D Gozal

Summary

Affiliation: University of Louisville
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Platelet-activating factor receptor and respiratory and metabolic responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia
    Stephen R Reeves
    Departments of Pediatrics and Pharmacology and Toxicology, Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Suite 204, 570 South Preston St, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 141:13-20. 2004
  2. doi request reprint Postnatal intermittent hypoxia and developmental programming of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats: the role of reactive oxygen species and L-Ca2+ channels
    Galia K Soukhova-O'Hare
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, University of Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Hypertension 52:156-62. 2008
  3. ncbi request reprint Signaling pathways of the acute hypoxic ventilatory response in the nucleus tractus solitarius
    D Gozal
    Department of Pediatrics, Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 570 S Preston Street, Ste 321, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Respir Physiol 121:209-21. 2000
  4. ncbi request reprint Obstructive sleep apnea in children
    D Gozal
    Kosair Children s Hospital Sleep Medicine Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA
    Minerva Pediatr 52:629-39. 2000
  5. ncbi request reprint Behavioral and anatomical correlates of chronic episodic hypoxia during sleep in the rat
    D Gozal
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Departments of Pediatrics, Pharmacology, and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA
    J Neurosci 21:2442-50. 2001
  6. ncbi request reprint Brainstem activation of platelet-derived growth factor-beta receptor modulates the late phase of the hypoxic ventilatory response
    D Gozal
    Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
    J Neurochem 74:310-9. 2000
  7. ncbi request reprint Brainstem nitric oxide tissue levels correlate with anoxia-induced gasping activity in the developing rat
    D Gozal
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Departments of Pediatrics, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, KY 40202, USA
    Biol Neonate 79:122-30. 2001
  8. ncbi request reprint Morbidity of obstructive sleep apnea in children: facts and theory
    D Gozal
    Department of Pediatrics, Kosair Children s Hospital Sleep Medicine and Apnea Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA
    Sleep Breath 5:35-42. 2001
  9. ncbi request reprint In vivo PDGF beta receptor activation in the dorsocaudal brainstem of the rat prevents hypoxia-induced apoptosis via activation of Akt and BAD
    N Simakajornboon
    Constance S Kaufman Pediatric Pulmonary Research Laboratory, Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    Brain Res 895:111-8. 2001
  10. ncbi request reprint Increased production of reactive oxygen species contributes to motor neuron death in a compression mouse model of spinal cord injury
    W Xu
    Department of Pediatrics, Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Spinal Cord 43:204-13. 2005

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications120 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Platelet-activating factor receptor and respiratory and metabolic responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia
    Stephen R Reeves
    Departments of Pediatrics and Pharmacology and Toxicology, Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Suite 204, 570 South Preston St, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 141:13-20. 2004
    ..Imbalances in PAFR activity may lead to maladaptive regulation of the tightly controlled metabolic-ventilatory relationships during hypoxia...
  2. doi request reprint Postnatal intermittent hypoxia and developmental programming of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats: the role of reactive oxygen species and L-Ca2+ channels
    Galia K Soukhova-O'Hare
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, University of Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Hypertension 52:156-62. 2008
    ....
  3. ncbi request reprint Signaling pathways of the acute hypoxic ventilatory response in the nucleus tractus solitarius
    D Gozal
    Department of Pediatrics, Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 570 S Preston Street, Ste 321, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Respir Physiol 121:209-21. 2000
    ....
  4. ncbi request reprint Obstructive sleep apnea in children
    D Gozal
    Kosair Children s Hospital Sleep Medicine Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA
    Minerva Pediatr 52:629-39. 2000
    ..This review provides a detailed and current description of OSA in children, and focuses on the integrative elements necessary for increasing the awareness and diagnostic yield of the community practitioner...
  5. ncbi request reprint Behavioral and anatomical correlates of chronic episodic hypoxia during sleep in the rat
    D Gozal
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Departments of Pediatrics, Pharmacology, and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA
    J Neurosci 21:2442-50. 2001
    ..Furthermore, EHYP impaired performance during acquisition of a cognitive spatial task without affecting sensorimotor function. Such changes may underlie components of the learning and memory impairments found in OSA...
  6. ncbi request reprint Brainstem activation of platelet-derived growth factor-beta receptor modulates the late phase of the hypoxic ventilatory response
    D Gozal
    Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
    J Neurochem 74:310-9. 2000
    ....
  7. ncbi request reprint Brainstem nitric oxide tissue levels correlate with anoxia-induced gasping activity in the developing rat
    D Gozal
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Departments of Pediatrics, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, KY 40202, USA
    Biol Neonate 79:122-30. 2001
    ..We conclude that anoxia-induced gasping neurogenesis is modulated via NMDA-NO mechanisms in the developing rat. We postulate that higher NO brainstem concentrations may favor early autoresuscitation, but limit anoxic tolerance...
