated with insulin resistance in controls and in HIV-infected persons...
  7. ncbi request reprint Downregulation of liver X receptor-alpha in mouse kidney and HK-2 proximal tubular cells by LPS and cytokines
    Yuwei Wang
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    J Lipid Res 46:2377-87. 2005
    ....
  8. pmc Effects of ritonavir and amprenavir on insulin sensitivity in healthy volunteers
    Grace A Lee
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    AIDS 21:2183-90. 2007
    ..Some HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) have been shown to induce insulin resistance in vitro but the degree to which specific PIs affect insulin sensitivity in humans is less well understood...
  9. pmc Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1 decrease RXRalpha, PPARalpha, PPARgamma, LXRalpha, and the coactivators SRC-1, PGC-1alpha, and PGC-1beta in liver cells
    Min Sun Kim
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Metabolism 56:267-79. 2007
    ....
  10. pmc LPS and proinflammatory cytokines decrease lipin-1 in mouse adipose tissue and 3T3-L1 adipocytes
    Biao Lu
    Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 295:E1502-9. 2008
    ....
  11. doi request reprint The protease inhibitor combination lopinavir/ritonavir does not decrease insulin secretion in healthy, HIV-seronegative volunteers
    Vivian Y Pao
    Department of Medicine, University of California, CA, USA
    AIDS 24:265-70. 2010
    ..We studied the effects of the protease inhibitor combination lopinavir and ritonavir on insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and lipid metabolism in HIV-negative persons...
  12. ncbi request reprint Atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons: incidence, risk factors, and association with markers of HIV disease severity
    Jonathan C Hsu
    Section of Cardiac Electrophysiology, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    J Am Coll Cardiol 61:2288-95. 2013
    ....
  13. pmc Mechanisms of triglyceride accumulation in activated macrophages
    Kenneth R Feingold
    Metabolism Section, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 92:829-39. 2012
    ....
  14. pmc Comparison of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging-measured adipose tissue depots in HIV-infected and control subjects
    Rebecca Scherzer
    University of California, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 88:1088-96. 2008
    ....
  15. pmc The effects of recombinant human leptin on visceral fat, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipoatrophy and hypoleptinemia
    Kathleen Mulligan
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:1137-44. 2009
    ..Leptin deficiency is associated with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in animals and humans with lipoatrophy; leptin replacement ameliorates these abnormalities...
  16. pmc Simple anthropometric measures correlate with metabolic risk indicators as strongly as magnetic resonance imaging-measured adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects
    Rebecca Scherzer
    Northern California Institute for Research and Education, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 87:1809-17. 2008
    ..Studies in persons without HIV infection have compared percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference as markers of risk for the complications of excess adiposity, but only limited study has been conducted in HIV-infected subjects...
  17. doi request reprint Inflammation inhibits the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in liver and adipose tissue
    Kenneth R Feingold
    Metabolism Section, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Innate Immun 18:231-40. 2012
    ..Thus, there are multiple cytokine pathways by which inflammation inhibits PEPCK expression in adipose tissue which could contribute to the increased mobilization of fatty acids during inflammation...
  18. ncbi request reprint Type II nuclear hormone receptors, coactivator, and target gene repression in adipose tissue in the acute-phase response
    Biao Lu
    Metabolism Section, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    J Lipid Res 47:2179-90. 2006
    ....
  19. pmc Effects of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I/IGF-binding protein-3 treatment on glucose metabolism and fat distribution in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance
    Madhu N Rao
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:4361-6. 2010
    ..Treatment with GH decreases visceral adiposity but worsens glucose metabolism. IGF-I, which mediates many of the effects of GH, improves insulin sensitivity in HIV-negative individuals...
  20. ncbi request reprint Suppression of DHEA sulfotransferase (Sult2A1) during the acute-phase response
    Min Sun Kim
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, 94121, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 287:E731-8. 2004
    ..Our study provides a possible mechanism by which infection and inflammation are associated with altered steroid metabolism and cholestasis...
