Anthony Greenwald

Summary

Affiliation: University of Washington
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint A unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-esteem, and self-concept
    Anthony G Greenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 1525, USA
    Psychol Rev 109:3-25. 2002
  2. ncbi request reprint Three cognitive markers of unconscious semantic activation
    A G Greenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Science 273:1699-702. 1996
  3. ncbi request reprint Long-term semantic memory versus contextual memory in unconscious number processing
    Anthony G Greenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 1525, USA
    J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 29:235-47. 2003
  4. ncbi request reprint Understanding and using the implicit association test: I. An improved scoring algorithm
    Anthony G Greenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 1525, USA
    J Pers Soc Psychol 85:197-216. 2003
  5. ncbi request reprint On doing two things at once: III. Confirmation of perfect timesharing when simultaneous tasks are ideomotor compatible
    Anthony G Greenwald
    U Washington, Dept of Psychology, Seattle, WA, USA
    J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 29:859-68. 2003
  6. ncbi request reprint On doing two things at once: IV. Necessary and sufficient conditions: Rejoinder to Lien, Proctor, and Ruthruff (2003)
    Anthony G Greenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98198 1525, USA
    J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 30:632-6. 2004
  7. ncbi request reprint A reminder about procedures needed to reliably produce perfect timesharing: comment on Lien, McCann, Ruthruff, and Proctor (2005)
    Anthony G Greenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 1525, USA
    J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 31:221-5. 2005
  8. ncbi request reprint Validity of the salience asymmetry interpretation of the implicit association test: comment on Rothermund and Wentura (2004)
    Anthony G Greenwald
    University of Washington, Department of Psychology, Seattle, WA 98195 1525, USA
    J Exp Psychol Gen 134:420-5; author reply 426-30. 2005
  9. ncbi request reprint Consequential validity of the implicit association test: comment on Blanton and Jaccard (2006)
    Anthony G Greenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 1525, USA
    Am Psychol 61:56-61; discussion 62-71. 2006
  10. doi request reprint Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity
    Anthony G Greenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
    J Pers Soc Psychol 97:17-41. 2009

Research Grants

  1. UNCONSCIOUS AND IMPLICIT COGNITION
    Anthony Greenwald; Fiscal Year: 2001
  2. PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION: SUBLIMINAL INFLUENCE
    Anthony Greenwald; Fiscal Year: 1993
  3. IMPLICIT AND UNCONSCIOUS COGNITION
    Anthony Greenwald; Fiscal Year: 2002

