Sander Greenland

Summary

Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Null misinterpretation in statistical testing and its impact on health risk assessment
    Sander Greenland
    Department of Epidemiology, University of California Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Prev Med 53:225-8. 2011
  2. doi request reprint Living with p values: resurrecting a Bayesian perspective on frequentist statistics
    Sander Greenland
    Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Epidemiology 24:62-8. 2013
  3. doi request reprint Transparency and disclosure, neutrality and balance: shared values or just shared words?
    Sander Greenland
    Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1772, USA
    J Epidemiol Community Health 66:967-70. 2012
  4. doi request reprint Nonsignificance plus high power does not imply support for the null over the alternative
    Sander Greenland
    Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
    Ann Epidemiol 22:364-8. 2012
  5. pmc Prevalence and clustering of metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes among Chinese adults in Shanghai, China
    He Xu
    Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
    BMC Public Health 10:683. 2010
  6. ncbi request reprint Interval estimation by simulation as an alternative to and extension of confidence intervals
    Sander Greenland
    Departments of Epidemiology and Statistics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1772, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 33:1389-97. 2004
  7. ncbi request reprint Bayesian perspectives for epidemiological research: I. Foundations and basic methods
    Sander Greenland
    Departments of Epidemiology and Statistics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1772, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 35:765-75. 2006
  8. doi request reprint Invited commentary: variable selection versus shrinkage in the control of multiple confounders
    Sander Greenland
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles 90095 1772, CA
    Am J Epidemiol 167:523-9; discussion 530-1. 2008
  9. ncbi request reprint Leukemia attributable to residential magnetic fields: results from analyses allowing for study biases
    Sander Greenland
    Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1772, USA
    Risk Anal 26:471-82. 2006
  10. ncbi request reprint Accounting for independent nondifferential misclassification does not increase certainty that an observed association is in the correct direction
    Sander Greenland
    Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1772, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 164:63-8. 2006

Detail Information

Publications93

  1. doi request reprint Null misinterpretation in statistical testing and its impact on health risk assessment
    Sander Greenland
    Department of Epidemiology, University of California Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Prev Med 53:225-8. 2011
    ..The example illustrates how inattention to the actual meaning of P-values and confidence limits allow extremely biased prior opinions (including null-spiked opinions) to be presented as if they were objective inferences from the data...
  2. doi request reprint Living with p values: resurrecting a Bayesian perspective on frequentist statistics
    Sander Greenland
    Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Epidemiology 24:62-8. 2013
    ..More generally, P values can be incorporated into a modern analysis framework that emphasizes measurement of fit, distance, and posterior probability in place of "statistical significance" and accept/reject decisions...
  3. doi request reprint Transparency and disclosure, neutrality and balance: shared values or just shared words?
    Sander Greenland
    Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1772, USA
    J Epidemiol Community Health 66:967-70. 2012
    ..Thus, more precision is needed in explicating and implementing such values...
  4. doi request reprint Nonsignificance plus high power does not imply support for the null over the alternative
    Sander Greenland
    Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
    Ann Epidemiol 22:364-8. 2012
    ..Use of power to analyze and interpret data thus needs more extensive discouragement...
  5. pmc Prevalence and clustering of metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes among Chinese adults in Shanghai, China
    He Xu
    Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
    BMC Public Health 10:683. 2010
    ..Type 2 diabetes is becoming an epidemic in China. To evaluate the prevalence, clustering of metabolic risk factors and their impact on type 2 diabetes, we conducted a population-based study in Shanghai, China's largest metropolitan area...
  6. ncbi request reprint Interval estimation by simulation as an alternative to and extension of confidence intervals
    Sander Greenland
    Departments of Epidemiology and Statistics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1772, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 33:1389-97. 2004
    ..Along with simplicity and generality, the ease with which simulation can incorporate these priors is a key advantage over conventional methods...
  7. ncbi request reprint Bayesian perspectives for epidemiological research: I. Foundations and basic methods
    Sander Greenland
    Departments of Epidemiology and Statistics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1772, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 35:765-75. 2006
    ..It is argued that a criterion for scientific acceptability of a prior distribution is that it be expressible as prior data, so that the strength of prior assumptions can be gauged by how much data they represent...