  21. pmc Boosting dose ritonavir does not alter peripheral insulin sensitivity in healthy HIV-seronegative volunteers
    Steven A Taylor
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 55:361-4. 2010
    ..Boosting dose ritonavir (100-200 mg) is the most commonly prescribed PI, yet its effects on glucose metabolism have not been described in the absence of another PI...
  22. pmc Decreased limb muscle and increased central adiposity are associated with 5-year all-cause mortality in HIV infection
    Rebecca Scherzer
    University of California, San Francisco, USA
    AIDS 25:1405-14. 2011
    ..Unintentional loss of weight and muscle due to aging and disease has been associated with increased mortality. Wasting and weight loss occur in HIV infection even in the modern era of effective antiretroviral therapy...
  23. pmc Association of HIV infection, demographic and cardiovascular risk factors with all-cause mortality in the recent HAART era
    Leslie Cockerham
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 53:102-6. 2010
    ..To determine the relationship of HIV infection, demographic, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors with mortality in the recent highly active antiretroviral therapy era...
  24. pmc Illicit drug use and HIV treatment outcomes in a US cohort
    Joseph Cofrancesco
    Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    AIDS 22:357-65. 2008
    ..To determine the prevalence of illicit drug use and the impact on HIV treatment...
  25. pmc Association of antiretroviral therapy with fibrinogen levels in HIV-infection
    Erin Madden
    Northern California Institute for Research and Education, San Francisco, USA
    AIDS 22:707-15. 2008
    ..HIV infection is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease, but the contribution of inflammation versus antiretroviral drugs is not well understood. Fibrinogen is an inflammatory factor associated with atherosclerosis...
  26. ncbi request reprint Long-term body composition and metabolic changes in antiretroviral naive persons randomized to protease inhibitor-, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-, or protease inhibitor plus nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based strategy
    Judith C Shlay
    Denver Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS, Department of Family Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, and Denver Public Health, 605 Bannock Street, Denver, CO 80204, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 44:506-17. 2007
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint Suppression of estrogen-related receptor alpha and medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase in the acute-phase response
    Min Sun Kim
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, and Metabolism Section, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    J Lipid Res 46:2282-8. 2005
    ..Our study provides a potential mechanism by which the APR decreases fatty acid oxidation...
  28. pmc Inflammation and mortality in HIV-infected adults: analysis of the FRAM study cohort
    Phyllis C Tien
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 55:316-22. 2010
    ..To determine the association of inflammatory markers, fibrinogen, and C-reactive protein (CRP), with 5-year mortality risk...
  29. doi request reprint The acute phase response stimulates the expression of angiopoietin like protein 4
    Biao Lu
    Metabolism Section, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 391:1737-41. 2010
    ..These studies demonstrate that ANGPTL4 is a positive acute phase protein and the increase in ANGPTL4 could contribute to the hypertriglyceridemia that characteristically occurs during the acute phase response by inhibiting LPL activity...
  30. ncbi request reprint Endotoxin down-regulates ABCG5 and ABCG8 in mouse liver and ABCA1 and ABCG1 in J774 murine macrophages: differential role of LXR
    Weerapan Khovidhunkit
    Metabolism Section, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    J Lipid Res 44:1728-36. 2003
    ....
  31. ncbi request reprint Expression of the phospholipid scramblase (PLSCR) gene family during the acute phase response
    Biao Lu
    Metabolism Section, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California San Francisco, 4150 Clement Street, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1771:1177-85. 2007
    ..These data provide evidence that PLSCR1 is a positive intracellular acute phase protein with a tissue-specific mechanism for up-regulation...
  32. doi request reprint Endotoxin, zymosan, and cytokines decrease the expression of the transcription factor, carbohydrate response element binding protein, and its target genes
    Kenneth R Feingold
    Metabolism Section, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California San Francisco, 4150 Clement Street, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Innate Immun 17:174-82. 2011
    ..Thus, ChREBP joins a growing list of transcription factors that are regulated during the acute phase response...
  33. ncbi request reprint Altered expression of nuclear hormone receptors and coactivators in mouse heart during the acute-phase response
    Kenneth Feingold
    Metabolism Section, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, Medical Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 286:E201-7. 2004
    ..These alterations could contribute to the myocardial dysfunction that occurs during sepsis...
