Bruce D Gaynor

Summary

Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Importance of including borderline cases in trachoma grader certification
    Bruce D Gaynor
    F I Proctor Foundation, Department of Ophthalmology, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute for Global Health, University of California, San Francisco, California Programme National de Lutte Contre la Cecité Niamey, Niger The Carter Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 91:577-9. 2014
  2. pmc The easiest children to reach are most likely to be infected with ocular Chlamydia trachomatis in trachoma endemic areas of Niger
    Abdou Amza
    Programme National de Lutte Contre la Cecité, Niamey, Niger
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7:e1983. 2013
  3. pmc Community risk factors for ocular Chlamydia infection in Niger: pre-treatment results from a cluster-randomized trachoma trial
    Abdou Amza
    Programme National de Lutte Contre la Cecité, Niamey, Niger
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6:e1586. 2012
  4. doi Travel and implications for the elimination of trachoma in ethiopia
    Neelima A Shah
    Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, California, USA
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 17:113-7. 2010
  5. doi Complete local elimination of infectious trachoma from severely affected communities after six biannual mass azithromycin distributions
    Jesse B Biebesheimer
    FI Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0412, USA
    Ophthalmology 116:2047-50. 2009
  6. pmc Diagnostic characteristics of tests for ocular Chlamydia after mass azithromycin distributions
    Jeremy D Keenan
    F I Proctor Foundation, 513 Parnassus Avenue, Med Sci S309, Box 0412, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0412, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53:235-40. 2012
  7. pmc A rationale for continuing mass antibiotic distributions for trachoma
    Kathryn J Ray
    Francis I, Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    BMC Infect Dis 7:91. 2007
  8. ncbi Effect of a single mass antibiotic distribution on the prevalence of infectious trachoma
    Jaya D Chidambaram
    F I Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0412, USA
    JAMA 295:1142-6. 2006
  9. pmc Risk factors for ocular chlamydia after three mass azithromycin distributions
    Berhan Ayele
    The Carter Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1441. 2011
  10. ncbi Chlamydia on children and flies after mass antibiotic treatment for trachoma
    Scott Lee
    F I Proctor Foundation, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 76:129-31. 2007

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications43

  1. pmc Importance of including borderline cases in trachoma grader certification
    Bruce D Gaynor
    F I Proctor Foundation, Department of Ophthalmology, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute for Global Health, University of California, San Francisco, California Programme National de Lutte Contre la Cecité Niamey, Niger The Carter Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 91:577-9. 2014
    ..14 (95% CI = 0.12-0.16) (P < 0.001). If testing sets remove difficult-to-grade cases, agreement in trachoma grading may be higher than actually seen in population-based trachoma surveys. ..
  2. pmc The easiest children to reach are most likely to be infected with ocular Chlamydia trachomatis in trachoma endemic areas of Niger
    Abdou Amza
    Programme National de Lutte Contre la Cecité, Niamey, Niger
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7:e1983. 2013
    ....
  3. pmc Community risk factors for ocular Chlamydia infection in Niger: pre-treatment results from a cluster-randomized trachoma trial
    Abdou Amza
    Programme National de Lutte Contre la Cecité, Niamey, Niger
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6:e1586. 2012
    ..But it remains unclear what the community-level risk factors are for infection...
  4. doi Travel and implications for the elimination of trachoma in ethiopia
    Neelima A Shah
    Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, California, USA
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 17:113-7. 2010
    ..Reintroduction of infection could occur from the few remaining infected cases in a treated community or from outside the community. People traveling between villages might be responsible thus complicating the elimination of trachoma...
  5. doi Complete local elimination of infectious trachoma from severely affected communities after six biannual mass azithromycin distributions
    Jesse B Biebesheimer
    FI Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0412, USA
    Ophthalmology 116:2047-50. 2009
    ..To determine whether infectious trachoma can be completely eliminated from severely affected villages...
  6. pmc Diagnostic characteristics of tests for ocular Chlamydia after mass azithromycin distributions
    Jeremy D Keenan
    F I Proctor Foundation, 513 Parnassus Avenue, Med Sci S309, Box 0412, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0412, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53:235-40. 2012
    ....