  8. doi request reprint Invited commentary: variable selection versus shrinkage in the control of multiple confounders
    Sander Greenland
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles 90095 1772, CA
    Am J Epidemiol 167:523-9; discussion 530-1. 2008
    ..No selection or special software is needed for most of these techniques. It thus appears that statistical confounder selection may be an unnecessary complication in most regression analyses of effects...
  9. ncbi request reprint Leukemia attributable to residential magnetic fields: results from analyses allowing for study biases
    Sander Greenland
    Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1772, USA
    Risk Anal 26:471-82. 2006
    ..These analyses support the idea that the public health impact of residential fields is likely to be limited, but both no impact and a substantial impact remain possibilities in light of the available data...
  10. ncbi request reprint Accounting for independent nondifferential misclassification does not increase certainty that an observed association is in the correct direction
    Sander Greenland
    Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1772, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 164:63-8. 2006
    ..Thus, such accounting should not increase certainty that an association is present...
  11. doi request reprint Commentary: Addressing corporate influence through ethical guidelines
    Sander Greenland
    Department of Epidemiology and Department of Statistics, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 37:57-9; discussion 65-8. 2008
  12. doi request reprint Bayesian perspectives for epidemiologic research: III. Bias analysis via missing-data methods
    Sander Greenland
    Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1772, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 38:1662-73. 2009
    ..The approach illustrates how conventional analyses depend on implicit certainty that bias parameters are null and how these implausible assumptions can be replaced by plausible priors for bias parameters...
  13. doi request reprint Designs and analyses for exploring the relationship of magnetic fields to childhood leukaemia: a pilot project for the Danish National Birth Cohort
    Sander Greenland
    Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Scand J Public Health 37:83-92. 2009
    ..We conclude that the approach outlined may be of value not only for this topic but also in other studies of effects of rare exposures and genetic factors on rare outcomes...
  14. ncbi request reprint Prior data for non-normal priors
    Sander Greenland
    Departments of Epidemiology and Statistics, University of California, LA 90095 1772, USA
    Stat Med 26:3578-90. 2007
    ..For more compact representation in regression analyses, the prior data can be compressed into a single data record. The method is illustrated with historical data from a study of electronic foetal monitoring and neonatal death...
  15. ncbi request reprint Bayesian perspectives for epidemiological research. II. Regression analysis
    Sander Greenland
    Departments of Epidemiology and Statistics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1772, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 36:195-202. 2007
    ..Because these solutions have a frequentist interpretation as "shrinkage" (penalized) estimators, the methods can also be viewed as a means of implementing shrinkage approaches to multiparameter problems...
  16. doi request reprint Estimating effects from randomized trials with discontinuations: the need for intent-to-treat design and G-estimation
    Sander Greenland
    Epidemiology and Statistics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Clin Trials 5:5-13. 2008
    ..Furthermore, estimates based on ITT, on-treatment, or per-protocol comparisons can seriously understate harm or benefit...
  17. ncbi request reprint The need for reorientation toward cost-effective prediction: comments on 'Evaluating the added predictive ability of a new marker: From area under the ROC curve to reclassification and beyond' by M. J. Pencina et al., Statistics in Medicine (DOI: 10.1002/
    Sander Greenland
    Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1772, USA
    Stat Med 27:199-206. 2008
  18. ncbi request reprint The value of risk-factor ("black-box") epidemiology
    Sander Greenland
    Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Epidemiology 15:529-35. 2004
    ....
  19. ncbi request reprint Model-based estimation of relative risks and other epidemiologic measures in studies of common outcomes and in case-control studies
    Sander Greenland
    Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1772, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 160:301-5. 2004
    ..Approximate variance formulas for the resulting estimates allow interval estimation; these intervals can be closely approximated by rapid simulation procedures that require only standard software functions...
  20. ncbi request reprint Quantifying biases in causal models: classical confounding vs collider-stratification bias
    Sander Greenland
    Department of Epidemiology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1772, USA
    Epidemiology 14:300-6. 2003
    ....
