B A Gower

Summary

Affiliation: University of Alabama at Birmingham
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Favourable metabolic effects of a eucaloric lower-carbohydrate diet in women with PCOS
    Barbara A Gower
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1675 University Blvd, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 79:550-7. 2013
  2. doi request reprint Divergent effects of obesity on bone health
    Barbara A Gower
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Electronic address
    J Clin Densitom 16:450-4. 2013
  3. pmc Associations of total and undercarboxylated osteocalcin with peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in overweight adults
    Barbara A Gower
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 3360, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 98:E1173-80. 2013
  4. pmc Insulin sensitivity affects propensity to obesity in an ethnic-specific manner: results from two controlled weight loss intervention studies
    Barbara A Gower
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Nutr Metab (Lond) 10:3. 2013
  5. pmc A higher-carbohydrate, lower-fat diet reduces fasting glucose concentration and improves β-cell function in individuals with impaired fasting glucose
    Barbara A Gower
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Metabolism 61:358-65. 2012
  6. pmc Vitamin D intake is associated with insulin sensitivity in African American, but not European American, women
    Jessica A Alvarez
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1625 University Blvd, Birmingham, Alabama, 35294, USA
    Nutr Metab (Lond) 7:28. 2010
  7. pmc Validity of new child-specific thoracic gas volume prediction equations for air-displacement plethysmography
    Paul B Higgins
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL, USA
    BMC Pediatr 6:18. 2006
  8. pmc Genetic variation in a member of the laminin gene family affects variation in body composition in Drosophila and humans
    Maria De Luca
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, School of Health Professions, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 3rd Avenue South, Birmingham, AL 35294 3360, USA
    BMC Genet 9:52. 2008
  9. ncbi request reprint Contribution of insulin secretion and clearance to glucose-induced insulin concentration in african-american and caucasian children
    Barbara A Gower
    Department of Nutrition Sciences and Clinical Nutrition Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham 35294 3360, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:2218-24. 2002
  10. ncbi request reprint Using genetic admixture to explain racial differences in insulin-related phenotypes
    Barbara A Gower
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 3360, USA
    Diabetes 52:1047-51. 2003

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications94

  1. ncbi request reprint Favourable metabolic effects of a eucaloric lower-carbohydrate diet in women with PCOS
    Barbara A Gower
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1675 University Blvd, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 79:550-7. 2013
    ..This study was designed to determine whether a modest reduction in dietary carbohydrate (CHO) content affects β-cell responsiveness, serum testosterone concentration and insulin sensitivity in women with PCOS...
  2. doi request reprint Divergent effects of obesity on bone health
    Barbara A Gower
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Electronic address
    J Clin Densitom 16:450-4. 2013
    ..Clinicians should consider adding a marker metabolic health, such as waist circumference or fasting plasma glucose concentration, to other known risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture. ..
  3. pmc Associations of total and undercarboxylated osteocalcin with peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in overweight adults
    Barbara A Gower
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 3360, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 98:E1173-80. 2013
    ..Animal studies indicate that osteocalcin (OC), particularly the undercarboxylated isoform (unOC), affects insulin sensitivity and secretion, but definitive data from humans are lacking...
  4. pmc Insulin sensitivity affects propensity to obesity in an ethnic-specific manner: results from two controlled weight loss intervention studies
    Barbara A Gower
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Nutr Metab (Lond) 10:3. 2013
    ..abstract:..
  5. pmc A higher-carbohydrate, lower-fat diet reduces fasting glucose concentration and improves β-cell function in individuals with impaired fasting glucose
    Barbara A Gower
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Metabolism 61:358-65. 2012
    ..If confirmed, these results may have an impact on dietary recommendations for overweight individuals with and without IFG...
  6. pmc Vitamin D intake is associated with insulin sensitivity in African American, but not European American, women
    Jessica A Alvarez
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1625 University Blvd, Birmingham, Alabama, 35294, USA
    Nutr Metab (Lond) 7:28. 2010
    ..The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that dietary vitamin D would be associated with a robust measure of insulin sensitivity in AA and EA women...
  7. pmc Validity of new child-specific thoracic gas volume prediction equations for air-displacement plethysmography
    Paul B Higgins
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL, USA
    BMC Pediatr 6:18. 2006
    ..To determine the validity of the recently developed child-specific thoracic gas volume (TGV) prediction equations for use in air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) in diverse pediatric populations...