  34. pmc LPS decreases fatty acid oxidation and nuclear hormone receptors in the kidney
    Kenneth R Feingold
    Metabolism Section, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Lipid Res 49:2179-87. 2008
    ..However, the kidney requires energy to support its transport functions, and the inability to generate energy via FA oxidation might contribute to the renal failure seen in severe sepsis...
  35. pmc The acute effects of HIV protease inhibitors on insulin suppression of glucose production in healthy HIV-negative men
    Grace A Lee
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 52:246-8. 2009
    ..The effects of different HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) on peripheral insulin resistance have been described, but less is known about their effects on insulin suppression of endogenous glucose production (EGP)...
  36. pmc The effects of low-dose growth hormone in HIV-infected men with fat accumulation: a pilot study
    Joan C Lo
    Div of Endocrinology, General Clinical Research Center at San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, California 94110, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 39:732-5. 2004
    ..Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) levels did not change significantly for the group as a whole, although a reduction in the VAT level was seen in patients with a greater VAT level at baseline...
  37. pmc Regional adipose tissue and lipid and lipoprotein levels in HIV-infected women
    Judith Currier
    Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 48:35-43. 2008
    ..HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy are associated with dyslipidemia, but the association between regional body fat and lipid levels is not well described...
  38. pmc Single-dose lopinavir-ritonavir acutely inhibits insulin-mediated glucose disposal in healthy volunteers
    Grace A Lee
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 43:658-60. 2006
    ..Insulin resistance from protease inhibitors may decrease with prolonged use; an increase in adiponectin levels may mediate this effect...
  39. pmc FGF21 is increased by inflammatory stimuli and protects leptin-deficient ob/ob mice from the toxicity of sepsis
    Kenneth R Feingold
    Metabolism Section, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    Endocrinology 153:2689-700. 2012
    ..FGF21 also protected from the toxic effects of cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis. Thus, FGF21 is a positive APR protein that protects animals from the toxic effects of LPS and sepsis...
  40. pmc Infection decreases fatty acid oxidation and nuclear hormone receptors in the diaphragm
    Kenneth R Feingold
    Metabolism Section, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    J Lipid Res 50:2055-63. 2009
    ..The decrease in FA oxidation in the diaphragm may be detrimental, leading to decreased diaphragm contraction and an increased risk of respiratory failure during sepsis...
  41. pmc Incidence and risk factors for acute kidney injury in HIV Infection
    Yongmei Li
    Department of Medicine, San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, Calif 94121, USA
    Am J Nephrol 35:327-34. 2012
    ..We aimed to describe the evolving incidence of AKI among HIV-infected individuals and to identify important AKI risk factors...
  42. pmc Cystatin C, albuminuria, and 5-year all-cause mortality in HIV-infected persons
    ANDY CHOI
    University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Am J Kidney Dis 56:872-82. 2010
    ..However, the clinical importance of increased cystatin C level and albuminuria in the HIV-infected population has not been studied...
  43. doi request reprint ADRP/ADFP and Mal1 expression are increased in macrophages treated with TLR agonists
    Kenneth R Feingold
    Metabolism Section, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Atherosclerosis 209:81-8. 2010
    ..Thus TLR agonists induce ADRP/ADFP and Mal1, which likely contributes to macrophage triglyceride and cholesterol ester storage leading to foam cell formation...
  44. ncbi request reprint Infection and inflammation decrease apolipoprotein M expression
    Kenneth R Feingold
    Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Metabolism Section, SFVAMC, San Francisco, CA 94121, United States
    Atherosclerosis 199:19-26. 2008
    ..These results are consistent with the finding that infections and inflammatory disorders accompanied by systemic inflammation are associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis...
  45. pmc Reduced kidney function and preclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected individuals: the study of fat redistribution and metabolic change in HIV infection (FRAM)
    Vasantha Jotwani
    University of California, San Francisco, Calif, USA
    Am J Nephrol 33:453-60. 2011
    ..We investigated whether reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria are associated with subclinical vascular disease, as assessed by carotid intima-medial thickness (cIMT)...
