Richard Gallo

Summary

Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Staphylococcus epidermidis antimicrobial delta-toxin (phenol-soluble modulin-gamma) cooperates with host antimicrobial peptides to kill group A Streptococcus
    Anna L Cogen
    Division of Dermatology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e8557. 2010
  2. pmc Commensal bacteria regulate Toll-like receptor 3-dependent inflammation after skin injury
    Yuping Lai
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, USA
    Nat Med 15:1377-82. 2009
  3. pmc Hyaluronic acid oligosaccharides suppress TLR3-dependent cytokine expression in a TLR4-dependent manner
    Margaret Y Kim
    Division of Dermatology, University of California San Diego and VA San Diego Health Care System, San Diego, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e72421. 2013
  4. pmc Antimicrobial peptides: old molecules with new ideas
    Teruaki Nakatsuji
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California 92121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 132:887-95. 2012
  5. pmc Distinct innate immune gene expression profiles in non-melanoma skin cancer of immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients
    Beda Muehleisen
    Division of Dermatology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e40754. 2012
  6. pmc Activation of TLR3 in keratinocytes increases expression of genes involved in formation of the epidermis, lipid accumulation, and epidermal organelles
    Andrew W Borkowski
    Division of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 0869, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 133:2031-40. 2013
  7. pmc The microbiome extends to subepidermal compartments of normal skin
    Teruaki Nakatsuji
    Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 0869, USA
    Nat Commun 4:1431. 2013
  8. pmc HSV-1 exploits the innate immune scavenger receptor MARCO to enhance epithelial adsorption and infection
    Daniel T MacLeod
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Nat Commun 4:1963. 2013
  9. pmc Exogenous addition of a C-xylopyranoside derivative stimulates keratinocyte dermatan sulfate synthesis and promotes migration
    Jun Muto
    Division of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego and Veterans Affairs San Diego Health Care System, San Diego, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e25480. 2011
  10. doi request reprint The birth of innate immunity
    Richard L Gallo
    Division of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, CA 92117, USA
    Exp Dermatol 22:517. 2013

Research Grants

  1. PROTEOGLYCANS WOUND REPAIR AND INFLAMMATION
    Richard Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2001
  2. 2007 Antimicrobial Peptides Gordon Conference
    Richard Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2007
  3. Cathelicidins in Skin Immunity
    Richard Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2007
  4. Proteolysis and Skin Antimicrobials
    Richard Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2009
  5. Cathelicidins in Skin Immunity
    Richard Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2009
  6. Proteolysis and Skin Antimicrobials
    Richard L Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2010
  7. Skin Microbiome in epidermal immune defense
    Richard L Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2010
  8. Cathelicidins in Skin Immunity
    Richard L Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2010
  9. Proteolysis and Skin Antimicrobials
    Richard Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2007
  10. Proteolysis and Skin Antimicrobials
    Richard Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2006

Detail Information

Publications90

  1. pmc Staphylococcus epidermidis antimicrobial delta-toxin (phenol-soluble modulin-gamma) cooperates with host antimicrobial peptides to kill group A Streptococcus
    Anna L Cogen
    Division of Dermatology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e8557. 2010
    ..Thus, these data suggest that S. epidermidis-derived delta-toxin cooperates with the host-derived antimicrobial peptides in the innate immune system to reduce survival of an important human bacterial pathogen...
  2. pmc Commensal bacteria regulate Toll-like receptor 3-dependent inflammation after skin injury
    Yuping Lai
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, USA
    Nat Med 15:1377-82. 2009
    ..To our knowledge, these findings show for the first time that the skin epithelium requires TLR3 for normal inflammation after wounding and that the microflora can modulate specific cutaneous inflammatory responses...
  3. pmc Hyaluronic acid oligosaccharides suppress TLR3-dependent cytokine expression in a TLR4-dependent manner
    Margaret Y Kim
    Division of Dermatology, University of California San Diego and VA San Diego Health Care System, San Diego, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e72421. 2013
    ..These results show that oligo-HA acts through TLR4 and TRAF1 to inhibit TLR3-dependent inflammation. This observation illustrates the complex immunomodulatory action of endogenous products released after injury. ..
