David A Grimes

Summary

Affiliation: University of North Carolina
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint False alarms and pseudo-epidemics: the limitations of observational epidemiology
    David A Grimes
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, and FHI 360, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27599 7570, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 120:920-7. 2012
  2. doi request reprint What is new in contraception?: best articles from the past year
    David A Grimes
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7570, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 120:1477-8. 2012
  3. ncbi request reprint Screening women for oral contraception: can family history identify inherited thrombophilias?
    David A Grimes
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7570, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 120:889-95. 2012
  4. doi request reprint Steroid hormones for contraception in men
    David A Grimes
    Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3:CD004316. 2012
  5. ncbi request reprint Steroid hormones for contraception in men: systematic review of randomized controlled trials
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Contraception 71:89-94. 2005
  6. doi request reprint Hormonal contraceptives for contraception in overweight or obese women
    Laureen M Lopez
    Clinical Sciences, FHI 360, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4:CD008452. 2013
  7. ncbi request reprint Clinical research in obstetrics and gynecology: a Baedeker for busy clinicians
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Obstet Gynecol Surv 57:S35-53. 2002
  8. ncbi request reprint Biphasic versus triphasic oral contraceptives for contraception
    Hubertus A A M van Vliet
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Contraception 65:321-4. 2002
  9. doi request reprint Second-trimester abortion for fetal anomalies or fetal death: labor induction compared with dilation and evacuation
    Amy G Bryant
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 117:788-92. 2011
  10. ncbi request reprint Twenty micrograms vs. >20 microg estrogen oral contraceptives for contraception: systematic review of randomized controlled trials
    Maria F Gallo
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Contraception 71:162-9. 2005

Detail Information

Publications78

  1. ncbi request reprint False alarms and pseudo-epidemics: the limitations of observational epidemiology
    David A Grimes
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, and FHI 360, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27599 7570, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 120:920-7. 2012
    ....
  2. doi request reprint What is new in contraception?: best articles from the past year
    David A Grimes
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7570, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 120:1477-8. 2012
    ..Dr. Grimes discusses four recent publications, and each is concluded with a "bottom line" that is the take-home message. The complete reference for each can be found in on this page, along with direct links to the abstracts...
  3. ncbi request reprint Screening women for oral contraception: can family history identify inherited thrombophilias?
    David A Grimes
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7570, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 120:889-95. 2012
    ..As an alternative, some recommend eliciting a family history of venous thromboembolism. The validity of this approach, however, remains unclear...
  4. doi request reprint Steroid hormones for contraception in men
    David A Grimes
    Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3:CD004316. 2012
    ..Administration of sex steroids to men can shut off sperm production through effects on the pituitary and hypothalamus. However, this approach also decreases production of testosterone, so 'add-back' therapy is needed...
  5. ncbi request reprint Steroid hormones for contraception in men: systematic review of randomized controlled trials
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Contraception 71:89-94. 2005
    ..To avoid bias, future trials need to pay more attention on the methodological requirements for randomized controlled trials. Trials with adequate power would also be helpful...
  6. doi request reprint Hormonal contraceptives for contraception in overweight or obese women
    Laureen M Lopez
    Clinical Sciences, FHI 360, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4:CD008452. 2013
    ..We systematically reviewed the evidence on the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives among overweight and obese women...
  7. ncbi request reprint Clinical research in obstetrics and gynecology: a Baedeker for busy clinicians
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Obstet Gynecol Surv 57:S35-53. 2002
  8. ncbi request reprint Biphasic versus triphasic oral contraceptives for contraception
    Hubertus A A M van Vliet
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Contraception 65:321-4. 2002
    ..This suggests that the choice of progestin may be more important that the phasic regimen in determining bleeding patterns...
  9. doi request reprint Second-trimester abortion for fetal anomalies or fetal death: labor induction compared with dilation and evacuation
    Amy G Bryant
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 117:788-92. 2011
    ..To compare the safety and effectiveness of dilation and evacuation (D&E) and labor-induction abortion performed for fetal anomalies or fetal death in the second trimester...
  10. ncbi request reprint Twenty micrograms vs. >20 microg estrogen oral contraceptives for contraception: systematic review of randomized controlled trials
    Maria F Gallo
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Contraception 71:162-9. 2005
    ..While health care providers and women might select COCs containing 20 microg EE based on theoretical improvements in safety profile from the reduced dose of estrogen, no evidence is available to support this choice...