  8. ncbi request reprint Morbidity of obstructive sleep apnea in children: facts and theory
    D Gozal
    Department of Pediatrics, Kosair Children s Hospital Sleep Medicine and Apnea Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA
    Sleep Breath 5:35-42. 2001
    ....
  9. ncbi request reprint In vivo PDGF beta receptor activation in the dorsocaudal brainstem of the rat prevents hypoxia-induced apoptosis via activation of Akt and BAD
    N Simakajornboon
    Constance S Kaufman Pediatric Pulmonary Research Laboratory, Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    Brain Res 895:111-8. 2001
    ..We conclude that PDGFR-dependent in vivo activation of both Akt and BAD during hypoxia prevents induction of apoptosis, and may contribute to the increased hypoxic tolerance of brainstem neurons...
  10. ncbi request reprint Increased production of reactive oxygen species contributes to motor neuron death in a compression mouse model of spinal cord injury
    W Xu
    Department of Pediatrics, Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Spinal Cord 43:204-13. 2005
    ..Experimental laboratory investigation of the role and pathways of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated motor neuron cell death in a mouse model of compression spinal cord injury...
  11. ncbi request reprint AMPA glutamate receptors and respiratory control in the developing rat: anatomic and pharmacological aspects
    G M Whitney
    Department of Pediatrics, Constance S Kaufman Pediatric Pulmonary Research Laboratory, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 278:R520-8. 2000
    ..Furthermore, the role of non-NMDA receptors in respiratory control of conscious neonatal rats appears to be limited to modest, albeit significant, regulation of breathing pattern...
  12. ncbi request reprint Cardiorespiratory responses to systemic administration of a protein kinase C inhibitor in conscious rats
    D Gozal
    Constance S Kaufman Pediatric Pulmonary Research Laboratory, Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 84:641-8. 1998
    ..We postulate that PKC plays an important role in signal transduction pathways within brain regions underlying respiratory control...
  13. ncbi request reprint Hypoxia induces c-Fos protein expression in NMDA but not AMPA glutamate receptor labeled neurons within the nucleus tractus solitarii of the conscious rat
    D Gozal
    Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    Neurosci Lett 262:93-6. 1999
    ..These data suggest a predominant role for NMDA but not for AMPA glutamate receptors in nTS mediated components of the hypoxic response...
  14. ncbi request reprint NF-kappaB induction during in vivo hypoxia in dorsocaudal brain stem of rat: effect of MK-801 and L-NAME
    E Gozal
    Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 85:372-6. 1998
    ..Thus NMDA-receptor activation in the dorsocaudal brain stem during hypoxia elicits in NF-kappaB activity marked enhancements that are unaffected after NOS blockade...
  15. ncbi request reprint Nitric oxide modulates anoxia-induced gasping in the developing rat
    D Gozal
    Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    Biol Neonate 73:264-74. 1998
    ..We postulate that higher NO brainstem concentrations may favor early autoresuscitation but be detrimental to overall survival during prolonged asphyxia...
  16. pmc Neuroglobin protects neurons against oxidative stress in global ischemia
    Richard Changxun Li
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 30:1874-82. 2010
    ..Furthermore, CA1 neuronal injury was also markedly reduced. Thus, Ngb may confer protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in the brain through its intrinsic antioxidant properties...
  17. ncbi request reprint Hypoxemia and obesity modulate plasma C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels in sleep-disordered breathing
    Riva Tauman
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Sleep Breath 11:77-84. 2007
    ..03) and correlated with AHI (r = 0.28, p = 0.003) and SpO(2) nadir (r = -0.24, p = 0.02). Children with SDB display significant severity-dependent increases in plasma CRP and IL-6 levels independent of obesity...
  18. ncbi request reprint Platelet-activating factor receptor-deficient mice are protected from experimental sleep apnea-induced learning deficits
    Barry W Row
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA
    J Neurochem 89:189-96. 2004
    ..Collectively, these findings indicate that inflammatory signaling and neurobehavioral impairments induced by IH are mediated through PAF receptors...
  19. pmc Obstructive sleep apnea in children: relative contributions of body mass index and adenotonsillar hypertrophy
    Ehab Dayyat
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Chest 136:137-44. 2009
    ..The obesity epidemic has prompted remarkable changes in the proportion of obese children who are referred for habitual snoring. However, the contribution of obesity to adenotonsillar hypertrophy remains undefined...
  20. ncbi request reprint Developmental differences in cortical and hippocampal vulnerability to intermittent hypoxia in the rat
    E Gozal
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Neurosci Lett 305:197-201. 2001
    ....