  4. pmc Antimicrobial peptides: old molecules with new ideas
    Teruaki Nakatsuji
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California 92121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 132:887-95. 2012
    ..In this review, we summarize the history of AMP biology and provide an overview of recent research progress in this field...
  5. pmc Distinct innate immune gene expression profiles in non-melanoma skin cancer of immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients
    Beda Muehleisen
    Division of Dermatology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e40754. 2012
    ..BCC shows lesser induction of innate immune genes. SCC from OTR patients have depressed expression of hBD1 and psoriasin compared to SCC from immunocompetent patients...
  6. pmc Activation of TLR3 in keratinocytes increases expression of genes involved in formation of the epidermis, lipid accumulation, and epidermal organelles
    Andrew W Borkowski
    Division of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 0869, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 133:2031-40. 2013
    ..These observations show that dsRNA can stimulate some events in keratinocytes that are important for skin barrier repair and maintenance. ..
  7. pmc The microbiome extends to subepidermal compartments of normal skin
    Teruaki Nakatsuji
    Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 0869, USA
    Nat Commun 4:1431. 2013
    ..These observations show that normal commensal bacterial communities directly communicate with the host in a tissue previously thought to be sterile...
  8. pmc HSV-1 exploits the innate immune scavenger receptor MARCO to enhance epithelial adsorption and infection
    Daniel T MacLeod
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Nat Commun 4:1963. 2013
    ..These findings demonstrate that herpes simplex virus type 1 binds to MARCO to enhance its capacity for disease, and suggests a new therapeutic target to alter pathogenicity of herpes simplex virus type 1 in skin infection...
  9. pmc Exogenous addition of a C-xylopyranoside derivative stimulates keratinocyte dermatan sulfate synthesis and promotes migration
    Jun Muto
    Division of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego and Veterans Affairs San Diego Health Care System, San Diego, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e25480. 2011
    ..These results indicate that C-Xyloside may enhance epithelial repair by serving as an initiator of DS synthesis...
  10. doi request reprint The birth of innate immunity
    Richard L Gallo
    Division of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, CA 92117, USA
    Exp Dermatol 22:517. 2013
    ..Thus, this paper represents the birth of the field now referred to as innate immunity and first describes an antimicrobial protein (AMP). ..
  11. doi request reprint In defense of skin: antimicrobial peptides have their day
    Richard L Gallo
    University of California, San Diego, CA, USA
    Future Microbiol 8:829-31. 2013
    ..His research is supported by grants from the NIH, the Veterans Administration and private foundations. ..
  12. pmc Epithelial antimicrobial defence of the skin and intestine
    Richard L Gallo
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California 92093, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 12:503-16. 2012
    ..Further, we discuss recent insights into the regulatory mechanisms that control antimicrobial protein expression. Finally, we consider how impaired antimicrobial protein expression and function can contribute to disease...
  13. ncbi request reprint Immunodermatology
    Richard L Gallo
    Division of Dermatology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, University of California, La Jolla, SanDiego, CA 92161, USA
    Semin Immunopathol 29:1-2. 2007
  14. pmc Microbial symbiosis with the innate immune defense system of the skin
    Richard L Gallo
    Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California 92121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 131:1974-80. 2011
    ..This review highlights recent observations on the importance of innate immune systems and the relationship with the normal skin microflora to maintain healthy skin...
  15. ncbi request reprint Antimicrobial peptides
    Arash Izadpanah
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, and Veterans Administration San Diego Healthcare System, USA
    J Am Acad Dermatol 52:381-90; quiz 391-2. 2005
    ..AMPs have been shown to be important in such diverse functions as angiogenesis, wound healing, and chemotaxis. As our knowledge of AMP biology expands, the precise role and relevance of these peptides will be better elucidated...
  16. pmc Sounding the alarm: multiple functions of host defense peptides
    Richard L Gallo
    Division of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, Dermatology Section, VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California 92161, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 128:5-6. 2008
    ..In this issue Carretero et al. (2007) expand on these findings by demonstrating that expression of human cathelicidin alters multiple signaling pathways in a keratinocyte cell line and enhances wound re-epithelialization in ob/ob mice...
  17. pmc CC chemokine ligand 3 overcomes the bacteriocidal and phagocytic defect of macrophages and hastens recovery from experimental otitis media in TNF-/- mice
    Anke Leichtle
    Division of Otolaryngology, Department of Surgery, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    J Immunol 184:3087-97. 2010
    ..Manipulation of CCL3 and/or TNF may prove to be effective therapeutic approaches in OM or other conditions associated with defective TNF generation...