  7. pmc A rationale for continuing mass antibiotic distributions for trachoma
    Kathryn J Ray
    Francis I, Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    BMC Infect Dis 7:91. 2007
    ..Here we use mathematical models to demonstrate that repeated antibiotic distributions can eliminate infection in a reasonable time period...
  8. ncbi Effect of a single mass antibiotic distribution on the prevalence of infectious trachoma
    Jaya D Chidambaram
    F I Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0412, USA
    JAMA 295:1142-6. 2006
    ..Some hypothesize that a single distribution is sufficient to control the ocular strains of chlamydia that cause trachoma. Others believe infection will inevitably return and periodic treatments or other measures are essential...
  9. pmc Risk factors for ocular chlamydia after three mass azithromycin distributions
    Berhan Ayele
    The Carter Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1441. 2011
    ..Knowledge of characteristics associated with infection after mass antibiotic treatments could allow trachoma programs to focus resources to those most likely to be infected with ocular chlamydia...
  10. ncbi Chlamydia on children and flies after mass antibiotic treatment for trachoma
    Scott Lee
    F I Proctor Foundation, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 76:129-31. 2007
    ..Prevalence of trachoma in children proved to be an excellent predictor of the prevalence on flies (correlation coefficient, 0.89). Thus, treating children with antibiotics may drastically reduce the role of flies as a vector...
  11. pmc Childhood mortality in a cohort treated with mass azithromycin for trachoma
    Jeremy D Keenan
    F I Proctor Foundation, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 52:883-8. 2011
    ..Here, we monitor a large cohort in which almost 90% of individuals received azithromycin. We assess whether receiving treatment is associated with reduced all-cause and infectious childhood mortality...
  12. pmc Ribosomal RNA evidence of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection following 3 annual mass azithromycin distributions in communities with highly prevalent trachoma
    Jeremy D Keenan
    FI Proctor Foundation, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0412, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 54:253-6. 2012
    ..An RNA-based test detected ocular chlamydial infection in more children than did a DNA-based test (6.9% vs 4.2%), and in a larger number of communities (8 vs 7)...
  13. pmc Clinical activity and polymerase chain reaction evidence of chlamydial infection after repeated mass antibiotic treatments for trachoma
    Jeremy D Keenan
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:482-7. 2010
    ....
  14. pmc Latrine promotion for trachoma: assessment of mortality from a cluster-randomized trial in Ethiopia
    Teshome Gebre
    Carter Center Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 85:518-23. 2011
    ..18, 95% CI = 0.89-1.58). Latrine promotion provided no additional effect on mortality in the context of an azithromycin distribution program (clinicaltrials.gov, #NCT00322972)...
  15. pmc Reduction and return of infectious trachoma in severely affected communities in Ethiopia
    Takele Lakew
    ORBIS International, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3:e376. 2009
    ..Here, we test whether additional scheduled treatments further reduce infection, and whether infection returns after distributions are discontinued...
  16. doi Comparison of annual versus twice-yearly mass azithromycin treatment for hyperendemic trachoma in Ethiopia: a cluster-randomised trial
    Teshome Gebre
    The Carter Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    Lancet 379:143-51. 2012
    ..We aimed to compare the effect of annual versus twice-yearly distribution of azithromycin on infection with these strains...
  17. doi Assessment of herd protection against trachoma due to repeated mass antibiotic distributions: a cluster-randomised trial
    Jenafir I House
    FI Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    Lancet 373:1111-8. 2009
    ..We assessed indirect protection against trachoma with mass azithromycin distributions...
  18. pmc The fitness cost of antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae: insight from the field
    M Cyrus Maher
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e29407. 2012
    ..Observational studies have supported this, but due to ethical and practical considerations, it is rare to have experimental control over antibiotic prescription rates...
  19. doi Complete elimination is a difficult goal for trachoma programs in severely affected communities
    Deborah A Gill
    F I Proctor Foundation, San Francisco, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 46:564-6. 2008
    ..Theoretically, a loftier goal of elimination is feasible. Here, we demonstrate that, although local elimination of infection in the most severely affected communities is difficult, it is possible with biannual antibiotic distributions...
  20. doi Association of conjunctival bacterial infection and female sex in cicatricial trachoma
    Vicky Cevallos
    Francis I Proctor Foundation, San Francisco, California 94143 0412, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53:5208-12. 2012
    ..To further characterize the microbiological profile of bacterial conjunctival infections in cicatricial trachoma, a conjunctival swabbing of adults in rural Ethiopia was performed...