  21. ncbi request reprint Generalized conjugate priors for Bayesian analysis of risk and survival regressions
    Sander Greenland
    Department of Epidemiology, UCLA School of Public Health, 22333 Swenson Drive, Topanga, California 90290, USA
    Biometrics 59:92-9. 2003
    ..The present article illustrates the resulting generalized conjugate analyses using examples from case-control studies of the association of residential wire codes and magnetic fields with childhood leukemia...
  22. doi request reprint Bayesian interpretation and analysis of research results
    Sander Greenland
    Department of Epidemiology and Department of Statistics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Semin Hematol 45:141-9. 2008
    ..Thus, even if frequentist results remain the norm for presentation, the inclusion of Bayesian perspectives in teaching and analysis is strongly recommended...
  23. ncbi request reprint An overview of relations among causal modelling methods
    Sander Greenland
    Department of Epidemiology, UCLA School of Public Health, Department of Statistics, UCLA College of Letters and Science, 22333 Swenson Drive, Topanga, CA 90290 3434, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 31:1030-7. 2002
    ..The different approaches provide complementary perspectives, and can be employed together to improve causal interpretations of conventional statistical results...
  24. pmc Bayesian posterior distributions without Markov chains
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599 7435, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 175:368-75. 2012
    ..The transparency of the proposed approach comes at a price of being less broadly applicable than MCMC...
  25. pmc Racial and ethnic differences in the association of body mass index and survival in maintenance hemodialysis patients
    Joni Ricks
    Harold Simmons Center for Chronic Disease Research and Epidemiology, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA, USA
    Am J Kidney Dis 58:574-82. 2011
    ..Given the greater survival of maintenance HD patients who are minorities, we hypothesized that increased body mass index (BMI) is associated more strongly with lower mortality in blacks and Hispanics relative to non-Hispanic whites...
  26. pmc Single nucleotide polymorphisms of 8 inflammation-related genes and their associations with smoking-related cancers
    Sam S Oh
    Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Los Angeles UCLA School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Int J Cancer 127:2169-82. 2010
    ....
  27. pmc Associations between NBS1 polymorphisms, haplotypes and smoking-related cancers
    Sungshim L Park
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, 71 225 CHS, Box 951772, 650 Charles E Young Drive, South, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1772, USA
    Carcinogenesis 31:1264-71. 2010
    ..These hypotheses should be further examined in functional studies...
  28. doi request reprint Dietary flavonoid intake and lung cancer--a population-based case-control study
    Yan Cui
    Office of Health Assessment and Epidemiology, Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, Los Angeles, California, USA
    Cancer 112:2241-8. 2008
    ..To investigate the associations between commonly consumed flavonoid compounds and lung cancer, the authors conducted a population-based case-control study of 558 lung cancer cases and a group of 837 controls...
  29. pmc A case-control study of the association of the polymorphisms and haplotypes of DNA ligase I with lung and upper-aerodigestive-tract cancers
    Yuan Chin Amy Lee
    Department of Epidemiology, University of California at Los Angeles School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1772, USA
    Int J Cancer 122:1630-8. 2008
    ..We observed weaker associations between the LIG1 haplotypes and UADT cancers. Our findings suggest the LIG1 haplotypes may affect the risk of lung and UADT cancers...
  30. pmc Mortality prediction by surrogates of body composition: an examination of the obesity paradox in hemodialysis patients using composite ranking score analysis
    Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
    David Geffen School of Medicine and UCLA School of Public Health, Harold Simmons Center for Chronic Disease Research and Epidemiology, Los Angeles, CA 90509 2910, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 175:793-803. 2012
    ..Assuming residual selection bias and confounding were not large, the present results suggest that a considerable proportion of the obesity paradox in dialysis patients might be explained by the amount of decline in muscle mass...
  31. ncbi request reprint Proper interpretation of non-differential misclassification effects: expectations vs observations
    Anne M Jurek
    Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 0392, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 34:680-7. 2005
    ..Thus, as noted before, exposure misclassification can spuriously increase the observed strength of an association even when the misclassification process is non-differential and the bias it produced is towards the null...
