Theodore Garland

Summary

Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Sex-specific heterosis in line crosses of mice selectively bred for high locomotor activity
    Robert M Hannon
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Behav Genet 41:615-24. 2011
  2. pmc The biological control of voluntary exercise, spontaneous physical activity and daily energy expenditure in relation to obesity: human and rodent perspectives
    Theodore Garland
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    J Exp Biol 214:206-29. 2011
  3. ncbi request reprint Selective breeding for high endurance running increases hindlimb symmetry
    Theodore Garland
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside 92521, USA
    Evolution 59:1851-4. 2005
  4. ncbi request reprint Phenotypic plasticity and experimental evolution
    Theodore Garland
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    J Exp Biol 209:2344-61. 2006
  5. pmc How to run far: multiple solutions and sex-specific responses to selective breeding for high voluntary activity levels
    Theodore Garland
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 278:574-81. 2011
  6. doi request reprint Behavioral despair and home-cage activity in mice with chronically elevated baseline corticosterone concentrations
    Jessica L Malisch
    Department of Biology, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Behav Genet 39:192-201. 2009
  7. ncbi request reprint Phenotypic effects of the "mini-muscle" allele in a large HR x C57BL/6J mouse backcross
    Robert M Hannon
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    J Hered 99:349-54. 2008
  8. ncbi request reprint Running behavior and its energy cost in mice selectively bred for high voluntary locomotor activity
    Enrico L Rezende
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA
    Physiol Biochem Zool 82:662-79. 2009
  9. ncbi request reprint Immune response to a Trichinella spiralis infection in house mice from lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running
    Elizabeth M Dlugosz
    Department of Biology and Graduate Program in Evolution, Ecology and Organismal Biology, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    J Exp Biol 216:4212-21. 2013
  10. ncbi request reprint Experimental evolution and phenotypic plasticity of hindlimb bones in high-activity house mice
    Scott A Kelly
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, 92521, USA
    J Morphol 267:360-74. 2006

Detail Information

Publications77

  1. pmc Sex-specific heterosis in line crosses of mice selectively bred for high locomotor activity
    Robert M Hannon
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Behav Genet 41:615-24. 2011
    ..Overall, our results demonstrate differential and sex-specific responses to selection in the two HR lines tested, implying divergent genetic architectures underlying high voluntary exercise...
  2. pmc The biological control of voluntary exercise, spontaneous physical activity and daily energy expenditure in relation to obesity: human and rodent perspectives
    Theodore Garland
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    J Exp Biol 214:206-29. 2011
    ....
  3. ncbi request reprint Selective breeding for high endurance running increases hindlimb symmetry
    Theodore Garland
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside 92521, USA
    Evolution 59:1851-4. 2005
    ..We hypothesize that greater limb symmetry and larger femoral heads are general adaptations associated with sustained, high-speed locomotion...
  4. ncbi request reprint Phenotypic plasticity and experimental evolution
    Theodore Garland
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    J Exp Biol 209:2344-61. 2006
    ..We suggest that any selection experiment in which the selective event is more than instantaneous should explore whether plasticity in the appropriate (adaptive) direction has increased as a component of the response to selection...
  5. pmc How to run far: multiple solutions and sex-specific responses to selective breeding for high voluntary activity levels
    Theodore Garland
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 278:574-81. 2011
    ..These results demonstrate that uniform selection on a complex trait can cause consistent responses in the trait under direct selection while promoting divergence in the lower-level components of that trait...
  6. doi request reprint Behavioral despair and home-cage activity in mice with chronically elevated baseline corticosterone concentrations
    Jessica L Malisch
    Department of Biology, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Behav Genet 39:192-201. 2009
    ..Both male and female HR (generation 43) were more active than same-sex controls in both wheel running and home-cage activity across 22 h (pooling the sexes, HR/C = 2.28 and 2.66, respectively)...
  7. ncbi request reprint Phenotypic effects of the "mini-muscle" allele in a large HR x C57BL/6J mouse backcross
    Robert M Hannon
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    J Hered 99:349-54. 2008
    ....