  11. doi request reprint Skin patch and vaginal ring versus combined oral contraceptives for contraception
    Laureen M Lopez
    Clinical Sciences, FHI 360, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA, 27709
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4:CD003552. 2013
    ..The transdermal patch and vaginal ring could require a lower dose due to increased bioavailability and improved user compliance...
  12. ncbi request reprint Combination estrogen-progestin contraceptives and body weight: systematic review of randomized controlled trials
    Maria F Gallo
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 103:359-73. 2004
    ..This concern can deter women from starting hormonal contraception or lead to premature quitting. This review evaluated the association between combination contraceptive use and change in body weight...
  13. ncbi request reprint Fertility awareness-based methods for contraception: systematic review of randomized controlled trials
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Contraception 72:85-90. 2005
    ..The efficacy and acceptability of these methods are unclear...
  14. doi request reprint The choice of second trimester abortion method: evolution, evidence and ethics
    David A Grimes
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    Reprod Health Matters 16:183-8. 2008
    ..According to the principles of evidence-based medicine and bioethics, these barriers to better care for women can and should be overcome...
  15. doi request reprint Spermicide used alone for contraception
    David A Grimes
    Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina, School of Medicine, CB 7570, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, 27599 7570
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 12:CD005218. 2013
    ..Spermicides contain an active ingredient (most commonly nonoxynol-9) and a formulation used to disperse the product, such as foam or vaginal suppository...
  16. ncbi request reprint Reducing publication bias through trial registration
    Lisa N Abaid
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7570, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 109:1434-7. 2007
    ..Trial registration and the development of comprehensive, computerized databases will promote transparency in research and help reduce publication bias...
  17. ncbi request reprint Cochrane systematic reviews of IUD trials: lessons learned
    David A Grimes
    Family Health, International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27796, USA
    Contraception 75:S55-9. 2007
    ..Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are the most widely used reversible contraceptives in the world today, and decisions about their use should reflect the best available evidence...
  18. doi request reprint Immediate start of hormonal contraceptives for contraception
    Laureen M Lopez
    Clinical Sciences, FHI 360, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 12:CD006260. 2012
    ..The immediate-start approach may improve women's access to, and continuation of, hormonal contraception...
  19. ncbi request reprint Skin patch and vaginal ring versus combined oral contraceptives for contraception
    Laureen M Lopez
    Behavioral and Biomedical Research, Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA, 27709
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3:CD003552. 2010
    ..Ring users generally had fewer adverse events than COC users but more vaginal irritation and discharge. High losses to follow up can affect the validity of the results...
  20. ncbi request reprint Clinical research in obstetrics and gynecology: more tips for busy clinicians
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Obstet Gynecol Surv 60:S53-69. 2005
  21. doi request reprint Strategies to improve adherence and acceptability of hormonal methods of contraception
    Vera Halpern
    Clinical Sciences, FHI 360, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA, NC 27709
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 10:CD004317. 2013
    ..Despite their high theoretical effectiveness, typical use results in much lower effectiveness. In large part, this disparity reflects difficulties in adherence to the contraceptive regimen and low rates for long-term continuation...
  22. doi request reprint Strategies for communicating contraceptive effectiveness
    Laureen M Lopez
    Clinical Sciences, FHI 360, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4:CD006964. 2013
    ..The consumer has to comprehend the pros and cons of the contraceptive methods being considered. Choice may be influenced by understanding the likelihood of pregnancy with each method and factors that influence effectiveness...
  23. doi request reprint Theory-based interventions for contraception
    Laureen M Lopez
    Clinical Sciences, FHI 360, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA, 27709
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 8:CD007249. 2013
    ..The health behavior field uses many theories or models of change. However, educational interventions addressing contraception often have no stated theoretical base...
  24. ncbi request reprint Mifepristone and misoprostol versus dilation and evacuation for midtrimester abortion: a pilot randomised controlled trial
    David A Grimes
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    BJOG 111:148-53. 2004
    ..To test the feasibility of mounting a randomised controlled trial comparing mifepristone-misoprostol versus dilation and evacuation (D&E) for midtrimester abortion...
  25. ncbi request reprint "Oligozoospermia," "azoospermia," and other semen-analysis terminology: the need for better science
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Fertil Steril 88:1491-4. 2007
    ..g., "oligozoospermia" and "azoospermia") are unscientific, have overlapping definitions, and are often misinterpreted. The best course is to abandon these vague and difficult labels and simply report semen analyses quantitatively...
  26. ncbi request reprint The Good Clinical Practice guideline: a bronze standard for clinical research
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
    Lancet 366:172-4. 2005
  27. doi request reprint Making sense of odds and odds ratios
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 111:423-6. 2008
    ..Because of the difficulty in understanding odds ratios, their use should probably be limited to case-control studies and logistic regression, for which odds ratios are the proper measures of association...