  32. pmc Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on incident AIDS using calendar period as an instrumental variable
    Lauren E Cain
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 169:1124-32. 2009
    ..These methods may help resolve discrepancies between observational and randomized evidence...
  33. ncbi request reprint Multiple-imputation for measurement-error correction
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, 615 Norht Wolfe Street, E7640, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 35:1074-81. 2006
    ..There are many methods for measurement-error correction. These methods remain rarely used despite the ubiquity of measurement error...
  34. pmc Associations between variants of the 8q24 chromosome and nine smoking-related cancer sites
    Sungshim Lani Park
    Department of Epidemiology, University of California at Los Angeles School of Public Health, 71 225 CHS, Box 951772, 650 Charles E Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1772, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17:3193-202. 2008
    ..Functional and large epidemiologic studies should be conducted to further investigate the association of 8q24 SNPs with smoking-related cancers...
  35. ncbi request reprint Associations of race/ethnicity with HIV prevalence and HIV-related behaviors among young men who have sex with men in 7 urban centers in the United States
    Nina T Harawa
    County of Los Angeles, Department of Health Services, Los Angeles, CA 90005, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 35:526-36. 2004
    ..Prevention programs should address risks in steady partnerships, target young men before sexual initiation with male partners, and tailor interventions to men of color and of lower socioeconomic status...
  36. pmc Role of nutritional status and inflammation in higher survival of African American and Hispanic hemodialysis patients
    Elani Streja
    Harold Simmons Center for Chronic Disease Research and Epidemiology, Torrance, CA, USA
    Am J Kidney Dis 57:883-93. 2011
    ..We hypothesized that this apparent survival advantage is due to a more favorable nutritional/inflammatory profile in minority hemodialysis patients...
  37. doi request reprint Risk of fractures requiring hospitalization after an initial prescription for zolpidem, alprazolam, lorazepam, or diazepam in older adults
    William D Finkle
    Consolidated Research, Inc, Los Angeles, California, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 59:1883-90. 2011
    ..To determine whether zolpidem is a safer alternative to benzodiazepines...
  38. ncbi request reprint Sensitivity analysis of misclassification: a graphical and a Bayesian approach
    Haitao Chu
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Ann Epidemiol 16:834-41. 2006
    ..Misclassification can produce bias in measures of association. Sensitivity analyses have been suggested to explore the impact of such bias, but do not supply formally justified interval estimates...
  39. pmc Adjustment for response bias via two-phase analysis: an application
    Katherine J Hoggatt
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Epidemiology 20:872-9. 2009
    ..We use data from a study of air pollution and birth outcomes to illustrate how a 2-phase analysis can yield less biased and more precise results...
  40. ncbi request reprint Comment concerning "Childhood leukemia and residential magnetic fields: are pooled analyses more valid than the original studies?" (Bioelectromagnetics 27:1-7 [2006])
    Leeka Kheifets
    Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
    Bioelectromagnetics 27:674-5; discussion 675-6. 2006
  41. doi request reprint Bayesian regression in SAS software
    Sheena G Sullivan
    Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 42:308-17. 2013
    ..5% of the time required for MCMC. We also provide online appendices with details and examples for conditional logistic, Poisson and Cox proportional-hazards regression...
  42. ncbi request reprint Childhood leukemia, electric and magnetic fields, and temporal trends
    Leeka Kheifets
    Department of Epidemiology, UCLA School of Public Health, Los Angeles, California 90095 1772, USA
    Bioelectromagnetics 27:545-52. 2006
    ....
  43. pmc Impact of race on hyperparathyroidism, mineral disarrays, administered vitamin D mimetic, and survival in hemodialysis patients
    Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
    Harold Simmons Center for Chronic Disease Research and Epidemiology, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 25:2724-34. 2010
    ..Survival advantages of blacks appear restricted to those receiving higher doses of active vitamin D. Examining the effect of MBD modulation on racial survival disparities of hemodialysis patients is warranted...