  46. pmc The effect of individual antiretroviral drugs on body composition in HIV-infected persons initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Judith C Shlay
    Denver Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 51:298-304. 2009
    ..To examine the long-term effects of individual antiretroviral drugs on body composition among 416 persons initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
  47. pmc Risk factors for ESRD in HIV-infected individuals: traditional and HIV-related factors
    Vasantha Jotwani
    Division of General Internal Medicine, San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Am J Kidney Dis 59:628-35. 2012
    ..We sought to identify traditional and HIV-related risk factors for ESRD in HIV-infected individuals and compare ESRD risk by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and proteinuria levels...
  48. pmc HIV therapy, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular risk
    Vivian Pao
    Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Metabolism Section Box 111F, 4150 Clement Street, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Curr Atheroscler Rep 10:61-70. 2008
    ..It remains to be determined whether CVD rates in HIV infection are higher than might be predicted from traditional risk factors, including smoking...
  49. pmc Intermuscular adipose tissue and metabolic associations in HIV infection
    Rebecca Scherzer
    University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 19:283-91. 2011
    ..Stavudine exposure is associated with both decreased IMAT and SAT, suggesting that IMAT shares cellular origins with SAT...
  50. pmc Inflammation stimulates the expression of PCSK9
    Kenneth R Feingold
    Metabolism Section 111F, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 4150 Clement Street, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 374:341-4. 2008
    ..Thus, inflammation stimulates PCSK9 expression leading to increased LDL receptor degradation and decreasing LDL receptors thereby increasing serum LDL, which could have beneficial effects on host defense...
  51. pmc Relationship of fat distribution with adipokines in human immunodeficiency virus infection
    Lisa A Kosmiski
    University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado 80217, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:216-24. 2008
    ....
  52. pmc Elevated levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine are associated with lower CD4+ count and higher viral load in HIV-infected individuals
    Rushi V Parikh
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    Atherosclerosis 229:246-52. 2013
    ..To compare asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) among HIV-infected and uninfected individuals and to evaluate predictors of ADMA in HIV infection...
  53. pmc Urinary markers of kidney injury and kidney function decline in HIV-infected women
    Michael G Shlipak
    Department of Medicine, San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 61:565-73. 2012
    ..We hypothesized that urine markers of kidney injury would be associated with declining kidney function among HIV-infected women...
  54. pmc Fat distribution in men with HIV infection
    Peter Bacchetti
    University of California, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Metabolism Section, 94121, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 40:121-31. 2005
    ..Which changes are specific to HIV were determined by comparison with control subjects and the associations among different adipose tissue depots were determined...
  55. pmc Prevalence and factors associated with dry skin in HIV infection: the FRAM study
    Daniel Lee
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, CA, USA
    AIDS 21:2051-7. 2007
    ..Complaints of dry skin in HIV-infected individuals were reported after the advent of HAART. The objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of dry skin and associated factors in HIV-infected and control subjects...
  56. ncbi request reprint Indinavir increases glucose production in healthy HIV-negative men
    Jean Marc Schwarz
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    AIDS 18:1852-4. 2004
    ..During the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, indinavir blunted the ability of insulin to suppress glucose production. Therefore, indinavir worsens hepatic insulin sensitivity, increasing endogenous glucose production...
  57. ncbi request reprint Sick euthyroid syndrome is associated with decreased TR expression and DNA binding in mouse liver
    Anne P Beigneux
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, 94121, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 284:E228-36. 2003
    ..We propose that decreased RXR expression is limiting for RXR/TR DNA binding at 4 h, whereas the reduction in both TR and RXR levels results in further decreased binding at 16 h...
  58. ncbi request reprint Long-term subcutaneous tissue changes among antiretroviral-naive persons initiating stavudine, zidovudine, or abacavir with lamivudine
    Judith C Shlay
    Denver Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 48:53-62. 2008
    ..To assess long-term changes in subcutaneous tissue among antiretroviral-naive persons initiating 1 of 3 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-containing regimens...