  8. ncbi request reprint Running behavior and its energy cost in mice selectively bred for high voluntary locomotor activity
    Enrico L Rezende
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA
    Physiol Biochem Zool 82:662-79. 2009
    ....
  9. ncbi request reprint Immune response to a Trichinella spiralis infection in house mice from lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running
    Elizabeth M Dlugosz
    Department of Biology and Graduate Program in Evolution, Ecology and Organismal Biology, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    J Exp Biol 216:4212-21. 2013
    ..spiralis infection. However, despite reduced antibody production, breeding for high voluntary wheel exercise does not appear to have a substantial negative impact on general humoral function. ..
  10. ncbi request reprint Experimental evolution and phenotypic plasticity of hindlimb bones in high-activity house mice
    Scott A Kelly
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, 92521, USA
    J Morphol 267:360-74. 2006
    ..First, no differences were found in the MT/F ratio (the classic indicator of cursoriality). Second, we did not find a significant interaction between linetype and wheel access for any trait, despite the higher running rate of S mice...
  11. ncbi request reprint Maximum aerobic performance in lines of Mus selected for high wheel-running activity: effects of selection, oxygen availability and the mini-muscle phenotype
    Enrico L Rezende
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    J Exp Biol 209:115-27. 2006
    ..This would imply that the mini-muscle phenotype could be a good model to test how exercise performance and hypoxia tolerance could evolve in a correlated fashion, as previous researchers have suggested...
  12. ncbi request reprint Baseline and stress-induced plasma corticosterone concentrations of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running
    Jessica L Malisch
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA
    Physiol Biochem Zool 80:146-56. 2007
    ..Our results suggest that selection for increased locomotor activity has caused correlated changes in the HPA axis, resulting in higher baseline CORT concentrations and, possibly, reduced stress responsiveness and a lower growth rate...
  13. ncbi request reprint Locomotor trade-offs in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running
    Elizabeth M Dlugosz
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    J Exp Biol 212:2612-8. 2009
    ..Thus, mice with altered limb morphology after intense selection for running long distances do not necessarily run more economically...
  14. ncbi request reprint Maximal metabolic rates during voluntary exercise, forced exercise, and cold exposure in house mice selectively bred for high wheel-running
    Enrico L Rezende
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA
    J Exp Biol 208:2447-58. 2005
    ..We also discuss the possible importance of domestication as a confounding factor to extrapolate results from this animal model to natural populations...
  15. ncbi request reprint Effects of size, sex, and voluntary running speeds on costs of locomotion in lines of laboratory mice selectively bred for high wheel-running activity
    Enrico L Rezende
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA, 92521, USA
    Physiol Biochem Zool 79:83-99. 2006
    ..Our results highlight how differences in size and running speed can account for lower COT in S lines and suggest that lower COT may have coadapted in response to selection for higher running distances in these lines...
  16. doi request reprint Circadian pattern of total and free corticosterone concentrations, corticosteroid-binding globulin, and physical activity in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior
    Jessica L Malisch
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Gen Comp Endocrinol 156:210-7. 2008
    ..These findings lend support to our hypothesis that elevated circulating corticosterone levels have evolved as an adaptation to support increased locomotor activity in the selected lines...
  17. ncbi request reprint Relationships among running performance, aerobic physiology and organ mass in male Mongolian gerbils
    Mark A Chappell
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    J Exp Biol 210:4179-97. 2007
    ....
  18. pmc Glycogen storage and muscle glucose transporters (GLUT-4) of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running
    Fernando R Gomes
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    J Exp Biol 212:238-48. 2009
    ..All mice showed some glycogen depletion during nightly wheel running, in muscles and/or liver, but the magnitude of this depletion was not large and hence does not seem to be limiting to the evolution of even-higher wheel running...