  44. ncbi request reprint The intensity-score approach to adjusting for confounding
    Babette Brumback
    Departments of Biostatistics, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 1772, USA
    Biometrics 59:274-85. 2003
    ..We further extend the methods to accomodate repeated outcomes and time-varying effects of time-varying exposures...
  45. ncbi request reprint Hepatitis C virus and death risk in hemodialysis patients
    Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
    Harold Simmons Center for Kidney Disease Research and Epidemiology, Los Angeles Biomedical Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90509 2910, USA
    J Am Soc Nephrol 18:1584-93. 2007
    ..More diligent efforts to prevent and treat HCV infection may improve outcomes in MHD patients...
  46. ncbi request reprint Multivariate meta-analysis of controlled drug studies for obsessive-compulsive disorder
    Deborah L Ackerman
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles 90095 1772, USA
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 22:309-17. 2002
    ..Meta-analyses can help characterize responders and nonresponders. The authors urge investigators to provide summaries of patient characteristics, especially baseline severity, age at onset, and duration of OCD, by patients' response...
  47. ncbi request reprint Inpatient treatment of depression and associated hospital charges
    Deborah L Ackerman
    Department of Epidemiology, UCLA School of Public Health, Box 951772, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1772, USA
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 11:219-27. 2002
    ..We evaluated inpatient treatment of depression, prescribing patterns for antidepressants, and associated hospital charges...
  48. doi request reprint Estimating bias from loss to follow-up in the Danish National Birth Cohort
    Naomi Greene
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Epidemiology 22:815-22. 2011
    ..Our methods and results may inform bias analyses in future pregnancy cohort studies...
  49. ncbi request reprint Reverse epidemiology of hypertension and cardiovascular death in the hemodialysis population: the 58th annual fall conference and scientific sessions
    Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
    Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Los Angeles Biomedical Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, Calif 90509 2910, USA
    Hypertension 45:811-7. 2005
    ..Although these associations may not be causal, they call into question whether treatment goals for the general population can be applied to dialysis patients or other similar populations...
  50. ncbi request reprint Revisiting mortality predictability of serum albumin in the dialysis population: time dependency, longitudinal changes and population-attributable fraction
    Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
    Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, 1000 West Carson Street, Torrance, CA 90509 2910, USA
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 20:1880-8. 2005
    ..However, serum albumin may change over time. Hence, its time-varying associations with outcome may be different...
  51. ncbi request reprint Association of morbid obesity and weight change over time with cardiovascular survival in hemodialysis population
    Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
    Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Los Angeles Biomedical Institute, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90509 2910, USA
    Am J Kidney Dis 46:489-500. 2005
    ..However, the association between changes in weight over time and prospective mortality is not known...
  52. doi request reprint Occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and neurodegenerative disease: a meta-analysis
    Ximena Vergara
    Department of Epidemiology, University of California Los Angeles UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    J Occup Environ Med 55:135-46. 2013
    ..Results differ between studies using proxy exposure based on occupational titles and estimated MF levels. We conducted a meta-analysis of occupational MF NDD, primarily Alzheimer disease (AD), and motor neuron diseases (MNDs) studies...
  53. ncbi request reprint Matched cohort methods for injury research
    Peter Cummings
    Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
    Epidemiol Rev 25:43-50. 2003
  54. ncbi request reprint Socioeconomic status and childhood leukaemia: a review
    Charles Poole
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, 27599 7435, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 35:370-84. 2006
    ..A long-held view links higher socioeconomic status (SES) to higher rates of childhood leukaemia. Some recent studies exhibit associations in the opposite direction...
  55. doi request reprint Using donor-specific antibodies to monitor the need for immunosuppression
    Junichi Hoshino
    Terasaki Foundation Laboratory, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Transplantation 93:1173-8. 2012
    ..The usual measures of function--such as serum creatinine levels--are not sensitive enough to detect rejection in a timely manner...
  56. doi request reprint Dependence of confounding on the target population: a modification of causal graphs to account for co-action
    W Dana Flanders
    Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Ann Epidemiol 21:698-705. 2011
    ..We propose a simple modification of DAG rules to overcome this limitation...