  59. pmc Association of HIV infection and HIV/HCV coinfection with C-reactive protein levels: the fat redistribution and metabolic change in HIV infection (FRAM) study
    Jason Reingold
    University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 48:142-8. 2008
    ..We evaluated C-reactive protein (CRP) in HIV-infected and HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals in the era of effective antiretroviral (ARV) therapy...
  60. ncbi request reprint Ceramides stimulate caspase-14 expression in human keratinocytes
    Yan J Jiang
    Metabolism Section, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Northern California Institute for Research and Education, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Exp Dermatol 22:113-8. 2013
    ..These studies show that ceramides, an important structural lipid, stimulate caspase-14 expression providing a mechanism for coordinately regulating the formation of lipid lamellar membranes with the formation of corneocytes...
  61. doi request reprint Angiopoietin like protein 4 expression is decreased in activated macrophages
    Kenneth R Feingold
    Metabolism Section, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 421:612-5. 2012
    ....
  62. pmc HIV viremia and changes in kidney function
    Chris T Longenecker
    University of California, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    AIDS 23:1089-96. 2009
    ..To evaluate the effect of HIV infection on longitudinal changes in kidney function and to identify independent predictors of kidney function changes in HIV-infected individuals...
  63. pmc Cystatin C level as a marker of kidney function in human immunodeficiency virus infection: the FRAM study
    Michelle C Odden
    Department of Medicine, San FranciscoVeterans Affairs Medical Center 4150 Clement Street, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Arch Intern Med 167:2213-9. 2007
    ..Cystatin C measurement may be more sensitive than creatinine for detecting impaired kidney function in persons with HIV...
  64. pmc Microalbuminuria in HIV infection
    Lynda Anne Szczech
    Duke University Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    AIDS 21:1003-9. 2007
    ..Microalbuminuria is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. The objective of the study was to evaluate if HIV infection was an independent risk factor for microalbuminuria...
  65. ncbi request reprint Parotid secretory protein is an HDL-associated protein with anticandidal activity
    Weerapan Khovidhunkit
    Metabolism Sect, Dept of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 4150 Clement St, Box 111 F, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 288:R1306-15. 2005
    ..Recombinant PSP inhibits growth of Candida albicans in culture. In summary, our results showed that PSP is a novel anticandidal protein associated with HDL...
  66. ncbi request reprint Recombinant human growth hormone to treat HIV-associated adipose redistribution syndrome: 12 week induction and 24-week maintenance therapy
    Carl Grunfeld
    University of California, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and Columbia St Luke s Roosevelt Hospital, New York, NY, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 45:286-97. 2007
    ..HIV-associated adipose redistribution syndrome (HARS) is an HIV-associated disorder characterized by excess truncal fat, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT)...
  67. ncbi request reprint Decreased nuclear hormone receptor expression in the livers of mice in late pregnancy
    Trevor R Sweeney
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 290:E1313-20. 2006
    ..The decreases in expression of RXRs, PPARs, LXRs, FXR, TRs, SREBPs, and PGC-1s could contribute to the alterations in lipid metabolism during late pregnancy...
  68. ncbi request reprint Apolipoproteins A-IV and A-V are acute-phase proteins in mouse HDL
    Weerapan Khovidhunkit
    Metabolism Section, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 4150 Clement Street, Box 111 F, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Atherosclerosis 176:37-44. 2004
    ..To identify changes in the protein composition of HDL during infection and inflammation, a proteomic approach was utilized...
  69. doi request reprint Inflammation inhibits GPR81 expression in adipose tissue
    Kenneth R Feingold
    Metabolism Section 111F, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California San Francisco, 4150 Clement Street, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Inflamm Res 60:991-5. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was to examine the expression of G protein-coupled receptor 81 (GPR81) in mouse adipose tissue in response to inflammatory stimuli. GPR81 is activated by lactate resulting in the inhibition of lipolysis...
  70. pmc Regional fat deposition and cardiovascular risk in HIV infection: the FRAM study
    Jordan E Lake
    Division of Infectious Diseases, CARE Center, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    AIDS Care 23:929-38. 2011
    ..Peripheral lipoatrophy (as measured by leg SAT) is associated with striking increased CVD risk in HIV-infected patients even after controlling for VAT, whereas low leg SAT is associated with low CVD risk in controls...