  28. ncbi request reprint Case-control studies: research in reverse
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 359:431-4. 2002
    ..Devotion of meticulous attention to these points enhances the validity of the results and bolsters the reader's confidence in the findings...
  29. doi request reprint Hormonal and intrauterine methods for contraception for women aged 25 years and younger
    Jennifer H Tang
    Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina, School ofMedicine, ChapelHill, North Carolina, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 11:CD009805. 2012
    ..Concern that adolescents and young women will not find hormonal or intrauterine contraceptives acceptable or effective might deter healthcare providers from recommending these contraceptive methods. ..
  30. ncbi request reprint Descriptive studies: what they can and cannot do
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 359:145-9. 2002
    ..Hypotheses about causation from descriptive studies are often tested in rigorous analytical studies...
  31. doi request reprint "Case-control" confusion: mislabeled reports in obstetrics and gynecology journals
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 114:1284-6. 2009
    ..To review published articles in four U.S. obstetrics and gynecology journals labeled "case-control" studies to estimate the frequency of mislabeling the type of study...
  32. pmc Sino-implant (II)--a levonorgestrel-releasing two-rod implant: systematic review of the randomized controlled trials
    Markus J Steiner
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Contraception 81:197-201. 2010
    ..We examined randomized controlled trials of Sino-implant (II) for effectiveness and side effects...
  33. ncbi request reprint Induced abortion: an overview for internists
    David A Grimes
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7570, USA
    Ann Intern Med 140:620-6. 2004
    ..The cost of abortion (currently about 372 dollars at 10 weeks) has decreased in recent decades. Provision of ongoing contraception and encouragement of emergency contraception can reduce unintended pregnancies and the need for abortion...
  34. ncbi request reprint Reducing publication bias of prospective clinical trials through trial registration
    Lisa N Abaid
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7570, USA
    Contraception 76:339-41. 2007
    ..Contraception endorses the views of the ICMJE and will now require registration of all prospective trials...
  35. doi request reprint Education for contraceptive use by women after childbirth
    Laureen M Lopez
    Clinical Sciences, FHI 360, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 8:CD001863. 2012
    ..Nonetheless, two-thirds of postpartum women may have unmet needs for contraception. In the USA, many adolescents become pregnant again within a year a giving birth...
  36. ncbi request reprint Unsafe abortion: the preventable pandemic
    David A Grimes
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7570, USA
    Lancet 368:1908-19. 2006
    ..The underlying causes of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion today are not blood loss and infection but, rather, apathy and disdain toward women...
  37. ncbi request reprint Magnesium sulfate tocolysis: time to quit
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 108:986-9. 2006
    ..Should tocolysis be desired, calcium channel blockers, such as nifedipine, seem preferable...
  38. doi request reprint Expectant care versus surgical treatment for miscarriage
    Kavita Nanda
    Clinical Sciences, FHI, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3:CD003518. 2012
    ..The need for routine surgical evacuation with miscarriage has been questioned because of potential complications such as cervical trauma, uterine perforation, hemorrhage, or infection...
  39. doi request reprint "Therapeutic" bed rest in pregnancy: unethical and unsupported by data
    Christina A McCall
    Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7570, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 121:1305-8. 2013
    ..Prescribing bed rest is inconsistent with the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, and justice. Hence, if bed rest is to be used, it should be only within a formal clinical trial...
  40. doi request reprint Pitfalls of research linking the intrauterine device to pelvic inflammatory disease
    David Hubacher
    FHI 360, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 121:1091-8. 2013
    ..Any new findings using observational research should be interpreted with caution. More rigorous research designs may not be pragmatic or feasible...
  41. ncbi request reprint Allocation concealment in randomised trials: defending against deciphering
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, 27709, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
    Lancet 359:614-8. 2002
    ..Hypothesis tests of baseline characteristics, however, are superfluous and could be harmful if they lead investigators to suppress reporting any baseline imbalances...
  42. ncbi request reprint Biphasic versus monophasic oral contraceptives for contraception: a Cochrane review
    Hubertus A A M van Vliet
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Hum Reprod 17:870-3. 2002
    ....
  43. ncbi request reprint Sample size calculations in randomised trials: mandatory and mystical
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 365:1348-53. 2005
    ..Unbiased trials with imprecise results trump no results at all. Clinicians and patients deserve guidance now...