Detail Information

Publications32

  1. ncbi request reprint A unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-esteem, and self-concept
    Anthony G Greenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 1525, USA
    Psychol Rev 109:3-25. 2002
    ..Two additional not-yet-tested predictions of the theory are described...
  2. ncbi request reprint Three cognitive markers of unconscious semantic activation
    A G Greenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Science 273:1699-702. 1996
    ..Thus, unconscious semantic activation is shown to be a readily reproducible phenomenon but also very limited in the duration of its effect...
  3. ncbi request reprint Long-term semantic memory versus contextual memory in unconscious number processing
    Anthony G Greenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 1525, USA
    J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 29:235-47. 2003
    ..Across 3 experiments, subliminal priming was governed by both task context and long-term semantic memory...
  4. ncbi request reprint Understanding and using the implicit association test: I. An improved scoring algorithm
    Anthony G Greenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 1525, USA
    J Pers Soc Psychol 85:197-216. 2003
    ..This new algorithm strongly outperforms the earlier (conventional) procedure...
  5. ncbi request reprint On doing two things at once: III. Confirmation of perfect timesharing when simultaneous tasks are ideomotor compatible
    Anthony G Greenwald
    U Washington, Dept of Psychology, Seattle, WA, USA
    J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 29:859-68. 2003
    ..Experiment 2 again replicated the perfect timesharing finding, using an alternative control procedure that mixed manual and vocal tasks in the same block. ((c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved)..
  6. ncbi request reprint On doing two things at once: IV. Necessary and sufficient conditions: Rejoinder to Lien, Proctor, and Ruthruff (2003)
    Anthony G Greenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98198 1525, USA
    J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 30:632-6. 2004
    ..extensive practice is needed to achieve perfect timesharing when only 1 of the 2 tasks is IM compatible: and (d). very large amounts of practice can yield perfect timesharing of 2 decision tasks when neither is IM compatible...
  7. ncbi request reprint A reminder about procedures needed to reliably produce perfect timesharing: comment on Lien, McCann, Ruthruff, and Proctor (2005)
    Anthony G Greenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 1525, USA
    J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 31:221-5. 2005
    ..Also discussed here are problems in M.-C. Lien et al.'s (2005) analysis of slopes relating Task 2 latency to Task 1 latency and their advocacy of a central bottleneck theory that may not be disconfirmable...
  8. ncbi request reprint Validity of the salience asymmetry interpretation of the implicit association test: comment on Rothermund and Wentura (2004)
    Anthony G Greenwald
    University of Washington, Department of Psychology, Seattle, WA 98195 1525, USA
    J Exp Psychol Gen 134:420-5; author reply 426-30. 2005
    ....
  9. ncbi request reprint Consequential validity of the implicit association test: comment on Blanton and Jaccard (2006)
    Anthony G Greenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 1525, USA
    Am Psychol 61:56-61; discussion 62-71. 2006
    ..The IAT has attracted more scholarly criticism than have other measures designed for similar purposes. The authors speculate as to why the IAT is an attractive target...
  10. doi request reprint Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity
    Anthony G Greenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
    J Pers Soc Psychol 97:17-41. 2009
    ..The more highly IAT and self-report measures were intercorrelated, the greater was the predictive validity of each...
  11. doi request reprint No measure is perfect, but some measures can be quite useful
    Anthony G Greenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Box 351525, Seattle, WA 98195 1525, USA
    Exp Psychol 57:238-42. 2010
    ..With this broader understanding of association, some of the phenomena that R&W treated as threats to the BIAT's validity are viewed, instead, as contributors to its validity...
  12. ncbi request reprint Implicit partisanship: taking sides for no reason
    Anthony G Greenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 1525, USA
    J Pers Soc Psychol 83:367-79. 2002
    ..A plausible (but not established) interpretation is that the attitude and identification effects are consequences of mere categorization...
  13. ncbi request reprint Grading leniency is a removable contaminant of student ratings
    A G Greenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington 98195 1525, USA
    Am Psychol 52:1209-16; discussion 1216-7. 1997
    ..Additional research can profitably seek other inappropriate influences on ratings to identify more opportunities for validity-enhancing adjustments...
  14. ncbi request reprint Effect sizes and p values: what should be reported and what should be replicated?
    A G Greenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 1525, USA
    Psychophysiology 33:175-83. 1996
    ..Together with many recent critics of NHT, we also urge reporting of important hypothesis tests in enough descriptive detail to permit secondary uses such as meta-analysis...
  15. ncbi request reprint Validity concerns and usefulness of student ratings of instruction
    A G Greenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 1525, USA
    Am Psychol 52:1182-6. 1997
    ..Although all 4 articles favor the use of ratings, they disagree on controversial points associated with interpretation and use of ratings data...
  16. ncbi request reprint Health of the Implicit Association Test at age 3
    A G Greenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Box 351525, Seattle, WA 98195 1525, USA
    Z Exp Psychol 48:85-93. 2001
    ..It therefore seems appropriate to conclude that the IAT assesses constructs that are often (but not always) distinct from the corresponding constructs measured by self-report...
  17. ncbi request reprint Distinguishing unconscious from conscious cognition--reasonable assumptions and replicable findings: reply to Merikle and Reingold (1998) and Dosher (1998)