  18. pmc Control of the innate epithelial antimicrobial response is cell-type specific and dependent on relevant microenvironmental stimuli
    Jürgen Schauber
    Division of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego and VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA, USA
    Immunology 118:509-19. 2006
    ....
  19. pmc The neuroendocrine peptide catestatin is a cutaneous antimicrobial and induced in the skin after injury
    Katherine A Radek
    Department of Dermatology, Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California 92161, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 128:1525-34. 2008
    ..JID JOURNAL CLUB ARTICLE: For questions, answers, and open discussion about this article please go to http://network.nature.com/group/jidclub...
  20. ncbi request reprint Postsecretory processing generates multiple cathelicidins for enhanced topical antimicrobial defense
    Masamoto Murakami
    Division of Dermatology, University of California, and Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare Center, San Diego, CA 92161, USA
    J Immunol 172:3070-7. 2004
    ..Thus, a single gene product encoding an important defense molecule alters structure and function in the topical environment to shift the balance of activity toward direct inhibition of microbial colonization...
  21. ncbi request reprint Hyaluronan fragments stimulate endothelial recognition of injury through TLR4
    Kristen R Taylor
    Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego, California 92161, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:17079-84. 2004
    ..These observations suggest that endogenous components of the extracellular matrix can stimulate endothelia to trigger recognition of injury in the initial stages of the wound defense and repair response...
  22. pmc A peptide with a ProGln C terminus in the human saliva peptidome exerts bactericidal activity against Propionibacterium acnes
    Chun Ming Huang
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, and VA San Diego Healthcare Center, Rm 3217A, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, San Diego, CA, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:1834-6. 2008
    ..A GPPPQGGRPQ peptide binds gram-positive Propionibacterium acnes and considerably inhibits bacterial growth. The peptide exhibiting innate immunity may be applied for treatment of various P. acnes-associated human diseases...
  23. pmc Innate immunity and antimicrobial defense systems in psoriasis
    Amanda S Büchau
    Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, University of California at San Diego School of Medicine, San Diego, CA 92161, USA
    Clin Dermatol 25:616-24. 2007
    ....
  24. ncbi request reprint S100A15, an antimicrobial protein of the skin: regulation by E. coli through Toll-like receptor 4
    Amanda S Büchau
    Department of Dermatology, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf, Germany
    J Invest Dermatol 127:2596-604. 2007
    ..coli in contrast to wild-type mice. In vitro, human S100A15 displayed antimicrobial activity against E. coli. Our findings suggest that E. coli modulates S100A15 and IL-8 expression of keratinocytes by recognition through TLR4...
  25. pmc The molecular pathology of rosacea
    Kenshi Yamasaki
    Division of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, CA 92161, USA
    J Dermatol Sci 55:77-81. 2009
    ..This article discusses the possible molecular mechanisms for the pathogenesis of rosacea from current clinical observations and laboratory research...
  26. pmc Injury enhances TLR2 function and antimicrobial peptide expression through a vitamin D-dependent mechanism
    Jürgen Schauber
    Division of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, and VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California, USA
    J Clin Invest 117:803-11. 2007
    ..Thus, we demonstrate what we believe to be a previously unexpected role for vitamin D3 in innate immunity, enabling keratinocytes to recognize and respond to microbes and to protect wounds against infection...
  27. ncbi request reprint Heterogeneous expression of human cathelicidin hCAP18/LL-37 in inflammatory bowel diseases
    Jürgen Schauber
    Department of Medicine II, Division of Gastroenterology cInstitute of Pathology, University of Wurzburg, Germany
    Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 18:615-21. 2006
    ..In this study, the expression of human cathelicidin hCAP18/LL-37 was investigated in the intestinal mucosa from patients suffering from ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease...
  28. pmc HIF-1alpha expression regulates the bactericidal capacity of phagocytes
    Carole Peyssonnaux
    Division of Biological Sciences, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
    J Clin Invest 115:1806-15. 2005
    ..HIF-1alpha control of myeloid cell activity in infected tissues could represent a novel therapeutic target for enhancing host defense...