  57. pmc Age of minority sexual orientation development and risk of childhood maltreatment and suicide attempts in women
    Heather L Corliss
    Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Los Angeles School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Am J Orthopsychiatry 79:511-21. 2009
    ..Implications for services, interventions, and further research to address maltreatment disparities for sexual minorities are discussed...
  58. ncbi request reprint Risk factors, confounding, and the illusion of statistical control
    Nicholas J S Christenfeld
    Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0109, USA
    Psychosom Med 66:868-75. 2004
    ..Statistical adjustment serves a useful function, but it cannot transform observational studies into natural experiments, and involves far more subjective judgment than many users realize...
  59. ncbi request reprint Polymorphism of Xeroderma Pigmentosum group G and the risk of lung cancer and squamous cell carcinomas of the oropharynx, larynx and esophagus
    Yan Cui
    Department of Epidemiology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Int J Cancer 118:714-20. 2006
    ..7, 38). In conclusion, our study suggests that the XPG Asp1104Asp genotype may be associated with decreased susceptibility to lung cancer and SCCOLE...
  60. ncbi request reprint Factors affecting hepatitis vaccination refusal at a sexually transmitted disease clinic among men who have sex with men
    Ellen T Rudy
    Departments of Health Services and Epidemiology, UCLA, School of Public Health, 650 Charles E Young Drive South, Box 951772, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1772, USA
    Sex Transm Dis 30:411-8. 2003
    ..However, vaccination rates in STD clinics remain less than optimal...
  61. ncbi request reprint Dissecting effects of complex mixtures: who's afraid of informative priors?
    Duncan C Thomas
    Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 9011, USA
    Epidemiology 18:186-90. 2007
    ..In doing so - and by directly incorporating into our analyses information from other studies or allied fields - we can improve our ability to distinguish true causes of disease from noise and bias...
  62. ncbi request reprint Regarding: a cohort study of systemic and local complications following implantation of testicular prostheses
    Lisa J Herrinton
    Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, CA, USA
    Ann Epidemiol 13:73-7. 2003
  63. pmc HIV prevalence among foreign- and US-born clients of public STD clinics
    Nina T Harawa
    Los Angeles County Department of Health Services, HIV Epidemiology Program, Los Angeles, CA 90005, USA
    Am J Public Health 92:1958-63. 2002
    ..We examined differences in HIV seroprevalence and the likely timing of HIV infection by birth region...
  64. doi request reprint Increasing value and reducing waste in research design, conduct, and analysis
    John P A Ioannidis
    Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA Division of Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA Department of Statistics, School of Humanities and Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA Meta Research Innovation Center at Stanford METRICS, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA Electronic address
    Lancet 383:166-75. 2014
    ....
  65. ncbi request reprint Do differences in relationship and partner attributes explain disparities in sexually transmitted disease among young white and black women?
    Nina T Harawa
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA
    J Adolesc Health 32:187-91. 2003
    ..Although characteristics of sexual partners and relationships often differed by race, this did not explain racial disparities in STDs...
  66. ncbi request reprint Increased risk of serious injury following an initial prescription for diphenhydramine
    William D Finkle
    Consolidated Research, Inc, Los Angeles, California 90024, USA
    Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 89:244-50. 2002
    ..Diphenhydramine may be associated with excess risk of injury relative to nonsedating H1-receptor antagonists...
  67. ncbi request reprint A review of multilevel theory for ecologic analyses
    Sander Greenland
    Department of Epidemiology, UCLA School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1772, USA
    Stat Med 21:389-95. 2002
    ..Multilevel effects also severely complicate causal interpretations of model coefficients...
  68. doi request reprint A study of the effectiveness of a workplace violence intervention for small retail and service establishments
    Carri Casteel
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7505, USA
    J Occup Environ Med 50:1365-70. 2008
    ..Examine the effectiveness of a robbery and violence prevention program in small businesses in Los Angeles...
  69. ncbi request reprint Associations between changes in hemoglobin and administered erythropoiesis-stimulating agent and survival in hemodialysis patients
    Deborah L Regidor
    Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, 1000 West Carson Street, Torrance, CA 90509 2910, USA
    J Am Soc Nephrol 17:1181-91. 2006
    ..Falling hemoglobin and requiring higher ESA doses were associated with decreased survival. Randomized clinical trials are required to examine these associations...