  21. ncbi request reprint High fat/refined carbohydrate diet enhances the susceptibility to spatial learning deficits in rats exposed to intermittent hypoxia
    A D Goldbart
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Brain Res 1090:190-6. 2006
    ..high fat refined carbohydrate diet (HF/RC) can induce similar deficits and associated changes in signaling pathways under normoxic conditions...
  22. ncbi request reprint Developmental patterns of NF-kappaB activation during acute hypoxia in the caudal brainstem of the rat
    N Simakajornboon
    Constance S. Kaufman Pediatric Pulmonary Research Laboratory, Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    Brain Res Dev Brain Res 127:175-83. 2001
    ..We postulate that postnatal regulation of NF-kappaB complex expression and function may underlie fundamental genomic processes mediating developmental changes in neuronal hypoxic tolerance...
  23. doi request reprint Corticosteroids suppress in vitro tonsillar proliferation in children with obstructive sleep apnoea
    L Kheirandish-Gozal
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Sleep Medicine, Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA
    Eur Respir J 33:1077-84. 2009
    ....
  24. ncbi request reprint Hypoxic ventilatory roll-off is associated with decreases in protein kinase C activation within the nucleus tractus solitarius of the rat
    D Gozal
    Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    Brain Res 774:246-9. 1997
    ..Thus, alterations in PKC activity within the NTS which occur over time during hypoxia are isoform-selective and coincide with changes in ventilation...
  25. ncbi request reprint Protein kinase C modulation of ventilatory response to hypoxia in nucleus tractus solitarii of conscious rats
    E Gozal
    Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 84:1982-90. 1998
    ..These studies suggest that, in the adult rat, PKC activation in the NTS mediates essential components of the acute hypoxic ventilatory response...
  26. ncbi request reprint Sleep and neurobehavioral characteristics of 5- to 7-year-old children with parentally reported symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Louise M O'Brien
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, and Division of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA
    Pediatrics 111:554-63. 2003
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint Intermittent hypoxia induces time-dependent changes in the protein kinase B signaling pathway in the hippocampal CA1 region of the rat
    Aviv Goldbart
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 14:440-6. 2003
    ..Thus, IH induces time-dependent biphasic changes in AKT survival pathways within the CA1 region that are temporally correlated with the initial increases and subsequent decreases in neuronal apoptosis...
  28. ncbi request reprint PDGF-beta receptor expression in the dorsocaudal brainstem parallels hypoxic ventilatory depression in the developing rat
    V Vlasic
    Kosair Children's Hospital Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 570 S. Preston Street, Louisville, KY 40202
    Pediatr Res 50:236-41. 2001
    ..We conclude that PDGF-beta receptor activation during hypoxia is an important contributor to HVD at all postnatal ages but more particularly in the immature rat...
  29. ncbi request reprint Modulation of the hypoxic ventilatory response by Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent protein kinase C in the dorsocaudal brainstem of conscious rats
    D Gozal
    Department of Pediatrics SL 37, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    Respir Physiol 112:283-90. 1998
    ..Gö 6976 + BIM V: P = NS). We conclude that in the dorsocaudal brainstem, PKC-mediated components of HVR involve activation of both Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent PKC isoforms...
  30. ncbi request reprint Correlates of sleep and pediatric bipolar disorder
    Rochelle C Mehl
    Department of Pediatrics, Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute and Division of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, University of Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Sleep 29:193-7. 2006
    ..To determine, based on a large community sample, the prevalence and associated sleep characteristics of children with a bipolar mood disturbance behavioral profile...
  31. ncbi request reprint Sleep pressure correlates of cognitive and behavioral morbidity in snoring children
    Louise M O'Brien
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Division of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Sleep 27:279-82. 2004
    ..A sleep pressure score (SPS) with a cutoff value of 0.25 was derived from analysis of a large cohort of snoring and control children. Neurocognitive batteries were applied to examine the potential effect of SPS...
  32. ncbi request reprint The scoring of respiratory events in sleep: reliability and validity
    Susan Redline
    Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, WA 44106 6033, USA
    J Clin Sleep Med 3:169-200. 2007
    ....
  33. ncbi request reprint Reciprocal interactions between spontaneous and respiratory arousals in adults with suspected sleep-disordered breathing
    Riva Tauman
    Division of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Sleep Med 7:229-34. 2006
    ..The aim of the present study was to assess the interactions between respiratory and spontaneous arousals in adults with suspected SDB, and to examine whether the SPS and the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) are correlated...
  34. ncbi request reprint Intranasal steroids and oral leukotriene modifier therapy in residual sleep-disordered breathing after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in children
    Leila Kheirandish
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Division of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA
    Pediatrics 117:e61-6. 2006
    ..We hypothesized that combined therapy with the leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast and intranasal budesonide would result in normalization of residual SDB after T&A...