  8. pmc Genetic variation in a member of the laminin gene family affects variation in body composition in Drosophila and humans
    Maria De Luca
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, School of Health Professions, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 3rd Avenue South, Birmingham, AL 35294 3360, USA
    BMC Genet 9:52. 2008
    ..Based on our results from Drosophila, we performed a human population-based association study to investigate the effect of natural variation in LAMA5 gene on body composition in humans...
  9. ncbi request reprint Contribution of insulin secretion and clearance to glucose-induced insulin concentration in african-american and caucasian children
    Barbara A Gower
    Department of Nutrition Sciences and Clinical Nutrition Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham 35294 3360, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:2218-24. 2002
    ..The insulin secretion data await verification that the kinetic parameters used apply to children and AA...
  10. ncbi request reprint Using genetic admixture to explain racial differences in insulin-related phenotypes
    Barbara A Gower
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 3360, USA
    Diabetes 52:1047-51. 2003
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Estradiol may limit lipid oxidation via Cpt 1 expression and hormonal mechanisms
    Barbara A Gower
    Department of Nutrition Sciences and Physiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham and the Clinical Nutrition Research Center, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 3360, USA
    Obes Res 10:167-72. 2002
    ..Evidence indicates that estrogen depresses hepatic lipid oxidation. We tested the hypothesis that estradiol (E(2)) treatment depresses transcription of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (Cpt 1) mRNA and increases adiposity...
  12. ncbi request reprint Leptin in postmenopausal women: influence of hormone therapy, insulin, and fat distribution
    B A Gower
    University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama Obesity Research Center, 35294 3360, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85:1770-5. 2000
    ..c. fat contribute to serum leptin; and, 3) neither HRT nor leptin is independently related to REE...
  13. ncbi request reprint Anti-lipolytic effects of insulin in African American and white prepubertal boys
    B A Gower
    Division of Physiology and Metabolism, Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 3360, USA
    Obes Res 9:224-8. 2001
    ..This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that insulin-induced suppression of free fatty acids (FFA) results in lower serum TG in African American versus white prepubertal children...
  14. ncbi request reprint Changes in intra-abdominal fat in early postmenopausal women: effects of hormone use
    Barbara A Gower
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, the Clinical Nutrition Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294 3360, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 14:1046-55. 2006
    ..The objectives of this observational study were to 1) determine whether HRT attenuated the expected age-related increase in IAF and 2) identify the independent effects of HRT and fat distribution on changes in disease risk factors...
  15. ncbi request reprint Fat distribution and insulin response in prepubertal African American and white children
    B A Gower
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, and the UAB Obesity Research Center, 35294, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 67:821-7. 1998
    ..However, strong relations between adiposity (total and abdominal) and insulin in both groups suggest that obesity may contribute to disease risk regardless of ethnicity...
  16. ncbi request reprint Visceral fat, insulin sensitivity, and lipids in prepubertal children
    B A Gower
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, School of Health Related Professions, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294 3360, USA
    Diabetes 48:1515-21. 1999
    ..Lower Si was associated with higher, faster insulin, but not dyslipidemia. Thus, obesity, visceral fat accumulation, and ethnicity in children may confer negative, but independent, health risks...
  17. pmc Glucose metabolism and diet predict changes in adiposity and fat distribution in weight-reduced women
    Barbara A Gower
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 18:1532-7. 2010
    ..The potential association between indexes of glucose disposal and changes in fat distribution warrants further study...
  18. ncbi request reprint Associations among oral estrogen use, free testosterone concentration, and lean body mass among postmenopausal women
    B A Gower
    University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Nutrition Sciences, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 3360, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85:4476-80. 2000
    ..These observations imply that, by reducing the concentration of bioavailable T, oral estrogen therapy may accelerate or augment lean mass loss among postmenopausal women. This conclusion awaits confirmation by longitudinal observation...
  19. ncbi request reprint Effects of weight loss on changes in insulin sensitivity and lipid concentrations in premenopausal African American and white women
    Barbara A Gower
    University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Nutrition Sciences, 35294 3360, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 76:923-7. 2002
    ....
  20. ncbi request reprint Visceral fat in white and African American prepubertal children
    M I Goran
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham 35294, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 65:1703-8. 1997
    ....
  21. ncbi request reprint Effects of gender, ethnicity, body composition, and fat distribution on serum leptin concentrations in children
    T R Nagy
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham 35294, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:2148-52. 1997
    ..Serum leptin concentrations were not influenced by ethnicity. Thus, when comparing group differences in serum leptin concentrations, it is necessary to adequately control for group differences in body composition and fat distribution...