  70. ncbi request reprint Causation and causal inference in epidemiology
    Kenneth J Rothman
    Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
    Am J Public Health 95:S144-50. 2005
    ..Causal inference in epidemiology is better viewed as an exercise in measurement of an effect rather than as a criterion-guided process for deciding whether an effect is present or not...
  71. ncbi request reprint Exposure-measurement error is frequently ignored when interpreting epidemiologic study results
    Anne M Jurek
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Mayo Mail Code 715, 420 Delaware St SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Eur J Epidemiol 21:871-6. 2006
    ..One important source of error in study results is error in measuring exposures. When interpreting study results, one should consider the impact that exposure-measurement error (EME) might have had on study results...
  72. ncbi request reprint Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis and Bayesian analysis of smoking as an unmeasured confounder in a study of silica and lung cancer
    Kyle Steenland
    Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 160:384-92. 2004
    ..15, 1.78). Bayesian results were similar (95% posterior limits: 1.13, 1.84). The authors believe that these types of analyses, which make explicit and quantify sources of uncertainty, should be more widely adopted by epidemiologists...
  73. ncbi request reprint Choosing effect measures for epidemiologic data
    Sander Greenland
    J Clin Epidemiol 55:423-4; author reply 424-5. 2002
  74. ncbi request reprint Curious phenomena in Bayesian adjustment for exposure misclassification
    Paul Gustafson
    Department of Statistics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z2
    Stat Med 25:87-103. 2006
    ..We focus on the simple setting of unmatched case-control analysis with binary exposure and without adjustment for confounders, though much of our discussion should be relevant more generally...
  75. ncbi request reprint Longitudinal associations between dietary protein intake and survival in hemodialysis patients
    Christian S Shinaberger
    Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Los Angeles Biomedical Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90509 2910, USA
    Am J Kidney Dis 48:37-49. 2006
    ..We hypothesized that longitudinal changes in dietary protein intake have independent associations with survival in MHD patients...
  76. ncbi request reprint [The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology [STROBE] statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies]
    Erik von Elm
    Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine ISPM, University of Bern, Berna, Switzerland
    Gac Sanit 22:144-50. 2008
    ..We hope that the STROBE statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies...
  77. ncbi request reprint Bounds on potential risks and causal risk differences under assumptions about confounding parameters
    Yasutaka Chiba
    Department of Biostatistics, Kyoto University School of Public Health, Kyoto, Japan
    Stat Med 26:5125-35. 2007
    ..With perfect compliance in one treatment group, the direction of effect becomes identifiable under our assumptions. Although the assumptions are not themselves identifiable, they are nonetheless reasonable in some situations...
  78. ncbi request reprint [The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies]
    Erik von Elm
    Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine ISPM, University of Bern, Berna, Suiza
    Rev Esp Salud Publica 82:251-9. 2008
    ..We hope that the STROBE statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies...
  79. doi request reprint Erythropoietin, iron depletion, and relative thrombocytosis: a possible explanation for hemoglobin-survival paradox in hemodialysis
    Elani Streja
    Harold Simmons Center for Kidney Disease Research and Epidemiology, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90509 2910, USA
    Am J Kidney Dis 52:727-36. 2008
    ..High doses of human recombinant erythropoietin (rHuEPO) to achieve hemoglobin levels greater than 13 g/dL in patients with chronic kidney disease appear to be associated with increased mortality...
  80. ncbi request reprint The Hanford Thyroid Disease Study: an alternative view of the findings
    F Owen Hoffman
    SENES Oak Ridge, Inc, Center for Risk Analysis, Oak Ridge, TN 37830, USA
    Health Phys 92:99-111. 2007
    ..We recommend that the HTDS results be interpreted as inconclusive rather than as evidence for little or no disease risk from Hanford exposures...