  29. ncbi request reprint Cathelicidin mediates innate intestinal defense against colonization with epithelial adherent bacterial pathogens
    Mitsutoshi Iimura
    Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0623, USA
    J Immunol 174:4901-7. 2005
    ..Moreover, Cnlp+/+ mice were protected from oral infections with C. rodentium inocula that infected the majority of Cnlp-/- mice. These results establish cathelicidin as an important component of innate antimicrobial defense in the colon...
  30. ncbi request reprint Keratinocytes store the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin in lamellar bodies
    Marissa H Braff
    University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 124:394-400. 2005
    ..These observations illustrate the immune defense potential of keratinocytes acting directly through storage and processing of antimicrobial peptides...
  31. ncbi request reprint Expression and secretion of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides in murine mammary glands and human milk
    Masamoto Murakami
    Division of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, and VA San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, San Diego, CA 92161, USA
    Pediatr Res 57:10-5. 2005
    ..These results indicate that cathelicidin is secreted in mammary gland and human milk, has antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and can contribute to the anti-infectious properties of milk...
  32. ncbi request reprint Cutaneous defense mechanisms by antimicrobial peptides
    Marissa H Braff
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, and VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 125:9-13. 2005
    ..The importance of the epithelial contribution to host immunity is evident, as alterations in antimicrobial peptide expression have been associated with various pathologic processes...
  33. ncbi request reprint Dermatan sulfate proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan synthesis is induced in fibroblasts by transfer to a three-dimensional extracellular environment
    Phillip H A Lee
    Division of Dermatology, University of California San Diego, 92161, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:48640-6. 2004
    ..The ability of collagen gel culture to mimic better the in vivo dermal environment may be due in part to this influence on dermatan sulfate and dermatan sulfate proteoglycan synthesis...
  34. ncbi request reprint Biology and clinical relevance of naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides
    Richard L Gallo
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, and VA San Diego Healthcare Center, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 110:823-31. 2002
    ..Current and future studies are likely to implicate the presence of antimicrobial peptides in several unexplained human inflammatory disorders and to provide novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment of disease...
  35. ncbi request reprint Cathelicidins and innate defense against invasive bacterial infection
    Victor Nizet
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093, USA
    Scand J Infect Dis 35:670-6. 2003
    ..This article reviews the latest advances in the knowledge of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides, with particular emphasis on their role in defense against invasive bacterial infection and associations with human disease conditions...
  36. ncbi request reprint Endogenous production of antimicrobial peptides in innate immunity and human disease
    Richard L Gallo
    Departments of Medicine and Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA
    Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 3:402-9. 2003
    ..In this article, we review important recent advances in understanding the biology of antimicrobial peptides and their role in normal immunity and human disease...
  37. ncbi request reprint HB-107, a nonbacteriostatic fragment of the antimicrobial peptide cecropin B, accelerates murine wound repair
    Phillip H A Lee
    Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, CA 92161, USA
    Wound Repair Regen 12:351-8. 2004
    ..Moreover, this study furthers our understanding of antimicrobial peptides by showing that their wound repair properties can be independent of antimicrobial function...
  38. ncbi request reprint Expanding the roles of antimicrobial peptides in skin: alarming and arming keratinocytes
    Jürgen Schauber
    Division of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, and Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 127:510-2. 2007
    ..Poorly named, antimicrobial peptides are multifunctional pillars around which the innate and adaptive immune response has evolved...
  39. ncbi request reprint Antimicrobial peptides and the skin
    Antoanella Bardan
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, CA 92161, USA
    Expert Opin Biol Ther 4:543-9. 2004
    ..Ongoing and future studies are likely to implicate AMPs in several unexplained human inflammatory disorders and to provide novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of these diseases...
  40. ncbi request reprint Histone acetylation in keratinocytes enables control of the expression of cathelicidin and CD14 by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3
    Jürgen Schauber
    Division of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego and VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 128:816-24. 2008
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint Cathelicidins, essential gene-encoded mammalian antibiotics
    Mohamed Zaiou
    Department of Medicine Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, CA 92161, USA
    J Mol Med (Berl) 80:549-61. 2002
    ....