  22. ncbi request reprint Body fat distribution in white and black women: different patterns of intraabdominal and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue utilization with weight loss
    R L Weinsier
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 74:631-6. 2001
    ..Weight reduction is advocated for overweight people to reduce total body fat and IAAT, although little is known about the effect of weight loss on abdominal fat distribution in different races...
  23. ncbi request reprint Age-related decrease in resting energy expenditure in sedentary white women: effects of regional differences in lean and fat mass
    G R Hunter
    Division of Physiology and Metabolism, Departments of Human Studies and Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 73:333-7. 2001
    ..Lean mass and resting energy expenditure (REE) decrease with age. However, it is unknown whether age-related changes in regional lean and fat mass are responsible for the age-related decrease in REE...
  24. pmc The role of European genetic admixture in the etiology of the insulin resistance syndrome in children: are the effects mediated by fat accumulation?
    Krista Casazza
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 3360, USA
    J Pediatr 157:50-56.e1. 2010
    ..To evaluate the contribution of European genetic admixture (EUADM) to insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) in a multiethnic sample of children age 7-12 years, and to explore whether body fat affects this relationship...
  25. ncbi request reprint Longitudinal changes in fatness in white children: no effect of childhood energy expenditure
    M I Goran
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, School of Health Related Professions, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 67:309-16. 1998
    ..The main predictors of change in FM relative to FFM during preadolescent growth are sex, initial fatness, and parental fatness, but not reduced energy expenditure...
  26. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of liver fatty acid oxidation in the leptin-deficient obese mouse
    Amy E Brix
    Departments of Genomics and Pathobiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Mol Genet Metab 75:219-26. 2002
    ..In summary, despite obese mice having an excess of fat available for mitochondrial beta-oxidation in liver, overall energy balance appeared to dictate that the net liver FAO remained at control levels...
  27. pmc Intrabdominal fat is related to metabolic risk factors in Hispanic Americans, African Americans and in girls
    K Casazza
    Department of Nutrition Sciences and Clinical Nutrition Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 3360, USA
    Acta Paediatr 98:1965-71. 2009
    ..This study aimed to test the association of individual adipose depots on cardiometabolic outcomes, whether the association varied by depot and if the associations differed by race/ethnicity or gender in early pubertal children...
  28. ncbi request reprint Serum leptin and energy expenditure in children
    T R Nagy
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, School of Health Related Professions, University of Alabama at Birmingham 35294, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:4149-53. 1997
    ..Thus, our data do not support the hypothesis that the serum leptin concentration (independent of fat mass) is related to measures of energy expenditure in children...
  29. ncbi request reprint Relationship between insulin sensitivity and in vivo mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle
    Bovorn Sirikul
    Department of Human Studies, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 3360, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 291:E724-8. 2006
    ..404 vs. -0.300), suggesting that muscle mitochondrial function contributed to the racial difference in S(I). Lower muscle mitochondrial function among AAs may in part explain lower S(I) among them...
  30. pmc Insulin sensitivity in African-American and white women: association with inflammation
    Tanya C Hyatt
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 17:276-82. 2009
    ..001). In conclusion, greater IAAT among whites may be associated with greater inflammation. Insulin sensitivity was lower among African Americans, independent of obesity, fat distribution, and inflammation...
  31. ncbi request reprint Defining health-related obesity in prepubertal children
    P B Higgins
    Departments of Nutrition Sciences and Human Studies, Division of Physiology and Metabolism, Clinical Nutrition Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294-3360, USA
    Obes Res 9:233-40. 2001
    ..The cut-points describe an adequate health-related definition of childhood obesity...
  32. pmc Physical fitness, activity, and insulin dynamics in early pubertal children
    Krista Casazza
    Dept of Nutrition Sciences an Clinical Nutrition Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL 35294 3360, USA
    Pediatr Exerc Sci 21:63-76. 2009
    ..Fitness was a stronger predictor of SI and AIRg than physical activity regardless of ethnicity; racial/ethnic differences in insulin dynamics were not accounted for by differences in fitness and/or physical activity...
  33. pmc African genetic admixture is associated with body composition and fat distribution in a cross-sectional study of children
    M Cardel
    Department of Nutrition Sciences and the Nutrition and Obesity Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Int J Obes (Lond) 35:60-5. 2011
    ..This study evaluated the extent to which African or European ancestral genetic background influenced body composition and fat distribution in 301 peripubertal AA (n = 107), HA (n = 79) and EA (n = 115) children aged 7-12...