    A G Greenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 1525, USA
    J Exp Psychol Gen 127:320-4. 1998
    ..The second question is answered by pointing out that although Draine and Greenwald (1998) did not claim to have established such dissociation, they provided data that advance the plausibility of that conclusion...
  18. ncbi request reprint Using the implicit association test to measure self-esteem and self-concept
    A G Greenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 1525, USA
    J Pers Soc Psychol 79:1022-38. 2000
    ..High implicit self-esteem was associated in the predicted fashion with buffering against adverse effects of failure on two of four measures...
  19. doi request reprint Measuring implicit attitudes of 4-year-olds: the preschool implicit association test
    Dario Cvencek
    Institute for Learning and Brain Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    J Exp Child Psychol 109:187-200. 2011
    ..Discussion describes potential uses of the PSIAT to investigate development of societally significant attitudes and stereotypes at younger ages than are achievable with currently available methods...
  20. ncbi request reprint Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: II. Method variables and construct validity
    Brian A Nosek
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Box 400400, Charlottesville, VA 22911, USA
    Pers Soc Psychol Bull 31:166-80. 2005
    ..Together, these analyses provide additional construct validation for the IAT and suggest practical guidelines to users of the IAT...
  21. ncbi request reprint Subliminal words activate semantic categories (not automated motor responses)
    Richard L Abrams
    Psychology Department, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 1525, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 9:100-6. 2002
    ..This result shows that subliminal priming involves unconscious categorization of the prime, rather than just the automatic activation of a practiced stimulus-response mapping...
  22. doi request reprint (Part of) the case for a pragmatic approach to validity: comment on De Houwer, Teige-Mocigemba, Spruyt, and Moors (2009)
    Brian A Nosek
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, USA
    Psychol Bull 135:373-6. 2009
    ..PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved)...
  23. pmc Physicians' implicit and explicit attitudes about race by MD race, ethnicity, and gender
    Janice Sabin
    University of Washington, School of Medicine, WA, USA
    J Health Care Poor Underserved 20:896-913. 2009
    ..Future research should explore whether, and under what conditions, MDs' implicit attitudes about race affect the quality of medical care...
  24. ncbi request reprint Math = male, me = female, therefore math not = me
    Brian A Nosek
    Department of Psychology, Yale University, USA
    J Pers Soc Psychol 83:44-59. 2002
    ..These results point to the opportunities and constraints on personal preferences that derive from membership in social groups...
  25. pmc National differences in gender-science stereotypes predict national sex differences in science and math achievement
    Brian A Nosek
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 4400, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:10593-7. 2009
    ..We suggest that implicit stereotypes and sex differences in science participation and performance are mutually reinforcing, contributing to the persistent gender gap in science engagement...
  26. doi request reprint Drinking without thinking: an implicit measure of alcohol motivation predicts failure to control alcohol use
    Brian D Ostafin
    Department of Psychology, North Dakota State University, P O Box 5075, Fargo, ND 58105, USA
    Behav Res Ther 46:1210-9. 2008
    ..The results indicate that the IAT may have utility in predicting dyscontrolled alcohol use...
  27. doi request reprint Physician implicit attitudes and stereotypes about race and quality of medical care
    Janice A Sabin
    University of Washington, School of Social Work, Seattle, Washington 98105 6299, USA
    Med Care 46:678-85. 2008
    ..Recent reports speculate that provider implicit attitudes about race may contribute to racial/ethnic health care disparities...
  28. ncbi request reprint Parts outweigh the whole (word) in unconscious analysis of meaning
    R L Abrams
    Psychology Department, University of Washington, Box 351525, Seattle, WA 98195 1525, USA or
    Psychol Sci 11:118-24. 2000
    ..Contrary to a widely held view, analysis of subliminal primes appears not to function at the level of analysis of complete words...
  29. ncbi request reprint Priming of semantic classifications by novel subliminal prime words
    Karl Christoph Klauer
    Institute for Psychology, Social Psychology and Methodology, Albert Ludwigs Universitat Freiburg, D 79085 Freiburg, Germany
    Conscious Cogn 16:63-83. 2007
    ....
  30. ncbi request reprint Apparent universality of positive implicit self-esteem
    Susumu Yamaguchi
    Department of Social Psychology, Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Psychol Sci 18:498-500. 2007
  31. ncbi request reprint Using the implicit association test to measure age differences in implicit social cognitions
    Mary Lee Hummert
    Communication Studies Department, University of Kansas, Lawrence 66045, USA
    Psychol Aging 17:482-95. 2002
    ..Results also illustrate that age-related slowing must be considered in analysis and interpretation of IAT measures...
  32. ncbi request reprint Clarifying the role of the "other" category in the self-esteem IAT
    Brad Pinter
    The Pennsylvania State University, Altoona College, Altoona, PA 16601, USA
    Exp Psychol 52:74-9. 2005
    ..Choice of the appropriate other category to contrast with self in self-esteem IATs should be guided by the needs of the research question being addressed...

Research Grants12

  1. UNCONSCIOUS AND IMPLICIT COGNITION
    Anthony Greenwald; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  2. PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION: SUBLIMINAL INFLUENCE
    Anthony Greenwald; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ....
  3. IMPLICIT AND UNCONSCIOUS COGNITION
    Anthony Greenwald; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..This award will release the PI from responsibilities that compete with the opportunity to mentor Ph.D. trainees. ..