  35. ncbi request reprint Sleep pressure score: a new index of sleep disruption in snoring children
    Riva Tauman
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Division of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA
    Sleep 27:274-8. 2004
    ..We hypothesized that sleep architecture and arousal indexes may be altered relative to the severity of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB)...
  36. ncbi request reprint Vascular endothelial growth factor in the cerebrospinal fluid of infants who died of sudden infant death syndrome: evidence for antecedent hypoxia
    Kimberly L Jones
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA
    Pediatrics 111:358-63. 2003
    ..The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene is highly sensitive to changes in tissue partial oxygen tension, and changes in genomic and protein expression occur even after changes in oxygenation within the physiologic range...
  37. ncbi request reprint Neurocognitive dysfunction in children with sleep disorders
    Leila Kheirandish
    Child and Youth Project and Division of Paediatric Sleep Medicine, Department of Paediatrics, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Dev Sci 9:388-99. 2006
    ..This article takes a critical look at the current literature on these issues, reviews the major findings and discusses such findings in conjunction with those derived from pertinent animal models...
  38. pmc Plasma C-reactive protein in nonobese children with obstructive sleep apnea before and after adenotonsillectomy
    Leila Kheirandish-Gozal
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, University of Louisville School of Medicine, KY 40202, USA
    J Clin Sleep Med 2:301-4. 2006
    ..Plasma CRP levels in snoring children have yielded conflicting results, such that it remains unclear whether OSA is mechanistically involved in such elevations of CRP...
  39. doi request reprint Neurocognitive and endothelial dysfunction in children with obstructive sleep apnea
    David Gozal
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, 5721 S Maryland Ave, MC 8000, Suite K 160, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Pediatrics 126:e1161-7. 2010
    ..However, it is unclear whether these 2 frequent morbidities of OSAS in children represent similar or different underlying pathophysiological processes, because they have never been concurrently assessed in children...
  40. ncbi request reprint Urinary protein expression patterns in children with sleep-disordered breathing: preliminary findings
    Jyoti Krishna
    Division of Pediatric Sleep Medicine and Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Sleep Med 7:221-7. 2006
    ..The aim of this study was therefore to analyze proteins in human urine and assess whether differential expression of particular proteins is associated with the presence of OSA...
  41. pmc Endothelial dysfunction in obese non-hypertensive children without evidence of sleep disordered breathing
    Rakesh Bhattacharjee
    Division of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, Kentucky, USA
    BMC Pediatr 10:8. 2010
    ..It is unknown whether obesity causes endothelial dysfunction in children in the absence of OSAS. This study examines endothelial function in obese and non-obese children without OSAS...
  42. pmc Exogenous growth hormone attenuates cognitive deficits induced by intermittent hypoxia in rats
    R C Li
    Department of Pediatrics, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Neuroscience 196:237-50. 2011
    ..Thus, exogenous GH may provide a viable therapeutic intervention to protect IH-vulnerable brain regions from SDB-associated neuronal loss and associated neurocognitive dysfunction...
  43. ncbi request reprint Potentiation of hypoxic ventilatory response by hyperoxia in the conscious rat: putative role of nitric oxide
    D Gozal
    Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 85:129-32. 1998
    ..1 +/- 35.6 ml/min in hypoxia; +O2 vs. -O2: P not significant). We conclude that in the conscious rat nNOS activation mediates essential components of the HVR potentiation elicited by a previous short hyperoxic exposure...
  44. ncbi request reprint Domoic acid lesions in nucleus of the solitary tract: time-dependent recovery of hypoxic ventilatory response and peripheral afferent axonal plasticity
    Zixi Cheng
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA
    J Neurosci 22:3215-26. 2002
    ..The adult brainstem/NTS has self-repairing capabilities and will compensate for functional losses after structural damage by rewiring of its neural circuitry...
  45. ncbi request reprint Neurobehavioral implications of habitual snoring in children
    Louise M O'Brien
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute and Division of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA
    Pediatrics 114:44-9. 2004
    ..However, PS has not been well evaluated, and it is unknown whether PS is associated with serious morbidity. This study investigated whether PS is associated with neurobehavioral deficits in children...
  46. pmc Green tea catechin polyphenols attenuate behavioral and oxidative responses to intermittent hypoxia
    Isabel C Burckhardt
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, University of Louisville, 570 South Preston Street, Suite 204, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 177:1135-41. 2008
    ..We hypothesized that green tea catechin polyphenols (GTPs) may attenuate IH-induced neurobehavioral deficits by reducing IH-induced NADPH oxidase expression, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation...
  47. ncbi request reprint The effect of chronic or intermittent hypoxia on cognition in childhood: a review of the evidence
    Joel L Bass
    Department of Pediatrics, Newton Wellesley Hospital, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Harvard Medical School, Newton, Massachusetts 02462, USA
    Pediatrics 114:805-16. 2004
    ....