  34. ncbi request reprint Body fat, fat distribution and serum lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in African-American and Caucasian-American prepubertal children
    S L Herd
    Division of Physiology and Metabolism, Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25:198-204. 2001
    ..CONCLUSION: In prepubertal children, neither body fat nor fat distribution explain the ethnic difference in TAG or Lp(a), but visceral fat and TAG may contribute to differences in HDL-C...
  35. ncbi request reprint Influence of sex, seasonality, ethnicity, and geographic location on the components of total energy expenditure in young children: implications for energy requirements
    M I Goran
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham Obesity Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294 3360, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 68:675-82. 1998
    ..There are limited data on the influence of body composition, sex, seasonality, ethnicity, and geographic location on the components of energy expenditure in children...
  36. pmc Entero-insular axis and postprandial insulin differences in African American and European American children
    Paul B Higgins
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 88:1277-83. 2008
    ..African Americans have a greater insulin response after glucose challenge than do European Americans. Factors underlying this response are unknown...
  37. ncbi request reprint Weight loss and race modulate nitric oxide metabolism in overweight women
    Catherine P Fenster
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 37:695-702. 2004
    ....
  38. ncbi request reprint Comparison of self-reported with objectively assessed energy expenditure in black and white women before and after weight loss
    Marianne C Walsh
    Division of Physiology and Metabolism, Department of Human Studies, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294 1250, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 79:1013-9. 2004
    ..Weight maintenance is less successful in black women than in white women after weight loss...
  39. ncbi request reprint Adiponectin is lower among African Americans and is independently related to insulin sensitivity in children and adolescents
    Nikki C Bush
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 429 Webb Building, 1675 University Blvd, Birmingham, AL 35294 3360, USA
    Diabetes 54:2772-8. 2005
    ..In addition, higher acute insulin response to glucose explained lower adiponectin among African-American children...
  40. doi request reprint Use of a simple liquid meal test to evaluate insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in children
    P C Chandler-Laney
    Departments of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Pediatr Obes 9:102-10. 2014
    ..In conclusion, a liquid meal offers a valid and sensitive means of assessing insulin sensitivity and β-cell responsivity in young children...
  41. pmc Gut hormone activity of children born to women with and without gestational diabetes
    P C Chandler-Laney
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Pediatr Obes 9:53-62. 2014
    ..What this study adds Children of women with gestational diabetes have a blunted postprandial response of GLP-1. Children of women with gestational diabetes have high fasting PYY concentrations...
  42. pmc Overweight status and intrauterine exposure to gestational diabetes are associated with children's metabolic health
    P C Chandler-Laney
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 3361, USA
    Pediatr Obes 7:44-52. 2012
    ..Offspring of women with gestational diabetes (OGD) have greater risk for obesity and impaired metabolic health. Whether impaired metabolic health occurs in the absence of obesity is not clear...
  43. ncbi request reprint Effect of scalp and facial hair on air displacement plethysmography estimates of percentage of body fat
    P B Higgins
    Division of Physiology and Metabolism, Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294-3360, USA
    Obes Res 9:326-30. 2001
    ..Thus, excess facial hair should be kept to a minimum and a swimcap should be worn at all times to ensure accurate estimates of body fat when using the BOD POD...
  44. pmc Fasting and postprandial markers of inflammation in lean and overweight children
    Jessica A Alvarez
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, General Clinical Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35249, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 89:1138-44. 2009
    ..Overweight children have greater circulating concentrations of markers of inflammation (MOI) than do lean children. Whether adiposity influences the postprandial MOI response is unknown...
  45. pmc Effect of dietary adherence with or without exercise on weight loss: a mechanistic approach to a global problem
    Pedro Del Corral
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 3360, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:1602-7. 2009
    ..Weight loss using low-calorie diets produces variable results, presumably due to a wide range of energy deficits and low-dietary adherence...
  46. pmc Uncoupling protein 2 Ala55Val polymorphism is associated with a higher acute insulin response to glucose
    Amanda L Willig
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 3360, USA
    Metabolism 58:877-81. 2009
    ..These results indicate that AIRg is associated with the -55C/T UCP2 homozygous mutation and that the presence of this mutation could alter postchallenge insulin concentration...
  47. pmc Obesity attenuates the contribution of African admixture to the insulin secretory profile in peripubertal children: a longitudinal analysis
    Krista Casazza
    Department of Nutrition Sciences and Clinical Nutrition Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 17:1318-25. 2009
    ..EA; however, the influence of genetic factors is superseded by adiposity. The pubertal transition may affect the development of the beta-cell response to glucose in a manner that differs with ethnic/genetic background...