  21. pmc Adverse events after mass azithromycin treatments for trachoma in Ethiopia
    Berhan Ayele
    The Carter Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 85:291-4. 2011
    ..9% to 7.0% in children 1-9 years of age and from 17.0% to 18.7% in persons ≥ 10 years of age. Adverse events appeared to cluster by household and perhaps by village. Mass azithromycin distributions were well tolerated in this setting...
  22. pmc The association between latrine use and trachoma: a secondary cohort analysis from a randomized clinical trial
    Meron Haile
    Francis I Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, California The Carter Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Departments of Ophthalmology and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, California The Carter Center, Atlanta, Georgia Institute for Global Health, University of California, San Francisco, California
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 89:717-20. 2013
    ..Specifically, for each 10% increase in latrine use, there was a 2.0% decrease (95% confidence interval = 0.2-3.9% decrease) in the community prevalence of ocular chlamydia over the subsequent year (P = 0.04)...
  23. pmc A cluster-randomized controlled trial evaluating the effects of mass azithromycin treatment on growth and nutrition in Niger
    Abdou Amza
    Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey, Programme National de Lutte Contre la Cecité, Niamey, Niger
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 88:138-43. 2013
    ..There may not be an association between antibiotic use and improved growth in humans, or this trial was not powerful enough to detect an association if it exists...
  24. doi Comparison of annual and biannual mass antibiotic administration for elimination of infectious trachoma
    Muluken Melese
    ORBIS International, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    JAMA 299:778-84. 2008
    ..Elimination may be an important end point because of concern that infection will return to communities that have lost immunity to chlamydia after antibiotics are discontinued...
  25. ncbi Mass antibiotic treatment and community protection in trachoma control programs
    Jaya D Chidambaram
    F I Proctor Foundation for Research in Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0944, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 39:e95-7. 2004
    ..Similarities with the indirect protection within a treated community (i.e., "herd protection") that has been observed in vaccination programs are discussed...
  26. pmc How reliable are tests for trachoma?--a latent class approach
    Craig W See
    F I Proctor Foundation, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0412, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:6133-7. 2011
    ..Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of laboratory and clinical tests for trachoma in the absence of a gold standard...
  27. doi Effect of mass distribution of azithromycin for trachoma control on overall mortality in Ethiopian children: a randomized trial
    Travis C Porco
    F I Proctor Foundation, and Department of Ophthalmology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    JAMA 302:962-8. 2009
    ..Antibiotics are provided to target the ocular strains of chlamydia that cause trachoma, but may also be efficacious against respiratory disease, diarrhea, and malaria--frequent causes of childhood mortality in trachoma-endemic areas...
  28. pmc Impact of mass azithromycin distribution on malaria parasitemia during the low-transmission season in Niger: a cluster-randomized trial
    Bruce D Gaynor
    F I Proctor Foundation, Department of Ophthalmology, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute for Global Health, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California Programme National de Lutte Contre la Cecité Niamey, Niger Zinder Hospital, Zinder, Niger Dana Center for Preventive Ophthalmology, Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland Clinical Research Unit, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 90:846-51. 2014
    ..03). Mass distribution of azithromycin reduced malaria parasitemia 4-5 months after the intervention. The results suggest that drugs with antimalaria activity can have long-lasting impacts on malaria during periods of low transmission...
  29. pmc Efficacy of latrine promotion on emergence of infection with ocular Chlamydia trachomatis after mass antibiotic treatment: a cluster-randomized trial
    Nicole E Stoller
    F I Proctor Foundation, University of California San Francisco, USA
    Int Health 3:75-84. 2011
    ..0% and 25.0% respectively in the single treatment only arm. We were unable to detect a difference in the prevalence of ocular chlamydial infection in children due to latrine construction. ..
  30. pmc Importance of coverage and endemicity on the return of infectious trachoma after a single mass antibiotic distribution
    Takele Lakew
    ORBIS International, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3:e507. 2009
    ..A wider range of antibiotic coverage than found in this study might allow an assessment of a more subtle association...