  42. ncbi request reprint Structure-function relationships among human cathelicidin peptides: dissociation of antimicrobial properties from host immunostimulatory activities
    Marissa H Braff
    Division of Dermatology, University of California, and Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare Center, San Diego, CA 92161, USA
    J Immunol 174:4271-8. 2005
    ..Taken together, these observations suggest that proteolytic processing may alter the balance between cathelicidin antimicrobial and host immunostimulatory functions...
  43. ncbi request reprint Expression and potential function of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides in dermatophytosis and tinea versicolor
    Belen Lopez-Garcia
    Division of Dermatology, University of California San Diego, and VA San Diego Healthcare Center, San Diego, CA, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 57:877-82. 2006
    ..This study was designed to characterize the role of the human cathelicidin LL-37 in fungal skin infections such as dermatophytosis and tinea versicolor...
  44. ncbi request reprint An innate bactericidal oleic acid effective against skin infection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a therapy concordant with evolutionary medicine
    Chao Hsuan Chen
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0671, USA
    J Microbiol Biotechnol 21:391-9. 2011
    ..In conclusion, our results suggest a promising therapeutic approach against MRSA through boosting the bacteriocidal activities of native FFAs, which may have been co-evolved during the interactions between microbes and their hosts...
  45. pmc Antimicrobial peptides in human skin disease
    Kenshi Yamasaki
    Division of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego MC 9111B, San Diego, California 92161, USA
    Eur J Dermatol 18:11-21. 2008
    ....
  46. pmc Bcl-3 acts as an innate immune modulator by controlling antimicrobial responses in keratinocytes
    Amanda S Büchau
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California 92161, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 129:2148-55. 2009
    ..Furthermore, 1,25D3 suppressed Bcl-3 expression in vitro and in vivo. This study identified Bcl-3 as an important modulator of cutaneous innate immune responses and its possible therapeutic role in AD...
  47. ncbi request reprint Antimicrobial and protease inhibitory functions of the human cathelicidin (hCAP18/LL-37) prosequence
    Mohamed Zaiou
    Department of Medicine and Pediatrics, Division of Dermatology, University of California at San Diego and VA San Diego Healthcare System, 92161, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 120:810-6. 2003
    ..As these dual functions are complementary to the LL-37 peptide released from the C-terminus of full-length hCAP18/LL-37, human cathelicidin represents an elegant multifunctional effector molecule for innate immune defense of the skin...
  48. pmc Selective antimicrobial action is provided by phenol-soluble modulins derived from Staphylococcus epidermidis, a normal resident of the skin
    Anna L Cogen
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, VA San Diego Health Care System, San Diego, California, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 130:192-200. 2010
    ..Thus, these data suggest that the production of PSMgamma and PSMdelta by S. epidermidis can benefit cutaneous immune defense by selectively inhibiting the survival of skin pathogens while maintaining the normal skin microbiome...
  49. pmc Antimicrobial property of lauric acid against Propionibacterium acnes: its therapeutic potential for inflammatory acne vulgaris
    Teruaki Nakatsuji
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, California, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 129:2480-8. 2009
    ..acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. The obtained data highlight the potential of using lauric acid as an alternative treatment for antibiotic therapy of acne vulgaris...
  50. pmc Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides inhibit hyaluronan-induced cytokine release and modulate chronic allergic dermatitis
    Yasuhide Morioka
    Division of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, and Veterans Affairs San Diego Health Care System, San Diego, California 92161, USA
    J Immunol 181:3915-22. 2008
    ..These results suggest that cathelicidin has anti-inflammatory activity in skin that may be mediated in part by inhibition of HA-mediated processes...
  51. pmc NLRP3/cryopyrin is necessary for interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) release in response to hyaluronan, an endogenous trigger of inflammation in response to injury
    Kenshi Yamasaki
    Division of Dermatology, University of California, and Veterans Affairs San Diego Health Care System, San Diego, CA 92161, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:12762-71. 2009
    ..These findings support the hypothesis that hyaluronan works through IL-1beta and the cryopyrin system to signal sterile inflammation...
  52. ncbi request reprint Kallikrein-mediated proteolysis regulates the antimicrobial effects of cathelicidins in skin
    Kenshi Yamasaki
    Division of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, and VA San Diego Health Care System, San Diego, California, USA
    FASEB J 20:2068-80. 2006
    ..These observations demonstrate that the balance of proteolytic activity at an epithelial interface will control innate immune defense...