  48. pmc Differential influence of diet and physical activity on components of metabolic syndrome in a multiethnic sample of children
    Krista Casazza
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 3360, USA
    J Am Diet Assoc 109:236-44. 2009
    ..Treatment of the metabolic syndrome in adults is generally approached with diet and physical activity. The influence of diet and physical activity on cardiometabolic outcomes in children has not been clearly established...
  49. pmc Perception of others' body size influences weight loss and regain for European American but not African American women
    Paula C Chandler-Laney
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35294 3361, USA
    Health Psychol 28:414-8. 2009
    ..Body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry prior to and following weight loss...
  50. pmc Effects of low- and high-glycemic index/glycemic load diets on coronary heart disease risk factors in overweight/obese men
    James M Shikany
    Division of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 4410, USA
    Metabolism 58:1793-801. 2009
    ..Overall, high- and low-GI/GL diets of 4 weeks' duration had no consistent effects on coronary heart disease risk factors in this group of overweight/obese men...
  51. pmc Higher maternal gestational glucose concentration is associated with lower offspring insulin sensitivity and altered beta-cell function
    Nikki C Bush
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96:E803-9. 2011
    ..However, studies examining the effects of maternal glucose concentration on measures of insulin sensitivity and β-cell response in prepubertal children are limited...
  52. pmc Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone are independent determinants of whole-body insulin sensitivity in women and may contribute to lower insulin sensitivity in African Americans
    Jessica A Alvarez
    Department of Nutrition Sciences and the Department of Pediatrics Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, The Children s Hospital, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 92:1344-9. 2010
    ..Furthermore, African Americans (AAs) have lower insulin sensitivity and 25(OH)D concentrations than do European Americans (EAs); whether these differences are associated in a cause-and-effect manner has not been determined...
  53. pmc Respiratory quotient predicts fat mass gain in premenopausal women
    Amy C Ellis
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 18:2255-9. 2010
    ..This observation suggests that low postprandial fat oxidation may uniquely predispose obesity-prone individuals to accrual of adipose tissue...
  54. pmc Maternal glucose concentration during pregnancy predicts fat and lean mass of prepubertal offspring
    Paula C Chandler-Laney
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Diabetes Care 34:741-5. 2011
    ..A secondary goal was to examine whether the association between maternal glucose and children's body fat was independent of energy intake, energy expenditure, or physical activity...
  55. pmc Fat distribution, aerobic fitness, blood lipids, and insulin sensitivity in African-American and European-American women
    Gary R Hunter
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 18:274-81. 2010
    ..17 to -0.21). Maintenance of favorable fat distribution and aerobic fitness may be important strategies for healthy aging, at least in premenopausal EA and AA women...
  56. pmc Relationships between reported macronutrient intake and insulin dynamics in a multi-ethnic cohort of early pubertal children
    Krista Casazza
    Department of Nutrition Sciences and Clinical Nutrition Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 3360, USA
    Int J Pediatr Obes 4:249-56. 2009
    ..Additionally, girls tend to be more insulin resistant than boys. Although the mechanism driving these differences is unclear, diet may be a contributor...
  57. pmc Exercise training prevents regain of visceral fat for 1 year following weight loss
    Gary R Hunter
    Department of Human Studies, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 18:690-5. 2010
    ..More importantly, both aerobic and resistance training prevented regain of potentially harmful visceral fat...
  58. pmc Associations among body size dissatisfaction, perceived dietary control, and diet history in African American and European American women
    Paula C Chandler-Laney
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA
    Eat Behav 10:202-8. 2009
    ....
  59. pmc Associations of free fatty acids with insulin secretion and action among African-American and European-American girls and women
    Laura Lee T Goree
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 18:247-53. 2010
    ..Lower FFA(0) among AAs was independent of insulin(0) and S(I). Whether lower FFA(0) is associated with substrate oxidation or risk for obesity remains to be determined...
  60. pmc Ethnicity and weight status affect the accuracy of proxy indices of insulin sensitivity
    Jessica A Alvarez
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 16:2739-44. 2008
    ..If proxy indices are used in multiethnic populations, or in populations including both lean and overweight/obese subjects, data should be interpreted with caution...
  61. pmc Physical activity may facilitate diabetes prevention in adolescents
    Amy S Thomas
    Department of Nutrition Science, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Diabetes Care 32:9-13. 2009
    ..The aim of this study was to examine the association of physical activity with glucose tolerance and resting energy expenditure (REE) among adolescents...