  31. doi The decline of pneumococcal resistance after cessation of mass antibiotic distributions for trachoma
    Sara Haug
    FI Proctor Foundation, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0944, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 51:571-4. 2010
    ..6% (95% CI, 18.8%-40.4%; P <.001 ) and 20.8% (95% CI, 12.7%-30.7%; P < .001), respectively. Macrolide resistance decreases after antibiotic pressure is removed...
  32. pmc Reliability of measurements performed by community-drawn anthropometrists from rural Ethiopia
    Berhan Ayele
    The Carter Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    PLoS ONE 7:e30345. 2012
    ..In this study, we trained individuals from rural communities in Ethiopia in anthropometry techniques and measured intra- and inter-observer reliability...
  33. ncbi Feasibility of eliminating ocular Chlamydia trachomatis with repeat mass antibiotic treatments
    Muluken Melese
    ORBIS International, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    JAMA 292:721-5. 2004
    ....
  34. pmc Eliminating trachoma in areas with limited disease
    Bruce D Gaynor
    WHO Collaborating Center, F I Proctor Foundation, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:596-8. 2003
    ..We describe the success of multiple mass antibiotic treatments, demonstrating that complete elimination of infection may be an attainable goal in an area with modest disease...
  35. pmc Reliability of trachoma clinical grading--assessing grading of marginal cases
    Salman A Rahman
    F I Proctor Foundation, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8:e2840. 2014
    ..Here, we confirm those results and assess performance of trainees on these borderline cases by calculating their reliability error, a measure derived from the decomposition of the Brier score...
  36. pmc Comparison of an rRNA-based and DNA-based nucleic acid amplification test for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in trachoma
    Jon L Yang
    F I Proctor Foundation, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0412, USA
    Br J Ophthalmol 91:293-5. 2007
    ..This study compares an rRNA-based test to a DNA-based test for the detection of ocular C trachomatis infection in children living in trachoma-endemic villages...
  37. pmc Elimination and eradication of neglected tropical diseases with mass drug administrations: a survey of experts
    Jeremy D Keenan
    Francis I Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7:e2562. 2013
    ..We performed a survey of neglected tropical diseases experts to elicit their opinions on the role of mass drug administrations for the elimination of these infections...
  38. pmc Antibiotic selection pressure and macrolide resistance in nasopharyngeal Streptococcus pneumoniae: a cluster-randomized clinical trial
    Alison H Skalet
    Francis I Proctor Foundation for Research in Opthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS Med 7:e1000377. 2010
    ..In this study, we used a randomized clinical trial design to assess whether macrolide resistance was higher in communities treated with mass azithromycin for trachoma, compared to untreated control communities...
  39. pmc Topical fluoroquinolone use as a risk factor for in vitro fluoroquinolone resistance in ocular cultures
    Robert E Fintelmann
    Francis I Proctor Foundation for Research in Ophthalmology, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143 0412, USA
    Arch Ophthalmol 129:399-402. 2011
    ..To determine whether recent use of topical fluoroquinolones is a risk factor for in vitro fluoroquinolone resistance in Staphylococcus aureus ocular isolates...
  40. doi Evidence for clonal expansion after antibiotic selection pressure: pneumococcal multilocus sequence types before and after mass azithromycin treatments
    Jeremy D Keenan
    Francis I Proctor Foundation Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco
    J Infect Dis 211:988-94. 2015
    ..A clinical trial of mass azithromycin distributions for trachoma created a convenient experiment to test the hypothesis that antibiotic use selects for clonal expansion of preexisting resistant bacterial strains...
  41. doi Trachoma: an update on prevention, diagnosis, and treatment
    Satasuk Joy Bhosai
    F I Proctor Foundation and Department of Ophthalmology, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Ave, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Curr Opin Ophthalmol 23:288-95. 2012
    ..To review recent clinical and epidemiological studies regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of trachoma...
  42. pmc Practice patterns and opinions in the treatment of acanthamoeba keratitis
    Catherine E Oldenburg
    F I Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0944, USA
    Cornea 30:1363-8. 2011
    ..Management of acanthamoeba keratitis remains challenging for ophthalmologists. We conducted a survey of members of The Cornea Society to elicit expert opinions on the diagnosis and treatment of acanthamoeba keratitis...
  43. ncbi Rationale for mass antibiotic distribution for trachoma elimination
    Bruce D Gaynor
    Francis I Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Int Ophthalmol Clin 42:85-92. 2002