  19. doi request reprint Latitudinal and climatic variation in body size and dorsal scale counts in Sceloporus lizards:a phylogenetic perspective
    Christopher E Oufiero
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, California 92507, USA
    Evolution 65:3590-607. 2011
    ..In all cases, phylogenetic regression models fit the data significantly better than nonphylogenetic models; thus, residuals for log(10) number of dorsal scale rows exhibited phylogenetic signal...
  20. doi request reprint Endurance capacity of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running
    Thomas H Meek
    University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    J Exp Biol 212:2908-17. 2009
    ..HR mice appear to have a higher endurance capacity than reported in the literature for inbred strains of mice or transgenics intended to enhance endurance...
  21. doi request reprint Mice from lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running exhibit lower blood pressure during withdrawal from wheel access
    Erik M Kolb
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Physiol Behav 112:49-55. 2013
    ..This is the first characterization of a cardiovascular withdrawal response in an animal model of high voluntary exercise...
  22. doi request reprint Are voluntary wheel running and open-field behavior correlated in mice? Different answers from comparative and artificial selection approaches
    Vincent Careau
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Behav Genet 42:830-44. 2012
    ..Overall, results obtained in the selection experiment were generally opposite to those observed among inbred strains. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed...
  23. doi request reprint Sex differences in cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1) pharmacology in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior
    Brooke K Keeney
    University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 101:528-37. 2012
    ....
  24. doi request reprint Effects of leptin treatment and Western diet on wheel running in selectively bred high runner mice
    Thomas H Meek
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Physiol Behav 106:252-8. 2012
    ..These results have implications for understanding the neural and endocrine systems that control locomotor activity, food consumption, and body weight, and how they may vary with genetic background...
  25. doi request reprint Differential response to a selective cannabinoid receptor antagonist (SR141716: rimonabant) in female mice from lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behaviour
    Brooke K Keeney
    University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 19:812-20. 2008
    ..We conclude that altered endocannabinoid signalling plays a role in the high wheel running of female HR mice...
  26. ncbi request reprint Limits to behavioral evolution: the quantitative genetics of a complex trait under directional selection
    Vincent Careau
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, California, 92521
    Evolution 67:3102-19. 2013
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint Leptin levels and body composition of mice selectively bred for high voluntary locomotor activity
    Isabelle Girard
    Department of Biology, University of Wisconsin, 800 Reserve Street, Stevens Point, Wisconsin 54481, USA
    Physiol Biochem Zool 80:568-79. 2007
    ..HR mice offer a novel model for studying the causes and consequences of physiologically relevant variations in serum leptin...
  28. ncbi request reprint Voluntary running in deer mice: speed, distance, energy costs and temperature effects
    Mark A Chappell
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    J Exp Biol 207:3839-54. 2004
    ..Individuals with high running performance (cumulative distance and running time) had high resting metabolism, which suggests a cost of having high capacity or propensity for activity...
  29. ncbi request reprint The evolution of the sexually selected sword in xiphophorus does not compromise aerobic locomotor performance
    Christopher E Oufiero
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, California, 92521
    Evolution 68:1806-23. 2014
    ..g., survivorship, life span). ..
  30. pmc Paternal responsiveness is associated with, but not mediated by reduced neophobia in male California mice (Peromyscus californicus)
    Miyetani Chauke
    Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Physiol Behav 107:65-75. 2012
    ..These results suggest that being a new father does not reduce anxiety, neophobia, or neural stress responsiveness. Low levels of neophobia, however, were associated with, but not necessary for paternal responsiveness...
  31. ncbi request reprint Reply to "heart position in snakes"
    Gabriel E A Gartner
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 2Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 2525 3Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo, 13506 900, Brazil 4Department of Biological Sciences, Box 870344, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487
    Physiol Biochem Zool 84:102-6. 2011
    ..We look forward to new data on the positions of snake hearts and further analyses that seek to test adaptive hypotheses by rigorous phylogenetic approaches...
  32. ncbi request reprint Climatic adaptation and the evolution of basal and maximum rates of metabolism in rodents
    Enrico L Rezende
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA
    Evolution 58:1361-74. 2004
    ....