  62. ncbi request reprint Influence of dietary fatty acid chain-length on metabolic tolerance in mouse models of inherited defects in mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation
    A Michele Schuler
    Department of Genetics, 720 20th Street South, Kaul Human Genetics Building 620A, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Mol Genet Metab 83:322-9. 2004
    ....
  63. ncbi request reprint Apolipoprotein A-II polymorphism and visceral adiposity in African-American and white women
    Cristina Lara-Castro
    Division of Physiology and Metabolism, Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Obes Res 13:507-12. 2005
    ..These results indicate a significant association between the T265C APOA-II polymorphism and levels of VAT in premenopausal women. This association is present in white but not African-American women...
  64. ncbi request reprint Early ethnic difference in insulin-like growth factor-1 is associated with African genetic admixture
    Paul B Higgins
    Department of Nutrition Sciences and the Clinical Nutrition Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Pediatr Res 58:850-4. 2005
    ..01 for both). Thus, our data suggest that the greater IGF-1 of AA relative to EA children could have a genetic basis...
  65. ncbi request reprint Dietary phytoestrogens increase metabolic resistance (cold tolerance) in long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient mice
    A Michele Schuler
    Department of Genetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA
    J Nutr 134:1028-31. 2004
    ..Furthermore, they suggest changes that could improve pediatric formula constituents, especially with regard to management of children with inborn errors of fatty acid oxidation...
  66. pmc Role of diet in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome
    Crystal C Douglas
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Fertil Steril 85:679-88. 2006
    ....
  67. ncbi request reprint Difference in dietary intake between women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy controls
    Crystal C Douglas
    Pittman General Clinical Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA
    Fertil Steril 86:411-7. 2006
    ....
  68. pmc Adiponectin multimers and metabolic syndrome traits: relative adiponectin resistance in African Americans
    Cristina Lara-Castro
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 16:2616-23. 2008
    ..Thus, HMW adiponectin may exert less bioactivity in explaining the metabolic syndrome trait cluster in populations of predominant African genetic background...
  69. ncbi request reprint Polymorphism in the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene is associated with reduced insulin secretion in nondiabetic women
    Julian Munoz
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, 1675 Webb Nutrition Sciences Building, Room 241, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Diabetes 55:3630-4. 2006
    ..Our data suggest that the TCF7L2 gene is an important factor regulating insulin secretion, which could explain its association with type 2 diabetes...
  70. ncbi request reprint Increased resting energy expenditure after 40 minutes of aerobic but not resistance exercise
    Gary R Hunter
    Human Studies and Nutrition Sciences Departments, Room 205 Education Building, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35294 1250, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 14:2018-25. 2006
    ..The objective of the study was to compare the effects of 40 minutes of high-intensity aerobic vs. resistance exercise on REE 19 to 67 hours after exercise...
  71. ncbi request reprint Association of the intestinal fatty acid-binding protein Ala54Thr polymorphism and abdominal adipose tissue in African-American and Caucasian women
    Cristina Lara-Castro
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:1196-201. 2005
    ..We conclude that women carriers of the FABP2 Thr allele have lower TAT and SAAT than noncarriers of the mutation. This association is present in Caucasian, but not in African-American, women...
  72. ncbi request reprint Relationship between serum leptin concentration and low-density muscle in postmenopausal women
    Julian Munoz
    University of Alabama at Birmingham UAB, Department of Nutrition Sciences, Division of Physiology and Metabolism, and UAB Clinical Nutrition Research Center, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 3360, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:1157-61. 2003
    ..05). Use of HRT did not significantly influence LDMA. These results support the hypothesis that leptin decreases skeletal muscle lipid content, promoting lipid oxidation...
  73. ncbi request reprint Gender differences in resistance-training-induced myofiber hypertrophy among older adults
    Marcas M Bamman
    Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, VA Medical Center, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 58:108-16. 2003
    ..05). In summary, gender differences in load-induced myofiber hypertrophy among older adults cannot be explained by levels of circulating IGF-1 or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, or by expression of the myogenic transcripts examined...
  74. doi request reprint IAAT, catecholamines, and parity in African-American and European-American women
    Tamilane E Blaudeau
    Department of Human Studies, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 16:797-803. 2008
    ..The objective of this study was to determine whether the IAAT-parity relationship found in EA women exists in African-American (AA) women and to determine whether catecholamines play a mediating role...
  75. pmc Associations among insulin, estrogen, and fat mass gain over the pubertal transition in African-American and European-American girls
    Krista Casazza
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, Birmingham, AL 35294 3360, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:2610-5. 2008
    ..Age at menarche (AgeM) is earlier in African-American (AA) than in European-American (EA) girls. Neither the physiological cause nor the health implications of this difference are known...