  48. ncbi request reprint Postnatal intermittent hypoxia alters baroreflex function in adult rats
    Galia K Soukhova-O'Hare
    Department of Pediatrics, Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, 570 S Preston St, Suite 321, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 290:H1157-64. 2006
    ..001) and vagal axon varicose contacts by 56% (P < 0.001) compared with controls. We conclude that reduction of vagal efferent projections in cardiac ganglia could be a cause of long-term modifications in baroreflex function...
  49. ncbi request reprint Cerebral oximetry improves detection of sickle cell patients at risk for nocturnal cerebral hypoxia
    Ashok B Raj
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA
    Pediatr Pulmonol 41:1088-94. 2006
    ..71 (0.66-0.81) vs. SCD 0.59 (0.52-0.65); P = 0.011]. Our findings suggest that SCD patients may be at increased risk of cerebral hypoxia during both wakefulness and sleep...
  50. ncbi request reprint Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice exhibit increased vulnerability to intermittent hypoxia-induced spatial learning deficits
    Leila Kheirandish
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Sleep 28:1412-7. 2005
    ....
  51. ncbi request reprint Plasma C-reactive protein levels among children with sleep-disordered breathing
    Riva Tauman
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Division of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA
    Pediatrics 113:e564-9. 2004
    ..We hypothesized that elevated CRP plasma levels would also be present among children with SDB...
  52. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of epileptiform activity in healthy children during sleep
    Oscar Sans Capdevila
    Kosair Children s Hospital Sleep Medicine and Apnea Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, 570 South Preston Street, Suite 204, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Sleep Med 9:303-9. 2008
    ..This type of paroxysmal activity does not include the electroencephalographic (EEG) activity observed during a seizure. The prevalence of epileptiform activity in the general pediatric population is unknown...
  53. pmc Two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis proteomic approaches reveal urine candidate biomarkers in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea
    David Gozal
    Section of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 180:1253-61. 2009
    ..Sleep studies are laborious, expensive, inaccessible, and inconvenient for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children...
  54. ncbi request reprint Impaired control of renal sympathetic nerve activity following neonatal intermittent hypoxia in rats
    Galia K Soukhova-O'Hare
    Department of Pediatrics, Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Neurosci Lett 399:181-5. 2006
    ..We conclude that postnatal intermittent hypoxia causes long-lasting impairment in chemoreceptor and baroreceptor control of renal nerve activity...
  55. pmc A mixed cell culture model for assessment of proliferation in tonsillar tissues from children with obstructive sleep apnea or recurrent tonsillitis
    Laura D Serpero
    Division of Sleep Medicine, Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA
    Laryngoscope 119:1005-10. 2009
    ..However, little is known on the determinants of lymphadenoid tissue proliferation in the pediatric upper airway...
  56. doi request reprint Cardiovascular complications of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: evidence from children
    Rakesh Bhattacharjee
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Prog Cardiovasc Dis 51:416-33. 2009
    ..In this review, we will present the specific cardiovascular complications that have thus far been described in children with OSAS, with reference to pertinent mechanisms, and potential implications...
  57. ncbi request reprint Respiratory muscle training in neuromuscular disease: long-term effects on strength and load perception
    D Gozal
    Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 31:1522-7. 1999
    ..Deterioration of respiratory muscle function in patients with neuromuscular disorders is primarily responsible for the high morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases...
  58. ncbi request reprint Excitotoxic preconditioning elicited by both glutamate and hypoxia and abolished by lactate transport inhibition in rat hippocampal slices
    A Schurr
    Brain Attack Research Laboratory, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40292, USA
    Neurosci Lett 307:151-4. 2001
    ..These results indicate that excitotoxic PC and hypoxic PC share similar mechanisms that possibly involve lactate production and its neuronal utilization...
  59. ncbi request reprint Snoring during early childhood and academic performance at ages thirteen to fourteen years
    D Gozal
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA
    Pediatrics 107:1394-9. 2001
    ..Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in young children is associated with an adverse effect on learning. However, the long-term impact of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) during early childhood on learning remains unknown...
  60. ncbi request reprint Novel insights into congenital hypoventilation syndrome
    D Gozal
    Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA
    Curr Opin Pulm Med 5:335-8. 1999
    ....
  61. ncbi request reprint Early postnatal chronic intermittent hypoxia modifies hypoxic respiratory responses and long-term phrenic facilitation in adult rats
    Stephen R Reeves
    Department of Pediatrics, Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Suite 204, 570 South Preston St, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 290:R1664-71. 2006
    ..e., metaplasticity) and markedly differ from previously reported increased neural plasticity changes induced by CIH in adult rats...