  33. pmc Why tropical forest lizards are vulnerable to climate warming
    Raymond B Huey
    Department of Biology, University of Washington, PO Box 351800, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 276:1939-48. 2009
    ..Forest lizards are key components of tropical ecosystems, but appear vulnerable to the cascading physiological and ecological effects of climate warming, even though rates of tropical warming may be relatively low...
  34. ncbi request reprint Sexual size dimorphism in a Drosophila clade, the D. obscura group
    Raymond B Huey
    Department of Biology, Box 351800, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 1800, USA
    Zoology (Jena) 109:318-30. 2006
    ..obscura data may be limited by low statistical power...
  35. doi request reprint The evolution of high summit metabolism and cold tolerance in birds and its impact on present-day distributions
    David L Swanson
    Department of Biology, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069, USA
    Evolution 63:184-94. 2009
    ..Migratory strategy was never a significant predictor of log M(sum) in multiple regressions, a result that is not consistent with the flight adaptation hypothesis...
  36. doi request reprint Phylogenetic analysis of mammalian maximal oxygen consumption during exercise
    Elizabeth M Dlugosz
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    J Exp Biol 216:4712-21. 2013
    ..Averaged across all models, the allometric scaling exponent was 0.839, with 95% confidence limits of 0.795 and 0.883, which does not provide support for a scaling exponent of 0.67, 0.75 or unity. ..
  37. doi request reprint As the sword grows: individual variation and ontogenetic effects of a sexually selected trait on locomotor performance in Xiphophorus hellerii
    Christopher E Oufiero
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA
    Physiol Biochem Zool 85:684-93. 2012
    ..These results do not necessarily imply a complete lack of a cost to the sword but rather lack of a functional cost for swimming performance...
  38. doi request reprint Performance, personality, and energetics: correlation, causation, and mechanism
    Vincent Careau
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA
    Physiol Biochem Zool 85:543-71. 2012
    ..Studies of how performance abilities and/or aspects of Darwinian fitness relate to both metabolic rate and personality traits are particularly lacking...
  39. doi request reprint Phylogeny, ecology, and heart position in snakes
    Gabriel E A Gartner
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA
    Physiol Biochem Zool 83:43-54. 2010
    ..Our results suggest that overcoming gravitational pressure gradients in snakes most likely involves the combined action of several cardiovascular and behavioral adaptations in addition to alterations in relative heart location...
  40. ncbi request reprint Evolution of a small-muscle polymorphism in lines of house mice selected for high activity levels
    Theodore Garland
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside 92521, USA
    Evolution 56:1267-75. 2002
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint Phylogenetic approaches in comparative physiology
    Theodore Garland
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    J Exp Biol 208:3015-35. 2005
    ....
  42. ncbi request reprint Swimming performance trade-offs across a gradient in community composition in Trinidadian killifish (Rivulus hartii)
    Christopher E Oufiero
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA
    Ecology 92:170-9. 2011
    ..Fish from high-predation sites also exhibited increased tail lengths and fineness ratios compared to sites without large predators. The two low-predation sites showed no statistical differences in locomotor performance or morphology...
  43. ncbi request reprint AMP-activated protein kinase is involved in endothelial NO synthase activation in response to shear stress
    Yingjia Zhang
    Division of Biomedical Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 0121, USA
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 26:1281-7. 2006
    ..In this study, we investigate the regulation of the AMPK-eNOS pathway in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) by shear stress and the activation of aortic AMPK in a mouse model with a high level of voluntary running (High-Runner)...
  44. doi request reprint Selective breeding as a tool to probe skeletal response to high voluntary locomotor activity in mice
    KEVIN M MIDDLETON
    Department of Biology, California State University San Bernardino, San Bernardino, CA 92507, USA
    Integr Comp Biol 48:394-410. 2008
    ..Based on previously observed differences in distributions of myosin isoforms in adult MM mice, we hypothesize that a reduction of myosin heavy-chain type-IIb isoforms with accounts for our observed ontogenetic changes in muscle mass...