  53. ncbi request reprint Impairment of innate immune killing mechanisms by bacteriostatic antibiotics
    Sascha A Kristian
    Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0687, USA
    FASEB J 21:1107-16. 2007
    ..These findings provide a further rationale against the indiscriminate use of antibiotics...
  54. pmc Expression of an additional cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide protects against bacterial skin infection
    Phillip H A Lee
    Division of Dermatology, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, CA 92161, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:3750-5. 2005
    ..These findings demonstrate that targeted gene transfer of a xenobiotic cathelicidin confers resistance against infection and suggests the benefit of duplication and divergence in the evolution of antimicrobial peptides...
  55. ncbi request reprint Increased serine protease activity and cathelicidin promotes skin inflammation in rosacea
    Kenshi Yamasaki
    Division of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, and VA San Diego Health Care System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, San Diego, California 92161, USA
    Nat Med 13:975-80. 2007
    ..These findings confirm the role of cathelicidin in skin inflammatory responses and suggest an explanation for the pathogenesis of rosacea by demonstrating that an exacerbated innate immune response can reproduce elements of this disease...
  56. pmc N-glycolylneuraminic acid deficiency in mice: implications for human biology and evolution
    Maria Hedlund
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0687, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 27:4340-6. 2007
    ..Adult animals also showed delayed skin wound healing. Loss of Neu5Gc in hominid ancestors approximately 2 to 3 million years ago likely had immediate and long-term consequences for human biology...
  57. ncbi request reprint Cathelicidin anti-microbial peptide expression in sweat, an innate defense system for the skin
    Masamoto Murakami
    Division of Dermatology, University of California San Diego, and VA San Diego Healthcare Center, 92161, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 119:1090-5. 2002
    ..Thus, sweat represents a unique mode of delivery for potent innate immune effector molecules in the absence of inflammation...
  58. ncbi request reprint Innate immunity: a cutaneous perspective
    Heidi Goodarzi
    Division of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA
    Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 33:15-26. 2007
    ..Recent insights into these processes have advanced the understanding of disease pathogenesis and provided new therapeutic options for a variety of skin diseases...
  59. ncbi request reprint Antimicrobial peptides: natural effectors of the innate immune system
    Katherine Radek
    Division of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA
    Semin Immunopathol 29:27-43. 2007
    ..Further scrutiny of the biochemical and regulatory mechanisms of AMPs will lead to novel alternative approaches to the treatment of human pathogenic disorders...
  60. pmc M1T1 group A streptococcal pili promote epithelial colonization but diminish systemic virulence through neutrophil extracellular entrapment
    Laura E Crotty Alexander
    Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    J Mol Med (Berl) 88:371-81. 2010
    ....
  61. pmc The host defense peptide cathelicidin is required for NK cell-mediated suppression of tumor growth
    Amanda S Büchau
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    J Immunol 184:369-78. 2010
    ..Thus, we demonstrate a previously unrecognized role of cathelicidin in NK cell antitumor function...
  62. ncbi request reprint Innate immune defense of the nail unit by antimicrobial peptides
    Robert A Dorschner
    Division of Dermatology, University of California San Diego, 33550 La Jolla Village Drive, San Diego, CA 92161, USA
    J Am Acad Dermatol 50:343-8. 2004
    ..The nail is susceptible to microbial invasion, yet is usually able to defend itself from infection. This occurs despite isolation from cell-mediated immunity...
  63. pmc Kallikrein expression and cathelicidin processing are independently controlled in keratinocytes by calcium, vitamin D(3), and retinoic acid
    Shin Morizane
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 130:1297-306. 2010
    ..Thus, these variables may further control the functions of antimicrobial peptides in the skin...
  64. ncbi request reprint The mammalian ionic environment dictates microbial susceptibility to antimicrobial defense peptides
    Robert A Dorschner
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego and VA San Diego Healthcare Center, San Diego, USA
    FASEB J 20:35-42. 2006
    ....
  65. ncbi request reprint The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is expressed by keratinocytes in condyloma acuminatum and verruca vulgaris
    Kimberly Conner
    Division of Dermatology, University of California San Diego, and Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, USA
    J Am Acad Dermatol 47:347-50. 2002
    ..LL-37 is a peptide belonging to the cathelicidin family of antimicrobial peptides. Recent investigations have suggested that the expression of antimicrobial peptides is an important mechanism for resistance to microbial infection...