  62. ncbi request reprint Adipokines in children with sleep disordered breathing
    Riva Tauman
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Division of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Sleep 30:443-9. 2007
    ..Therefore, we aimed to examine associations between circulating adipokines levels, insulin resistance, and measures of SDB in children...
  63. ncbi request reprint Akt-mediated valosin-containing protein 97 phosphorylation regulates its association with ubiquitinated proteins
    Jon B Klein
    Core Proteomics Laboratory, University of Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:31870-81. 2005
    ..We concluded that Akt phosphorylates VCP in vitro and in vivo, and VCP phosphorylation releases it from ubiquitinated substrate protein(s) possibly allowing ubiquitinated protein(s) to be degraded by the proteosome...
  64. ncbi request reprint Anatomical changes in selected cardio-respiratory brainstem nuclei following early post-natal chronic intermittent hypoxia
    Stephen R Reeves
    Department of Pediatrics, Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, University of Louisville School of Medicine, KY 40202, USA
    Neurosci Lett 402:233-7. 2006
    ..Thus, CIH-associated cardio-respiratory metaplasticity is accompanied by substantial structural changes within both the nTS and Namb...
  65. ncbi request reprint Obesity rather than severity of sleep-disordered breathing as the major determinant of insulin resistance and altered lipidemia in snoring children
    Riva Tauman
    Division of Pediatric Sleep Medicine and Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA
    Pediatrics 116:e66-73. 2005
    ..This study was done to prospectively assess the relative contribution of SDB and obesity to metabolic disturbances in a large cohort of snoring children...
  66. ncbi request reprint Persistence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children after adenotonsillectomy
    Riva Tauman
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA
    J Pediatr 149:803-8. 2006
    ..To investigate the relative contribution of various risk factors to the surgical outcome of adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children...
  67. ncbi request reprint Autonomic dysfunction in children with sleep-disordered breathing
    Louise M O'Brien
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, and Division of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Sleep 28:747-52. 2005
    ..To measure sympathetic responses in children with and without sleep-disordered breathing...
  68. ncbi request reprint Nocturnal body position in sleeping children with and without obstructive sleep apnea
    Ehab Dayyat
    Kosair Children s Hospital Sleep Medicine and Apnea Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA
    Pediatr Pulmonol 42:374-9. 2007
    ..Although tonsillar size is not associated with positional differences in breathing, the presence or absence of obesity markedly modifies the effect of body position on respiratory disturbance...
  69. pmc Sleep measures and morning plasma TNF-alpha levels in children with sleep-disordered breathing
    David Gozal
    Section of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
    Sleep 33:319-25. 2010
    ..Since, at any given level of apnea-hypopnea index, there is significant variability in EDS, we hypothesized that morning tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha plasma levels may provide a biologic correlate of EDS...
  70. pmc Endothelial progenitor cells and vascular dysfunction in children with obstructive sleep apnea
    Leila Kheirandish-Gozal
    Section of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, The University of Chicago, 5721 S Maryland Avenue, MC 8000, Suite K 160, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 182:92-7. 2010
    ..Endothelial dysfunction is a potential complication of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children ascribed to systemic inflammatory changes. However, not all children with OSAS will manifest endothelial dysfunction...
  71. pmc Sleep-disordered breathing and verbal skills in school-aged community children
    Sarah Morsbach Honaker
    Division of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA
    Dev Neuropsychol 34:588-600. 2009
    ..Although overall cognitive performances of SBD children remain in normative range, their problematic verbal skills may ultimately adversely affect academic performances or socioemotional behaviors...
  72. ncbi request reprint Behavioural and neurocognitive implications of snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea in children: facts and theory
    Louise M O'Brien
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville School of Medicine, KY 40202, USA
    Paediatr Respir Rev 3:3-9. 2002
    ..This paper reviews the available information and attempts to provide the rationale for early diagnosis and treatment of OSA in children...
  73. doi request reprint Sleep, sleep disorders and inflammation in children
    David Gozal
    Department of Pediatrics, Comer Children s Hospital, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Sleep Med 10:S12-6. 2009
    ....
  74. ncbi request reprint Periodic limb movement disorder of sleep in children
    Valerie McLaughlin Crabtree
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Division of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 571 S Preston Street, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    J Sleep Res 12:73-81. 2003
    ..We postulate that rather than a direct relationship between ADHD and PLMD, this link may be mediated by the presence of reduced REM sleep and more importantly by the sleep fragmentation associated with PLM-induced arousals...
  75. ncbi request reprint Intermittent hypoxia is associated with oxidative stress and spatial learning deficits in the rat
    Barry W Row
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, University of Louisville, Baxter Biomedical Research Building, Suite 321, 570 South Preston Street, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 167:1548-53. 2003
    ..Collectively, these findings indicate that the IH exposure is associated with increased oxidative stress, which is likely to play an important role in the behavioral impairments observed in a rodent model of sleep-disordered breathing...