  45. ncbi request reprint Testing for phylogenetic signal in comparative data: behavioral traits are more labile
    Simon P Blomberg
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA
    Evolution 57:717-45. 2003
    ....
  46. pmc Fine mapping of "mini-muscle," a recessive mutation causing reduced hindlimb muscle mass in mice
    John Hartmann
    Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    J Hered 99:679-87. 2008
    ..Identification of the genetic variation that underlies MM could potentially be very important in understanding both normal muscle function and disregulation of muscle physiology leading to disease...
  47. doi request reprint Altered fibre types in gastrocnemius muscle of high wheel-running selected mice with mini-muscle phenotypes
    Helga Guderley
    Departement de Biologie, Universite Laval, Quebec QC, Canada G1K 7P4
    Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 149:490-500. 2008
    ..These and previous results demonstrate that extension of selective breeding beyond the time when the response of the selected trait (i.e. distance run) has levelled off can still modify the mechanistic underpinnings of this behaviour...
  48. ncbi request reprint Contractile abilities of normal and "mini" triceps surae muscles from mice (Mus domesticus) selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running
    Douglas A Syme
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Canada
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 99:1308-16. 2005
    ..These changes would promote increased, aerobically supported running activity but may compromise activities that require high power, such as sprinting...
  49. ncbi request reprint Kidney mass and relative medullary thickness of rodents in relation to habitat, body size, and phylogeny
    Mohammed A al-Kahtani
    Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    Physiol Biochem Zool 77:346-65. 2004
    ..A phylogenetic analysis indicated that mass-corrected kidney mass was positively related to habitat aridity...
  50. ncbi request reprint Effects of voluntary exercise and genetic selection for high activity levels on HSP72 expression in house mice
    Jason G Belter
    Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 96:1270-6. 2004
    ..Therefore, the increased HSP72 expression of S mice is not a simple proximate effect of their increased wheel running...
  51. ncbi request reprint Different effects of intensity and duration of locomotor activity on circadian period
    Pawel Koteja
    Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, ul Ingardena 6, 30 060 Krakow, Poland
    J Biol Rhythms 18:491-501. 2003
    ....
  52. ncbi request reprint Food wasting by house mice: variation among individuals, families, and genetic lines
    Paweł Koteja
    Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, ul Ingardena 6, 30 060 Krakow, Poland
    Physiol Behav 80:375-83. 2003
    ..In addition, "table manners" can convey reliable information about family origin of an individual and its quality, and therefore could potentially play a role in establishment of social status...
  53. ncbi request reprint Predatory aggression, but not maternal or intermale aggression, is associated with high voluntary wheel-running behavior in mice
    Stephen C Gammie
    Department of Zoology and Neuroscience Training Program, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Horm Behav 44:209-21. 2003
    ..Possible relationships between predatory aggression, dopamine, and wheel-running behavior are discussed...
  54. ncbi request reprint Exercise increases hippocampal neurogenesis to high levels but does not improve spatial learning in mice bred for increased voluntary wheel running
    Justin S Rhodes
    Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Madison, WI, USA
    Behav Neurosci 117:1006-16. 2003
    ..This is the first evidence that neurogenesis can occur without learning enhancement. The authors propose an alternative function of neurogenesis in the control of motor behavior...
  55. ncbi request reprint Ontogenies in mice selected for high voluntary wheel-running activity. I. Mean ontogenies
    Theodore J Morgan
    School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164, USA
    Evolution 57:646-57. 2003
    ....
  56. ncbi request reprint Artificial selection for high activity favors mighty mini-muscles in house mice
    Philippe Houle-Leroy
    Departement de Biologie, Universite Laval, Quebec, Canada G1K 7P4
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 284:R433-43. 2003
    ..Overall, our results demonstrate that during selection for voluntary wheel running, distinct adaptive paths that differentially exploit the genetic variation in morphological and physiological traits have been followed...