  71. ncbi request reprint Repression of farnesoid X receptor during the acute phase response
    Min Sun Kim
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, Metabolism Section, Medical Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:8988-95. 2003
    ....
  72. pmc The study of fat redistribution and metabolic change in HIV infection (FRAM): methods, design, and sample characteristics
    Phyllis C Tien
    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 163:860-9. 2006
    ..The representativeness of the FRAM sample increases its value as a resource for studies on fat distribution, metabolic changes, and atherosclerosis in HIV infection...
  73. pmc Age-related skeletal muscle decline is similar in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals
    Kevin E Yarasheski
    Department of Medicine, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 66:332-40. 2011
    ..We hypothesized that muscle mass would be lower and decline faster in HIV-infected adults than in similar-aged controls...
  74. ncbi request reprint Insulin resistance in HIV infection: drugs, host responses, or restoration to health?
    Carl Grunfeld
    University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Top HIV Med 16:89-93. 2008
    ..This article summarizes a presentation on insulin resistance in HIV infection made by Carl Grunfeld, MD, PhD, at the 10th Annual Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Clinical Update in Phoenix in June 2007.
  75. ncbi request reprint Difficulties in understanding the metabolic complications of acquired immune deficiency syndrome
    Carl Grunfeld
    Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and University of California, San Francisco 94121, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 37:S43-6. 2003
    ..Some changes are antiretroviral drug (but not necessarily class)-specific, some represent the restoration to health, and others are due to effects of the host response to human immunodeficiency virus itself...
  76. pmc Ceramide stimulates ABCA12 expression via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {delta} in human keratinocytes
    Yan J Jiang
    Metabolism Section, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Northern California Institute for Research and Education, University of California, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:18942-52. 2009
    ....
  77. ncbi request reprint The effects of HIV protease inhibitors on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism
    Grace A Lee
    Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Metabolism Section Box 111F, 4150 Clement Street, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2:39-50. 2005
    ..This review examines the direct effects of PIs on glucose and lipid metabolism by assessing prospective studies of HIV-infected and healthy normal volunteers, and in vitro studies...
  78. ncbi request reprint Incidence of lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy in the women's interagency HIV study
    Phyllis C Tien
    Department of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 34:461-6. 2003
    ..To estimate the incidence of lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study...
  79. ncbi request reprint Management of metabolic complications associated with antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection: recommendations of an International AIDS Society-USA panel
    Morris Schambelan
    University of California San Francisco, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 31:257-75. 2002
    ..These recommendations were developed to guide physicians actively involved in HIV care in the management of metabolic complications that occur primarily within the context of potent antiretroviral therapy...
  80. pmc Association between kidney function and albuminuria with cardiovascular events in HIV-infected persons
    Andy I Choi
    Department of Medicine, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and University of California, San Francisco, USA
    Circulation 121:651-8. 2010
    ..We examined the association between longitudinal measures of kidney function and albuminuria with risk of atherosclerotic CVD and heart failure in a contemporary cohort of HIV-infected individuals...
  81. pmc The metabolic effects of lopinavir/ritonavir in HIV-negative men
    Grace A Lee
    Metabolism Section 111F, San Francisco Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    AIDS 18:641-9. 2004
    ..Therefore, we tested the effects of the PI combination lopinavir and ritonavir on glucose and lipid metabolism in HIV-negative subjects...
  82. doi request reprint Levels of plasma fibrinogen are elevated in well-controlled rheumatoid arthritis
    Terence Rooney
    Division of Rheumatology, VA Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Rheumatology (Oxford) 50:1458-65. 2011
    ..We compared circulating fibrinogen levels in patients with RA with healthy controls and evaluated the relationship with measures of disease activity...
  83. pmc Indinavir acutely inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in humans: a randomized, placebo-controlled study
    Mustafa A Noor
    Department of Medicine, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA
    AIDS 16:F1-8. 2002
    ..We hypothesized that a single dose of the PI indinavir resulting in therapeutic plasma concentrations would acutely decrease insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in healthy human volunteers...