  76. ncbi request reprint Fat distribution and insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal women: influence of hormone replacement
    Julian Munoz
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, Division of Physiology and Metabolism, and Clinical Nutrition Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294 3360, USA
    Obes Res 10:424-31. 2002
    ..To examine cross-sectionally the influence of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on the relationship between body composition and insulin sensitivity (Si)...
  77. doi request reprint Resistance training conserves fat-free mass and resting energy expenditure following weight loss
    Gary R Hunter
    Department of Human Studies, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 16:1045-51. 2008
    ....
  78. pmc Longitudinal analysis of the insulin-like growth factor system in African-American and European American children and adolescents
    Krista Casazza
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, 1675 University Boulevard, Room WEBB 415, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 3360, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:4917-23. 2008
    ..IGF-I and its binding proteins influence growth, development, and disease risk. Studies have revealed ethnic variations in the IGF system...
  79. pmc Age-related changes in insulin sensitivity and β-cell function among European-American and African-American women
    Paula C Chandler-Laney
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 19:528-35. 2011
    ..To conclude, inherent ethnic differences in β-cell function exist independently of adiposity and S(I). Future research should examine whether ethnic differences in β-cell physiology contribute to disparities in T2D risk...
  80. ncbi request reprint Mechanical load increases muscle IGF-I and androgen receptor mRNA concentrations in humans
    M M Bamman
    Department of Human Studies, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 280:E383-90. 2001
    ..Results indicate that a single bout of mechanical loading in humans alters activity of the muscle IGF-I system, and the enhanced response to ECC suggests that IGF-I may somehow modulate tissue regeneration after mechanical damage...
  81. ncbi request reprint Weight change affects serum leptin and corticosterone in the collared lemming
    Maria S Johnson
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Gen Comp Endocrinol 136:30-6. 2004
    ..Neither relative leptin levels, nor corticosterone levels changed significantly with weight gain. Our results indicate that corticosterone and leptin are associated more with seasonal weight loss than weight gain in lemmings...
  82. ncbi request reprint Levels of progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol, and androstenedione metabolism in the gonads of Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata:echinoidea)
    K M Wasson
    Department of Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294 1170, USA
    Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 126:153-65. 2000
    ..Estrogen synthesis was not detected. The sex-specific pattern of accumulation of 5alpha-adiols in the ovaries and testes suggests that the 5alpha-adiols may affect processes related to reproduction in L. variegatus...
  83. ncbi request reprint Synergistic heterozygosity in mice with inherited enzyme deficiencies of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation
    A Michele Schuler
    Department of Genetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Mol Genet Metab 85:7-11. 2005
    ..These results substantiate the concept of synergistic heterozygosity and illustrate the potential complexity involved in diagnosis and characterization of inborn errors of fatty acid metabolism in humans...
  84. ncbi request reprint Effect of oral estrogen on substrate utilization in postmenopausal women
    Rebecca Lwin
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 3360, USA
    Fertil Steril 90:1275-8. 2008
    ..1 +/- 1.0 kg; mean 6-month difference 1.8 +/- 2.2 kg), suggesting that, on an acute basis, oral E may increase adiposity by limiting lipid oxidation...
  85. ncbi request reprint HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir induces lipoatrophy in male mice
    Eric S Goetzman
    Department of Genetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 19:1141-50. 2003
    ..Thus, the effects of ritonavir on serum triglycerides and body composition may be due, at least in part, to an inhibition of PPAR function...
  86. ncbi request reprint Ability of the actiwatch accelerometer to predict free-living energy expenditure in young children
    Mardya Lopez-Alarcon
    Nutrition Research Medical Unit, Pediatric Hospital, National Medical Center Siglo XXI, Mexican Institute of Social Security, Mexico City, Mexico
    Obes Res 12:1859-65. 2004
    ..To determine whether activity counts obtained with the Actiwatch monitor are associated with total expenditure and body composition in young children...
  87. ncbi request reprint Insulin sensitivity and blood pressure in black and white children
    Martha L Cruz
    Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Research and Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles 90089 9008, USA
    Hypertension 40:18-22. 2002
    ..In conclusion, the relationship between insulin sensitivity and systolic blood pressure is evident early in life. Black ethnicity and low insulin sensitivity contribute independently to higher blood pressure in children...
  88. ncbi request reprint Effect of changes in fat distribution on the rates of change of insulin response in children
    Terry T K Huang
    Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Research, Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA
    Obes Res 10:978-84. 2002
    ....