  57. ncbi request reprint Dominance, plasma testosterone levels, and testis size in house mice artificially selected for high activity levels
    Kurt F Klomberg
    Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Physiol Behav 77:27-38. 2002
    ..This unexpected result may reflect an alternate coping strategy...
  58. ncbi request reprint Maximal oxygen consumption in relation to subordinate traits in lines of house mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running
    Enrico L Rezende
    Integrative Ecology Group, Estación Biológica Doñana, CSIC, Apdo 1056, E 41080 Seville, Spain
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 101:477-85. 2006
    ..Mice with the mini-muscle phenotype had enlarged ventricles, with higher mass-specific citrate synthase activity and myoglobin concentration, which may account for their higher VO2 max in hypoxia...
  59. doi request reprint Basal metabolic rate of aged mice is affected by random genetic drift but not by selective breeding for high early-age locomotor activity or chronic wheel access
    Stephanie L Kane
    School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 4236, USA
    Physiol Biochem Zool 81:288-300. 2008
    ..This study is the first to show such effects of random genetic drift on metabolic traits...
  60. ncbi request reprint Morphometry, ultrastructure, myosin isoforms, and metabolic capacities of the "mini muscles" favoured by selection for high activity in house mice
    Helga Guderley
    Departement de Biologie, Universite Laval, Quebec, P Q, Canada G1K 7P4
    Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 144:271-82. 2006
    ..Moreover, the several statistically significant interactions between muscle phenotype and line indicate that the effect of the underlying allele is altered by genetic background...
  61. pmc The relative importance of genetics and phenotypic plasticity in dictating bone morphology and mechanics in aged mice: evidence from an artificial selection experiment
    KEVIN M MIDDLETON
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
    Zoology (Jena) 111:135-47. 2008
    ..After controlling for body mass, measures of the femoral neck remain significant predictors of femoral neck strength...
  62. doi request reprint Protein synthesis and antioxidant capacity in aging mice: effects of long-term voluntary exercise
    Lobke M Vaanholt
    Department of Behavioural Biology, University of Groningen, P O Box 14, 9750 AA Haren, The Netherlands
    Physiol Biochem Zool 81:148-57. 2008
    ..Long-term elevations in voluntary exercise did not result in elevations in antioxidant enzyme activities or protein synthesis rates...
  63. ncbi request reprint Opioid-mediated pain sensitivity in mice bred for high voluntary wheel running
    Guo Li
    Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Physiol Behav 83:515-24. 2004
    ..p.) decreased wheel running equally in High-Runner and C mice. Further studies will be required to determine whether other types of pain sensitivity have also failed to evolve in association with increased voluntary wheel running...
  64. ncbi request reprint Behavioural and physiological responses to increased foraging effort in male mice
    Lobke M Vaanholt
    University of Groningen, Department of Behavioural Biology, Kerklaan 30, 9751 NN, Haren, The Netherlands
    J Exp Biol 210:2013-24. 2007
    ..In addition, corticosterone levels increased, and body temperature was extremely low in some animals at high workloads. When challenged to work for food, mice thus show significant physiological and behavioural adjustments...
  65. ncbi request reprint Within-species variation and measurement error in phylogenetic comparative methods
    Anthony R Ives
    Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    Syst Biol 56:252-70. 2007
    ..We illustrate these methods with examples and simulations and provide Matlab programs...
  66. ncbi request reprint Wheel-running activity and energy metabolism in relation to ambient temperature in mice selected for high wheel-running activity
    Lobke M Vaanholt
    Department of Behavioural Biology, University of Groningen, P O Box 14, 9750 AA Haren, The Netherlands
    J Comp Physiol B 177:109-18. 2007
    ..Heat generated by running apparently did not substitute for heat necessary for thermoregulation. The overall estimate of running costs was 1.2 kJ/km for control mice and selected mice...
  67. pmc Artificial selection for increased maternal defense behavior in mice
    Stephen C Gammie
    Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin, 1117 West Johnson St, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Behav Genet 36:713-22. 2006
    ..This is the first study to select for high maternal defense and these mice will be made available as a tool for understanding the genetic and neural basis of maternal aggression...