  44. ncbi request reprint Blinding in randomised trials: hiding who got what
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 359:696-700. 2002
    ..Unfortunately, many articles do not contain proper reporting. If an article claims blinding without any accompanying clarification, readers should remain sceptical about its effect on bias reduction...
  45. ncbi request reprint Cohort studies: marching towards outcomes
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 359:341-5. 2002
    ..Strengths of a cohort study include the ability to calculate incidence rates, relative risks, and 95% CIs. This format is the preferred way of presenting study results, rather that with p values...
  46. ncbi request reprint Bias and causal associations in observational research
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 359:248-52. 2002
    ..Differentiation between spurious, indirect, and causal associations can be difficult. Criteria such as temporal sequence, strength and consistency of an association, and evidence of a dose-response effect lend support to a causal link...
  47. ncbi request reprint Multiplicity in randomised trials II: subgroup and interim analyses
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 365:1657-61. 2005
    ..Investigators and readers, however, need to grasp that the estimated treatment effects are prone to exaggeration, a random high, with early stopping...
  48. ncbi request reprint Surrogate end points in clinical research: hazardous to your health
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 105:1114-8. 2005
    ..The clinical maxim that "a difference to be a difference must make a difference" applies to research as well. Clinical research should focus on outcomes that matter...
  49. ncbi request reprint Estimation of pregnancy-related mortality risk by pregnancy outcome, United States, 1991 to 1999
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 194:92-4. 2006
    ..Abortion (legal and spontaneous) was associated with the lowest risk, live birth intermediate risk, and ectopic pregnancy and fetal death the highest risk...
  50. ncbi request reprint Theory-based interventions for contraception
    Laureen M Lopez
    Clinical Sciences, FHI, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA, 27709
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3:CD007249. 2011
    ..The health behavior field uses many theories or models of change. However, educational interventions addressing contraception often have no stated theoretical base...
  51. doi request reprint Forgettable contraception
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, PO Box 13952, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Contraception 80:497-9. 2009
    ..Stated alternatively, the only class of contraceptives today with exclusively first-tier effectiveness is the one that can be started -- and then forgotten for years...
  52. ncbi request reprint Nonhormonal drugs for contraception in men: a systematic review
    Laureen M Lopez
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Obstet Gynecol Surv 60:746-52. 2005
    ..Clinical trials studied injecting styrene maleic anhydride into the vas deferens, but no comparative data were provided. At this time, no safe and effective nonhormonal drug is available for contraception in men...
  53. doi request reprint Steroidal contraceptives: effect on carbohydrate metabolism in women without diabetes mellitus
    Laureen M Lopez
    Clinical Sciences, FHI 360, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4:CD006133. 2012
    ..These issues have been raised primarily with contraceptives containing estrogen...
  54. ncbi request reprint Risks of mifepristone abortion in context
    David A Grimes
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7570, USA
    Contraception 71:161. 2005
  55. ncbi request reprint Compared to what? Finding controls for case-control studies
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 365:1429-33. 2005
    ..Although no ideal control group exists, readers need to think carefully about how representative the controls are. Poor choice of controls can lead to both wrong results and possible medical harm...
  56. ncbi request reprint [Epidemiological methods 8: blinded randomized trial: what one covers up is what one obtains]
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Z Arztl Fortbild Qualitatssich 101:630-7. 2007
  57. doi request reprint Social desirability bias in family planning studies: a neglected problem
    Gretchen S Stuart
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7030, USA
    Contraception 80:108-12. 2009
    ..Greater skepticism about self-reports and more objective means of documenting coitus and contraceptive use are needed if contraceptive efficacy is to be accurately measured...
  58. ncbi request reprint Strategies to improve adherence and acceptability of hormonal methods of contraception
    Vera Halpern
    Clinical Sciences, FHI, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA, 27709
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4:CD004317. 2011
    ..Despite their high theoretical effectiveness, typical use results in much lower effectiveness. In large part, this disparity reflects difficulties in adherence to the contraceptive regimen and low rates for long-term continuation...
  59. ncbi request reprint Emergency contraception
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Ann Intern Med 137:180-9. 2002
    ..Easier access to and wider use of emergency contraception could dramatically lower the high rates of unintended pregnancy and induced abortion in the United States...
  60. ncbi request reprint The public health impact of legal abortion: 30 years later
    Willard Cates
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    Perspect Sex Reprod Health 35:25-8. 2003
  61. ncbi request reprint Sample size slippages in randomised trials: exclusions and the lost and wayward
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 359:781-5. 2002
    ..Unfortunately, some explanations for mishandling exclusions intuitively appeal to readers, disguising the seriousness of the issues. Creative mismanagement of exclusions can undermine trial validity...