  81. ncbi request reprint Marijuana use and the risk of lung and upper aerodigestive tract cancers: results of a population-based case-control study
    Mia Hashibe
    IARC, Lyon, France
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15:1829-34. 2006
    ..We conducted a population-based case-control study of the association between marijuana use and the risk of lung and upper aerodigestive tract cancers in Los Angeles...
  82. ncbi request reprint The performance of random coefficient regression in accounting for residual confounding
    Paul Gustafson
    Department of Statistics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z2, Canada
    Biometrics 62:760-8. 2006
    ....
  83. doi request reprint How far from non-differential does exposure or disease misclassification have to be to bias measures of association away from the null?
    Anne M Jurek
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 37:382-5. 2008
    ..In light of such examples, we advise that evaluation of misclassification should not be based on the assumption of exact non-differentiality unless the latter can be deduced logically from the facts of the situation...
  84. doi request reprint Bias formulas for external adjustment and sensitivity analysis of unmeasured confounders
    Onyebuchi A Arah
    Department of Social Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Ann Epidemiol 18:637-46. 2008
    ..The authors review and derive a set of parallel simple formulas for bias factors in the risk difference, risk ratio, and odds ratio from studies with an unmeasured polytomous confounder and a dichotomous exposure and outcome...
  85. ncbi request reprint Serum and dialysate potassium concentrations and survival in hemodialysis patients
    Csaba P Kovesdy
    Division of Nephrology, Salem Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Salem, Virginia, USA
    Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2:999-1007. 2007
    ..Controlling serum potassium is an important goal in maintenance hemodialysis patients. We examined the achievement of potassium balance through hemodialysis treatments and the associated fluctuations in serum potassium...
  86. ncbi request reprint Acceptance of HIV testing and counseling among unmarried young adults in Northern Thailand
    Chuleeporn Jiraphongsa
    Field Epidemiology Training Program, Division of Epidemiology, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand
    AIDS Educ Prev 14:89-101. 2002
    ..11%. Factors associated with HIV-TC acceptance were ever having had a sexually transmitted disease, being previously married, intention to get tested, and having partici pated in AIDS-related activities...
  87. doi request reprint Multiple comparisons and association selection in general epidemiology
    Sander Greenland
    Int J Epidemiol 37:430-4. 2008
  88. ncbi request reprint Explaining the association of maternal age with Cesarean delivery for nulliparous and parous women
    Ilana F Gareen
    Center for Statistical Sciences and the Department of Community Health, Brown University School of Medicine, Box G H, Providence, RI 02912, USA
    J Clin Epidemiol 56:1100-10. 2003
    ..We used data on 6,805 live births from the National Maternal and Infant Health Survey to examine the positive association between maternal age and Cesarean delivery...
  89. ncbi request reprint A cohort study of systemic and local complications of toe prostheses
    Gail Husson
    Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, California, USA
    Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ) 32:585-92. 2003
    ..Nonimplant patients were more often diagnosed with derangement of foot or ankle and delayed postoperative healing. We did not find a general association between implants and connective tissue diseases...
  90. ncbi request reprint Improved estimation of controlled direct effects in the presence of unmeasured confounding of intermediate variables
    Sol Kaufman
    Department of Otolaryngology, University at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo NY 14214, USA
    Stat Med 24:1683-702. 2005
    ..An alternate 'limit-modified crude' estimator can never perform less favourably than the stratified estimator, and often has lower RMSB...
  91. ncbi request reprint Epidemiologic review of marijuana use and cancer risk
    Mia Hashibe
    International Agency for Research on Cancer, 69008 Lyon, France
    Alcohol 35:265-75. 2005
    ..Despite the challenges, elucidation of the association between marijuana use and cancer risk is important in weighing the benefits and risks of medical marijuana use and to clarify the impact of marijuana use on public health...
  92. ncbi request reprint Radiation exposure and thyroid cancer
    F Owen Hoffman
    JAMA 296:513; author reply 514. 2006
  93. ncbi request reprint A method to automate probabilistic sensitivity analyses of misclassified binary variables
    Matthew P Fox
    Department of International Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 34:1370-6. 2005
    ..Misclassification bias is present in most studies, yet uncertainty about its magnitude or direction is rarely quantified...