  68. ncbi request reprint Muscle fiber-type variation in lizards (Squamata) and phylogenetic reconstruction of hypothesized ancestral states
    Kevin E Bonine
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, P O Box 210088 Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    J Exp Biol 208:4529-47. 2005
    ..Reconstruction of ancestral trait values by use of phylogenetically based statistical methods indicates especially large changes in fiber-type composition during the evolution of horned lizards...
  69. pmc Aquatic insect ecophysiological traits reveal phylogenetically based differences in dissolved cadmium susceptibility
    David B Buchwalter
    Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Campus Box 7633, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27604, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:8321-6. 2008
    ..There appears to be great potential for evolutionary physiological approaches to augment our understanding of insect responses to environmental stressors in nature...
  70. ncbi request reprint Reduction in muscle fibre number during the adaptive radiation of notothenioid fishes: a phylogenetic perspective
    Ian A Johnston
    Gatty Marine Laboratory, Division of Environmental and Evolutionary Biology, School of Biology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 8LB, Scotland, UK
    J Exp Biol 206:2595-609. 2003
    ..These characteristics of notothenioids may well restrict their upper thermal tolerance, particularly for Champsocephalus esox and similar Channichthyids that lack respiratory pigments...
  71. ncbi request reprint Patterns of brain activity associated with variation in voluntary wheel-running behavior
    Justin S Rhodes
    Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin Madison, 53706, USA
    Behav Neurosci 117:1243-56. 2003
    ..Results implicate specific brain regions in motivation to run and others in control of the intensity of the locomotor behavior itself...
  72. pmc A brief opportunity to run does not function as a reinforcer for mice selected for high daily wheel-running rates
    Terry W Belke
    Department of Psychology, Mount Allison University, Sackville, New Brunswick, Canada
    J Exp Anal Behav 88:199-213. 2007
    ..It also is proposed that there may be an inherent trade-off in the motivational system for activities of short versus long duration...
  73. ncbi request reprint Do precocial mammals develop at a faster rate? A comparison of rates of skull development in Sigmodon fulviventer and Mus musculus domesticus
    Miriam Leah Zelditch
    Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1079, USA
    J Evol Biol 16:708-20. 2003
    ..m. domesticus over time. Surprisingly, despite differences in gestation length and developmental rate, these species reach developmental and life-history milestones at nearly identical degrees of skull shape maturity...
  74. ncbi request reprint Clostridial enteropathy in lactating outbred swiss-derived (ICR) mice
    Lisa Krugner-Higby
    Research Animal Resource Center, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
    J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 45:80-7. 2006
    ..The disease in this mouse colony was ameliorated by increasing the fat and calorie content of the diet of lactating dams, which each received 1 g peanut butter every 48 h...
  75. pmc The primate semicircular canal system and locomotion
    Fred Spoor
    Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:10808-12. 2007
    ..Primate and other mammalian species studied here that are agile and have fast, jerky locomotion have significantly larger canals relative to body mass than those that move more cautiously...
  76. ncbi request reprint Number of arginine-vasopressin neurons in the suprachiasmatic nuclei is not related to level or circadian characteristics of wheel-running activity in house mice
    Kelly J Hochstetler
    Alaskan Basic Neuroscience Program, Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska
    Behav Genet 34:131-6. 2004
    ..071, NS). Therefore our data do not support the hypothesis that differences in activity level and the circadian expression of activity in young adult mice are related to differences in the number of AVP-immunoreactive cells in the SCN...
  77. pmc Antioxidant gene expression in active and sedentary house mice (Mus domesticus) selected for high voluntary wheel-running behavior
    Anne M Bronikowski
    Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    Genetics 161:1763-9. 2002
    ..We discuss these results with respect to both evolutionary (genetic) and training (exercise-induced) adaptations and explore predictions of these results in relation to the oxidative-damage theory of senescence...