  84. ncbi request reprint What is HIV-associated lipodystrophy? Defining fat distribution changes in HIV infection
    Phyllis C Tien
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco and San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 17:27-32. 2004
    ....
  85. ncbi request reprint Oxandrolone in the treatment of HIV-associated weight loss in men: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
    Carl Grunfeld
    University of California San Francisco, and Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 4150 Clement Street, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 41:304-14. 2006
    ..To evaluate the efficacy and safety of oxandrolone in promoting body weight and body cell mass (BCM) gain in HIV-associated weight loss...
  86. ncbi request reprint Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein expression and lipid accumulation are increased during activation of murine macrophages by toll-like receptor agonists
    Mahmood R Kazemi
    Metabolism Section, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, Calif, CA 94121, USA
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 25:1220-4. 2005
    ..We investigated aP2 expression in RAW 264.7 cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and other TLR agonists and assessed lipid accumulation in these activated murine macrophages...
  87. ncbi request reprint The fatty liver in AIDS
    Phyllis C Tien
    Metabolism Section, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Semin Gastrointest Dis 13:47-54. 2002
    ..The conditions under which some patients rapidly progress to hepatic failure and/or cirrhosis need to be defined. This is a US government work. There are no restrictions on its use...
  88. pmc Uromodulin concentrations are not associated with incident CKD among persons with coronary artery disease
    Michael G Shlipak
    San Francisco VA Medical Center, CA, USA
    BMC Nephrol 12:2. 2011
    ..This study within persons with known coronary artery disease (CAD) evaluated whether uromodulin concentrations could distinguish CKD risk...
  89. ncbi request reprint Reduction in cytochrome P-450 enzyme expression is associated with repression of CAR (constitutive androstane receptor) and PXR (pregnane X receptor) in mouse liver during the acute phase response
    Anne P Beigneux
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, Metabolism Section, Medical Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 293:145-9. 2002
    ..These findings represent one possible molecular mechanism underlying sepsis-induced repression of Cyp enzymes...
  90. ncbi request reprint Simvastatin-nelfinavir interaction implicated in rhabdomyolysis and death
    C Bradley Hare
    Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, San Francisco, California 94110, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 35:e111-2. 2002
    ..We report the first death associated with rhabdomyolysis in a patient treated with a statin and a protease inhibitor, which produced a significant drug-drug interaction...
  91. pmc Contribution of metabolic and anthropometric abnormalities to cardiovascular disease risk factors
    Carl Grunfeld
    Circulation 118:e20-8. 2008
  92. ncbi request reprint Sex differences in the associations of HIV disease characteristics and body composition in antiretroviral-naive persons
    Fehmida Visnegarwala
    Baylor College of Medicine and Houston AIDS Research Team, Houston, TX, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 82:850-6. 2005
    ..Data on associations of body composition with HIV disease characteristics are limited...
  93. ncbi request reprint HIV protease inhibitors and glucose metabolism
    Carl Grunfeld
    AIDS 16:925-6. 2002
  94. pmc The associations of regional adipose tissue with lipid and lipoprotein levels in HIV-infected men
    David Wohl
    AIDS Clinical Trials Unit, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 48:44-52. 2008
    ..HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy are associated with dyslipidemia, but the association between regional adipose tissue depots and lipid levels is not defined...
  95. ncbi request reprint Effects of growth hormone on abnormal visceral adipose tissue accumulation and dyslipidemia in HIV-infected patients
    Donald P Kotler
    Division of GI Immunology, St Luke s Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 35:239-52. 2004
    ..Some HIV-infected patients develop fat maldistribution with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation and metabolic abnormalities. No medical treatment is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to reduce VAT...
  96. ncbi request reprint HIV protease inhibitors increase adiponectin levels in HIV-negative men
    Grace A Lee
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 36:645-7. 2004
  97. pmc Waist circumference correlates with metabolic syndrome indicators better than percentage fat
    Wei Shen
    Obesity Research Center, St Luke s Roosevelt Hospital, New York, NY 10025, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 14:727-36. 2006
    ....