  66. pmc Neuroendocrine nicotinic receptor activation increases susceptibility to bacterial infections by suppressing antimicrobial peptide production
    Katherine A Radek
    VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA 92161, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 7:277-89. 2010
    ....
  67. ncbi request reprint Dermatan sulfate binds and potentiates activity of keratinocyte growth factor (FGF-7)
    Janet M Trowbridge
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego, California 92161, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:42815-20. 2002
    ..In addition, dermatan sulfate and FGF-7 stimulated growth of normal keratinocytes in culture. Thus, dermatan sulfate, the predominant glycosaminoglycan in skin, is the principle cofactor for FGF-7...
  68. ncbi request reprint Neonatal skin in mice and humans expresses increased levels of antimicrobial peptides: innate immunity during development of the adaptive response
    Robert A Dorschner
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine and Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, USA
    Pediatr Res 53:566-72. 2003
    ..Antimicrobial peptides may therefore provide a compensatory innate defense mechanism during development of cellular immune response mechanisms in the newborn period...
  69. pmc Keratinocyte production of cathelicidin provides direct activity against bacterial skin pathogens
    Marissa H Braff
    Department of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, USA
    Infect Immun 73:6771-81. 2005
    ....
  70. pmc Activation of TLR2 by a small molecule produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis increases antimicrobial defense against bacterial skin infections
    Yuping Lai
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego and VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California 92161, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 130:2211-21. 2010
    ..epidermidis to activate TLR2 signaling and induce antimicrobial peptide expression, thus enabling the skin to mount an enhanced response to pathogens...
  71. pmc Histone H4 is a major component of the antimicrobial action of human sebocytes
    Dong Youn Lee
    Division of Dermatology, University of California San Diego and VA San Diego Healthcare Center, San Diego, California, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 129:2489-96. 2009
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that the release of histone H4 by holocrine secretion from the sebaceous gland may play an important role in innate immunity...
  72. ncbi request reprint Granulysin-derived peptides demonstrate antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects against Propionibacterium acnes
    Jamie E McInturff
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 125:256-63. 2005
    ..acnes-stimulated cytokine release. Taken together, these data suggest that granulysin peptides may be useful as topical therapeutic agents, providing alternatives to current acne therapies...
  73. ncbi request reprint Phagocytosis of different particulate dermal filler substances by human macrophages and skin cells
    Vera B Morhenn
    Divisions of Dermatology and Plastic Surgery, University of California, San Diego, California, USA
    Dermatol Surg 28:484-90. 2002
    ..Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microspheres of different sizes recently have been manufactured for use as a filler substances in the skin and other organs...
  74. ncbi request reprint Recognition of hyaluronan released in sterile injury involves a unique receptor complex dependent on Toll-like receptor 4, CD44, and MD-2
    Kristen R Taylor
    Division of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego, California 92161, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:18265-75. 2007
    ..Taken together, our results define a previously unknown mechanism for initiation of sterile inflammation that involves recognition of released hyaluronan fragments as an endogenous signal of tissue injury...
  75. pmc Antibodies elicited by inactivated propionibacterium acnes-based vaccines exert protective immunity and attenuate the IL-8 production in human sebocytes: relevance to therapy for acne vulgaris
    Teruaki Nakatsuji
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, California 92161, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 128:2451-7. 2008
    ..These observations highlight the concept that development of vaccines targeting microbial products may represent an alternative strategy to conventional antibiotic therapy...
  76. pmc Toll-like receptors in skin infections and inflammatory diseases
    Yuping Lai
    Division of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, Dermatology Section, VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California 92161, USA
    Infect Disord Drug Targets 8:144-55. 2008
    ..This review focuses on describing the involvement of TLRs in the development of skin infections and inflammatory diseases, and highlights the potential application of TLR agonists or antagonists in these skin diseases...
  77. pmc Pimecrolimus enhances TLR2/6-induced expression of antimicrobial peptides in keratinocytes
    Amanda S Büchau
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego and VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California 92161, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 128:2646-54. 2008
    ..Furthermore, pimecrolimus inhibited nuclear translocation of NFAT and NF-kappaB in keratinocytes. These observations uncover a previously unreported function for pimecrolimus in cutaneous innate host defense...