  62. ncbi request reprint Emergency contraception and fire extinguishers: a prevention paradox
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 187:1536-8. 2002
    ..Clearly, a double standard prevails in prevention strategies for women. The Food and Drug Administration should approve over-the-counter availability of emergency contraception without further study or delay...
  63. ncbi request reprint Switching emergency contraception to over-the-counter status
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27713, USA
    N Engl J Med 347:846-9. 2002
  64. doi request reprint Theory-based strategies for improving contraceptive use: a systematic review
    Laureen M Lopez
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Contraception 79:411-7. 2009
    ..Theories and models help explain how behavior change occurs. We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials that examined theory-based interventions for improving contraceptive use...
  65. doi request reprint Intrauterine devices for adolescents: a systematic review
    Elizabeth I Deans
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7570, USA
    Contraception 79:418-23. 2009
    ..Unplanned pregnancy among teenagers remains epidemic, and long-acting methods, such as IUDs, offer the promise of top-tier effectiveness...
  66. doi request reprint Expanding access to intrauterine contraception
    Rebecca H Allen
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants Hospital, Providence, RI, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 201:456.e1-5. 2009
    ..Barriers to intrauterine contraception such as requiring cervical cancer screening before insertion, routine testing for gonorrhea and chlamydial infection in low-risk women, or scheduling insertion only during menses are unnecessary...
  67. doi request reprint Do clinical experts rely on the Cochrane library?
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 111:420-2. 2008
    ..Although about one half of Clinical Expert Series articles cited relevant Cochrane reviews, most eligible reviews were not referenced. Wider use of Cochrane reviews could strengthen the scientific basis of this popular series...
  68. ncbi request reprint [Epidemiological methods 7: secrecy of randomization in randomized studies: how one defends against decisions]
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Z Arztl Fortbild Qualitatssich 101:499-505. 2007
  69. doi request reprint Postpartum education for contraception: a systematic review
    Laureen M Lopez
    Behavioral and Biomedical Research, Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Obstet Gynecol Surv 65:325-31. 2010
    ..The longer-term programs were promising and not necessarily more costly than usual care. Health care providers can determine if 1 of these interventions suits their setting and level of resources...
  70. ncbi request reprint Refining clinical diagnosis with likelihood ratios
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 365:1500-5. 2005
    ..When combined with an accurate clinical diagnosis, likelihood ratios from ancillary tests improve diagnostic accuracy in a synergistic manner...
  71. ncbi request reprint Oral contraceptives for functional ovarian cysts
    David A Grimes
    Clinical Sciences, FHI 360, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA, NC 27709
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 9:CD006134. 2011
    ..This became a common clinical practice in the early 1970s...
  72. ncbi request reprint Immediate post-partum insertion of intrauterine devices
    David A Grimes
    Behavioral and Biomedical Research, Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA, 27709
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 5:CD003036. 2010
    ..The popularity of immediate post-partum IUD insertion in countries as diverse as China, Mexico, and Egypt support the feasibility of this approach. Early follow up may be important in identifying spontaneous IUD expulsions...
  73. ncbi request reprint Steroidal contraceptives: effect on bone fractures in women
    Laureen M Lopez
    Clinical Sciences, FHI, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA, 27709
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 7:CD006033. 2011
    ..Age-related decline in bone mass increases the risk of fracture, especially of the spine, hip, and wrist. Concern about bone health influences the recommendation and use of these effective contraceptives globally...
  74. doi request reprint Nonspecific side effects of oral contraceptives: nocebo or noise?
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Contraception 83:5-9. 2011
    ..When in doubt, clinicians should err on the side of optimism...
  75. ncbi request reprint Unsafe abortion: the silent scourge
    David A Grimes
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7570, USA
    Br Med Bull 67:99-113. 2003
    ..While the debate over abortion will continue, the public health record is settled: safe, legal, accessible abortion improves health...
  76. doi request reprint Pain management for tubal sterilization by hysteroscopy
    Bliss Kaneshiro
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 8:CD009251. 2012
    ..Pain, an important determinant of procedure acceptability, can be a concern when tubal sterilization is performed in the office...
  77. ncbi request reprint Intrauterine contraception as an alternative to interval tubal sterilization
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Contraception 77:6-9. 2008
  78. ncbi request reprint Effect of lactation on maternal body weight: a systematic review
    Anna B Fraser
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Obstet Gynecol Surv 58:265-9. 2003
    ....