  76. ncbi request reprint Spatial pre-training attenuates hippocampal impairments in rats exposed to intermittent hypoxia
    Barry W Row
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, Baxter Biomedical Research Building, Suite 321, 570 South Preston Street, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Neurosci Lett 339:67-71. 2003
    ..Further, IH-induced decreases in CREB phosphorylation were attenuated by pre-training. We conclude that prior exposure to the water maze behavioral requirements attenuates the behavioral deficits occurring after IH exposure...
  77. doi request reprint Nocturnal polysomnographic characteristics of habitually snoring children initially referred to pediatric ENT or sleep clinics
    Rakesh Bhattacharjee
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Sleep Med 10:1031-4. 2009
    ..To determine clinical and polysomnographic characteristics of children initially referred by primary care physicians (PCP) to either otolaryngology or sleep clinics for a history of habitual snoring...
  78. ncbi request reprint Cyclooxygenase 2 and intermittent hypoxia-induced spatial deficits in the rat
    Richard C Li
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, 570 South Preston Street, Suite 321, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 168:469-75. 2003
    ..We conclude that IH induces upregulation and activation of COX-2 in rat cortex and that COX-2 may play a role in IH-mediated neurobehavioral deficits...
  79. ncbi request reprint Neurobehavioral correlates of sleep-disordered breathing in children
    Louise M O'Brien
    Department of Pediatrics, Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute and Division of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, Universtiy of Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    J Sleep Res 13:165-72. 2004
    ..Furthermore, total arousal index was negatively correlated with neurocognitive abilities, suggesting a role for sleep fragmentation in pediatric SDB-induced cognitive dysfunction...
  80. ncbi request reprint Peripheral arterial tonometry events and electroencephalographic arousals in children
    Riva Tauman
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute and Division of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Sleep 27:502-6. 2004
    ..We investigated whether PAT events during sleep are associated with visually recognizable electroencephalographic arousals in healthy children and in children with sleep-disordered breathing...
  81. ncbi request reprint Psychiatric symptoms in children with insomnia referred to a pediatric sleep medicine center
    Anna Ivanenko
    Division of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 571 S Preston Street Suite 321, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Sleep Med 5:253-9. 2004
    ..To assess the frequency and nature of clinical and psychiatric symptoms in children referred to a pediatric sleep center for evaluation of insomnia...
  82. ncbi request reprint Passive motion of the extremities modifies alveolar ventilation during sleep in patients with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome
    D Gozal
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 162:1747-51. 2000
    ..We speculate that such effect may provide future noninvasive ventilatory support strategies in patients with CCHS and mild phenotypic expression of their disease...
  83. ncbi request reprint Objective sleepiness measures in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea
    D Gozal
    Kosair Children s Hospital Sleep Medicine and Apnea Center, Division of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA
    Pediatrics 108:693-7. 2001
    ..Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) occurs frequently in adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, the incidence of EDS in children with OSA is unknown...
  84. ncbi request reprint Mild sustained and intermittent hypoxia induce apoptosis in PC-12 cells via different mechanisms
    Evelyne Gozal
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, 570 South Preston St, Suite 321, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 288:C535-42. 2005
    ....
  85. doi request reprint Obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with impaired pictorial memory task acquisition and retention in children
    L Kheirandish-Gozal
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute and Division of Paediatric Sleep, Dept of Paediatrics, Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA
    Eur Respir J 36:164-9. 2010
    ..Thus, both acquisition and retention of newly learned material are compromised. These findings confirm and expand on the presence of known cognitive deficits in children with OSA...
  86. pmc Cardiovascular morbidity in obstructive sleep apnea: oxidative stress, inflammation, and much more
    David Gozal
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 570 South Preston Street, Suite 204, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 177:369-75. 2008
    ....
  87. pmc C-reactive protein, obstructive sleep apnea, and cognitive dysfunction in school-aged children
    David Gozal
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 570 South Preston Street, Suite 204, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 176:188-93. 2007
    ..Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children is associated with substantial neurobehavioral and cognitive dysfunction. However, not all children with OSA exhibit altered cognitive performance...
  88. pmc Systemic inflammation in non-obese children with obstructive sleep apnea
    David Gozal
    Division of Pediatric Sleep Medicine and Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, 570 South Preston Street, Suite 204, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Sleep Med 9:254-9. 2008
    ..The changes in levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 , and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, both of which play a major role in atherogenesis, a major consequence of OSA, have not specifically been assessed in pediatric patients...
  89. doi request reprint Catecholamine alterations in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea: effect of obesity
    Ayelet B Snow
    Division of Pediatric Sleep Medicine and Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Pediatr Pulmonol 44:559-67. 2009
    ..Moreover, urinary catecholamine excretion is altered in obese patients. We hypothesized that morning urine catecholamine levels would be correlated with the severity of obstructive sleep apnea and degree of obesity in children...
