Philip D Gingerich
Affiliation: University of Michigan
- Arithmetic or geometric normality of biological variation: an empirical test of theoryP D Gingerich
Museum of Paleontology and Department of Anthropology, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109 1079, USA
J Theor Biol 204:201-21. 2000..In practical terms, arithmetic measurements must be transformed using logarithms to represent both the geometric normality of biological variation and the relative functional significance of measurements appropriately...
- Origin of whales from early artiodactyls: hands and feet of Eocene Protocetidae from PakistanP D Gingerich
Department of Geological Sciences and Museum of Paleontology, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1079, USA
Science 293:2239-42. 2001..The new skeletons are important in augmenting the diversity of early Protocetidae, clarifying that Cetacea evolved from early Artiodactyla rather than Mesonychia and showing how early protocetids swam...
- Environment and evolution through the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximumPhilip D Gingerich
Museum of Paleontology and Department of Geological Sciences, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1079, USA
Trends Ecol Evol 21:246-53. 2006..The PETM is also relevant when considering the causes and consequences of global greenhouse warming...
- New protocetid whale from the middle eocene of pakistan: birth on land, precocial development, and sexual dimorphismPhilip D Gingerich
Department of Geological Sciences, Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
PLoS ONE 4:e4366. 2009..They are found in marine sedimentary rocks, but retain four legs and were not yet fully aquatic. Protocetids have been interpreted as amphibious, feeding in the sea but returning to land to rest...
- New Oligocene primate from Saudi Arabia and the divergence of apes and Old World monkeysIyad S Zalmout
Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan, 1109 Geddes Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
Nature 466:360-4. 2010..Saadanius has a tubular ectotympanic but lacks synapomorphies of either group of crown Catarrhini, and we infer that the hominoid-cercopithecoid split happened later, between 29-28 and 24 Myr ago...
- Cranial asymmetry in Eocene archaeocete whales and the evolution of directional hearing in waterJulia M Fahlke
Museum of Paleontology, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:14545-8. 2011..Asymmetry and much of the sonic-frequency range of directional hearing were lost in Oligocene mysticetes during the shift to low-frequency hearing and bulk-straining predation...
- Rates of evolution on the time scale of the evolutionary processP D Gingerich
Department of Geological Sciences, Museum of Paleontology, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 49109-1079, USA
Genetica 112:127-44. 2001..The evolutionary process is dynamic but operates within relatively narrow morphological constraints compared to the time available for change...
- Rapid Asia-Europe-North America geographic dispersal of earliest Eocene primate Teilhardina during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal MaximumThierry Smith
Department of Paleontology, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, 29 Rue Vautier, B 1000 Brussels, Belgium
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:11223-7. 2006..Rapid geographic dispersal and morphological character evolution in Teilhardina reported here are consistent with rates observed in other contexts...
- Oldest North American primatePhilip D Gingerich
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:E30; author reply E31. 2008
- Asian gliriform origin for arctostylopid mammalsPieter Missiaen
Research Unit Paleontology, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S8, 9000, Ghent, Belgium
Naturwissenschaften 93:407-11. 2006..Hence, Arctostylopidae may best be grouped with Asian non-gliroid Gliriformes, which we interpret as having dispersed into North America in the Late Palaeocene...