  98. ncbi request reprint Effects of infection and inflammation on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism: mechanisms and consequences to the host
    Weerapan Khovidhunkit
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand
    J Lipid Res 45:1169-96. 2004
    ..APR-induced alterations initially protect the host from the harmful effects of bacteria, viruses, and parasites. However, if prolonged, these changes in the structure and function of lipoproteins will contribute to atherogenesis...
  99. ncbi request reprint Development of multiple lipomas during treatment with rosiglitazone in a patient with HIV-associated lipoatrophy
    Derek D Mafong
    AIDS 18:1742-4. 2004
  100. ncbi request reprint Effects of recombinant human growth hormone on hepatic lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in HIV-infected patients with fat accumulation
    Jean Marc Schwarz
    Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 3104, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:942. 2002
    ..The combined implications of these positive and negative metabolic effects for cardiovascular disease risk remain unknown...
  101. ncbi request reprint Body composition and metabolic changes in antiretroviral-naive patients randomized to didanosine and stavudine vs. abacavir and lamivudine
    Judith C Shlay
    Denver Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS, Denver Public Health, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 38:147-55. 2005
    ..Early and sustained increases in insulin and insulin resistance were seen only for ddI+d4T. In this prospective study, metabolic and body composition changes varied according to whether subjects received ddI+d4T or ABC+3TC...

Research Grants17

  1. Effects of Antiretroviral Drugs on Metabolism
    Carl Grunfeld; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The results from these studies will define the direct toxicities of ARV, which provide essential information for rationally evaluating treatment strategies and counseling patients.Carl Grunfeld, MD, PhD.
  2. HIV Antiretroviral Drugs and Glucose Metabolism
    Carl Grunfeld; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Specific Aim 3b: To determine the mechanisms by which NRTI adversely affect glucose metabolism, we will assess their effects on insulin mediated glucose disposal, insulin secretion and/or hepatic glucose production. ..
  3. FAT REDISTRIBUTION AND METABOLIC CHANGE IN HIV INFECTION
    Carl Grunfeld; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The results will provide essential information on the risk of atherosclerosis and its contributors to aid in patient care, policy and future research. ..
  4. HIV Antiretroviral Drugs and Glucose Metabolism
    Carl Grunfeld; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Specific Aim 3b: To determine the mechanisms by which NRTI adversely affect glucose metabolism, we will assess their effects on insulin mediated glucose disposal, insulin secretion and/or hepatic glucose production. ..
  5. FAT REDISTRIBUTION AND METABOLIC CHANGE IN HIV INFECTION
    Carl Grunfeld; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The results will provide essential information on the risk of atherosclerosis and its contributors to aid in patient care, policy and future research. ..
  6. HIV Antiretroviral Drugs and Glucose Metabolism
    Carl Grunfeld; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Specific Aim 3b: To determine the mechanisms by which NRTI adversely affect glucose metabolism, we will assess their effects on insulin mediated glucose disposal, insulin secretion and/or hepatic glucose production. ..
  7. FAT REDISTRIBUTION AND METABOLIC CHANGE IN HIV INFECTION
    Carl Grunfeld; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The results will provide essential information on the risk of atherosclerosis and its contributors to aid in patient care, policy and future research. ..
  8. HIV Antiretroviral Drugs and Glucose Metabolism
    Carl Grunfeld; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Specific Aim 3b: To determine the mechanisms by which NRTI adversely affect glucose metabolism, we will assess their effects on insulin mediated glucose disposal, insulin secretion and/or hepatic glucose production. ..
  9. FAT REDISTRIBUTION AND METABOLIC CHANGE IN HIV INFECTION
    Carl Grunfeld; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The results will provide essential information on the risk of atherosclerosis and its contributors to aid in patient care, policy and future research. ..
  10. Effects of Antiretroviral Drugs on Metabolism
    Carl Grunfeld; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The results from these studies will define the direct toxicities of ARV, which provide essential information for rationally evaluating treatment strategies and counseling patients.Carl Grunfeld, MD, PhD.