  90. ncbi request reprint APOE epsilon 4 allele, cognitive dysfunction, and obstructive sleep apnea in children
    David Gozal
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute and Division of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Neurology 69:243-9. 2007
    ..Considering the unique susceptibility of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knock-out mice to an experimental model of OSA, we examined whether the APOE epsilon4 allele contributes to increased neurocognitive morbidity in pediatric OSA...
  91. ncbi request reprint Temporal aspects of spatial task performance during intermittent hypoxia in the rat: evidence for neurogenesis
    David Gozal
    Department of Pediatrics, Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 570 South Preston St, Louisville, KY 40202 USA
    Eur J Neurosci 18:2335-42. 2003
    ....
  92. ncbi request reprint Proteomic analysis of CA1 and CA3 regions of rat hippocampus and differential susceptibility to intermittent hypoxia
    Evelyne Gozal
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40204, USA
    J Neurochem 83:331-45. 2002
    ..These findings provide initial insights into mechanisms underlying differences in susceptibility to hypoxia in neural tissue, and may allow for future delineation of interventional strategies aiming to enhance neuronal adaptation to IH...
  93. ncbi request reprint Oxidant stress and inflammation in the snoring child: confluent pathways to upper airway pathogenesis and end-organ morbidity
    David Gozal
    Division of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, University of Louisville, 570 S Preston Street, Suite 321, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Sleep Med Rev 10:83-96. 2006
    ..This hypothetical working model incorporates both dose-dependent disease severity components, as well as environmental and genetic elements of susceptibility...
  94. ncbi request reprint Intermittent hypoxic exposure during light phase induces changes in cAMP response element binding protein activity in the rat CA1 hippocampal region: water maze performance correlates
    A Goldbart
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, Suite 321, 570 South Preston Street, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Neuroscience 122:585-90. 2003
    ..We suggest that CREB changes play an important role in the neurocognitive morbidity of SDB patients...
  95. ncbi request reprint Glucose administration before exercise modulates catecholaminergic responses in glycogen-depleted subjects
    D Gozal
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Tulane School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 82:248-56. 1997
    ..We speculate that the magnitude of insulin surge after acutely increased Glc before exercise in GD subjects may exert dissociative effects on adrenal-dependent glycogenolysis and on sympathetic responses...
  96. ncbi request reprint Pulmonary manifestations of neuromuscular disease with special reference to Duchenne muscular dystrophy and spinal muscular atrophy
    D Gozal
    Constance S Kaufman Pediatric Pulmonary Research Laboratory, Section of Pediatric Pulmonology, Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
    Pediatr Pulmonol 29:141-50. 2000
    ....
  97. ncbi request reprint Hyperinnervation of the airways in transgenic mice overexpressing nerve growth factor
    G W Hoyle
    Department of Medicine and Pediatrics, Tulane University Medical Center, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 18:149-57. 1998
    ..We conclude that NGF overexpression from a lung-specific promoter produces anatomic and functional changes in lung innervation, and that CCSP-NGF mice will be useful for studying the role of neurogenic inflammation in airway disease...
  98. ncbi request reprint Respiratory plasticity following intermittent hypoxia: developmental interactions
    E Gozal
    Kosair Children's Hospital Research Institute, Departments of Pediatrics, Pharmacology, and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA
    J Appl Physiol 90:1995-9. 2001
    ..Further delineation of such complex responses to IH may permit the formulation of interventional strategies aiming at reducing the overall vulnerability of the young infant and child to apnea and sudden death...
  99. ncbi request reprint Increased oxidative stress is associated with chronic intermittent hypoxia-mediated brain cortical neuronal cell apoptosis in a mouse model of sleep apnea
    W Xu
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, 215 Baxter Building I, 570 South Preston Street, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Neuroscience 126:313-23. 2004
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that the increased ROS production and oxidative stress propagation contribute, at least partially, to CIH-mediated cortical neuronal apoptosis and neurocognitive dysfunction...
  100. ncbi request reprint S-nitrosothiols signal the ventilatory response to hypoxia
    A J Lipton
    Kosair Children s Hospital Research Institute, Departments of Pediatrics, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA
    Nature 413:171-4. 2001
    ..The normal response to hypoxia is impaired in a knockout mouse lacking gamma-GT. These observations suggest that S-nitrosothiol biochemistry is of central importance to the regulation of breathing...
  101. ncbi request reprint Cognition, sleep and respiration in at-risk children treated for obstructive sleep apnoea
    H E Montgomery-Downs
    Division of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, Dept of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA
    Eur Respir J 25:336-42. 2005
    ....