  89. ncbi request reprint Influence of family history of type 2 diabetes on insulin sensitivity in prepubertal children
    Michael I Goran
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:192-5. 2003
    ..In conclusion, a positive FH for T2D does not seem to have any significant effect on insulin sensitivity, as assessed by the minimal model and associated risk factors for T2D in young children...
  90. ncbi request reprint Relationship of visceral adiposity to cardiovascular disease risk factors in black and white teens
    Bernard Gutin
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Prevention Institute, 1499 Walton Way, HS1755, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 15:1029-35. 2007
    ..CVD risk factors were fasting insulin, fibrinogen, total to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio, triglycerides (TGs), systolic blood pressure, and left ventricular mass indexed to height2.7...
  91. pmc IGF-I polymorphism is associated with lean mass, exercise economy, and exercise performance among premenopausal women
    Mardya Lopez-Alarcon
    Medical Nutrition Research Unit, Pediatric Hospital, Siglo XXI, National Medical Center, Mexico City, Mexico
    Arch Med Res 38:56-63. 2007
    ....
  92. ncbi request reprint Longitudinal changes in insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and beta-cell function during puberty
    Geoff D C Ball
    Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA
    J Pediatr 148:16-22. 2006
    ..To determine longitudinal changes in insulin sensitivity (SI), insulin secretion, and beta-cell function during puberty in white and black youth...
  93. ncbi request reprint Dietary fat intake and insulin resistance in black and white children
    Marc J Weigensberg
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA
    Obes Res 13:1630-7. 2005
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine whether dietary fat intake above current Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) guidelines was associated with greater insulin resistance in black and white children...
  94. ncbi request reprint Increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids do not attenuate the effects of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on insulin sensitivity or triacylglycerol reduction in Indian Asians
    Louise M Brady
    School of Food Biosciences, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 79:983-91. 2004
    ..Indian Asians in Western countries have a higher rate of coronary artery disease than do the indigenous white populations, and this higher rate may be influenced by a dietary imbalance of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)...

Research Grants17

  1. ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN INSULIN SENSITIVITY
    Barbara Gower; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The chronic hyperinsulinemia that results from this defect will ultimately result in peripheral (skeletal muscle) insulin resistance. ..
  2. Reduced Carbohydrate Diet Intervention for PCOS
    Barbara Gower; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..the lower GL diet will be more effective in decreasing insulin secretion, increasing insulin sensitivity, decreasing ectopic adipose tissue, decreasing inflammation, and improvin% (<10% saturated fat) saturated fat) ..
  3. Long-term follow-up of postobese black and white women
    Barbara Gower; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  4. Intramuscular lipid and insulin action: ethnic aspects
    Barbara Gower; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  5. Long-term follow-up of postobese black and white women
    Barbara Gower; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  6. Intramuscular lipid and insulin action: ethnic aspects
    Barbara Gower; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  7. Long-Term Follow-up of Post-Obese Black and White Women
    Barbara Gower; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  8. ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN INSULIN SENSITIVITY
    Barbara Gower; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The chronic hyperinsulinemia that results from this defect will ultimately result in peripheral (skeletal muscle) insulin resistance. ..
  9. Long-Term Follow-up of Post-Obese Black and White Women
    Barbara Gower; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  10. ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN INSULIN SENSITIVITY
    Barbara Gower; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The chronic hyperinsulinemia that results from this defect will ultimately result in peripheral (skeletal muscle) insulin resistance. ..
  11. ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN INSULIN SENSITIVITY
    Barbara Gower; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The chronic hyperinsulinemia that results from this defect will ultimately result in peripheral (skeletal muscle) insulin resistance. ..
  12. Long-Term Follow-up of Post-Obese Black and White Women
    Barbara Gower; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  13. ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN INSULIN SENSITIVITY
    Barbara Gower; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The chronic hyperinsulinemia that results from this defect will ultimately result in peripheral (skeletal muscle) insulin resistance. ..
  14. Long-Term Follow-up of Post-Obese Black and White Women
    Barbara Gower; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  15. ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN INSULIN SENSITIVITY
    Barbara Gower; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The chronic hyperinsulinemia that results from this defect will ultimately result in peripheral (skeletal muscle) insulin resistance. ..
  16. Reduced Carbohydrate Diet Intervention for PCOS
    Barbara A Gower; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the lower GL diet will be more effective in decreasing insulin secretion, increasing insulin sensitivity, decreasing ectopic adipose tissue, decreasing inflammation, and improvin% (<10% saturated fat) saturated fat) ..