  78. ncbi request reprint Expression of antimicrobial peptides in the normal and involved skin of patients with infective cellulitis
    Martin E Stryjewski
    Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC, USA
    J Infect Dis 196:1425-30. 2007
    ..Endogenous antimicrobial peptides participate in the innate defense of skin against a variety of pathogens. The systemic expression of these peptides in normal-appearing skin of patients with infective cellulitis is unknown...
  79. ncbi request reprint Cytokine milieu of atopic dermatitis skin subverts the innate immune response to vaccinia virus
    Michael D Howell
    Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado 80206, USA
    Immunity 24:341-8. 2006
    ..The current study demonstrates that Th2 cytokines enhance VV replication in AD skin by subverting the innate immune response against VV in a STAT-6-dependent manner...
  80. pmc An angiogenic role for the human peptide antibiotic LL-37/hCAP-18
    Rembert Koczulla
    Hospital of the University of Marburg, Department of Internal Medicine, Philipps Universtät Marburg, Marburg, Germany
    J Clin Invest 111:1665-72. 2003
    ..Taken together, these findings demonstrate that LL-37/hCAP-18 is a multifunctional antimicrobial peptide with a central role in innate immunity by linking host defense and inflammation with angiogenesis and arteriogenesis...
  81. ncbi request reprint The antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin protects the urinary tract against invasive bacterial infection
    Milan Chromek
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Microbiology and Tumorbiology Center, Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    Nat Med 12:636-41. 2006
    ..In addition, clinical E. coli strains that were more resistant to LL-37 caused more severe urinary tract infections than did susceptible strains. Thus, cathelicidin seems to be a key factor in mucosal immunity of the urinary tract...
  82. pmc Developmental switch of intestinal antimicrobial peptide expression
    Sandrine Menard
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Karolinska Institute, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Exp Med 205:183-93. 2008
    ..Epithelial CRAMP expression might contribute to bacterial colonization and the establishment of gut homeostasis, and provide protection from enteric infection during the postnatal period...
  83. ncbi request reprint Adrenocorticotropin hormone stimulates interleukin-18 expression in human HaCaT keratinocytes
    Hyun Jeong Park
    Department of Dermatology, St Mary s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea
    J Invest Dermatol 127:1210-6. 2007
    ..These results suggest that ACTH stimulates IL-18 expression in human keratinocytes, which provides an insight into the interaction between ACTH and inflammatory mediators...
  84. ncbi request reprint Endogenous antimicrobial peptides and skin infections in atopic dermatitis
    Peck Y Ong
    Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO 80206, USA
    N Engl J Med 347:1151-60. 2002
    ..We compared the levels of expression of LL-37 and human beta-defensin 2 (HBD-2) in inflamed skin from patients with atopic dermatitis and from those with psoriasis...
  85. ncbi request reprint Surviving innate immunity
    Victor Nizet
    Trends Microbiol 10:358-9. 2002
  86. pmc The vitamin D pathway: a new target for control of the skin's immune response?
    Jürgen Schauber
    Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Exp Dermatol 17:633-9. 2008
    ..Therapies targeting the vitamin D3 pathway and thereby cathelicidin may provide new treatment modalities in the management of infectious and inflammatory skin diseases...
  87. ncbi request reprint Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response
    Philip T Liu
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Science 311:1770-3. 2006
    ..These data support a link between TLRs and vitamin D-mediated innate immunity and suggest that differences in ability of human populations to produce vitamin D may contribute to susceptibility to microbial infection...
  88. pmc Cathelicidin deficiency predisposes to eczema herpeticum
    Michael D Howell
    Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, Colorado 80206, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 117:836-41. 2006
    ..Eczema herpeticum (ADEH) develops in a subset of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) because of disseminated infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV)...
  89. pmc Antimicrobial peptides and the skin immune defense system
    Jürgen Schauber
    Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 122:261-6. 2008
    ..Therapies targeting control of cathelicidin and other AMPs might provide new approaches in the management of infectious and inflammatory skin diseases...
  90. pmc Sebocytes express functional cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides and can act to kill propionibacterium acnes
    Dong Youn Lee
    J Invest Dermatol 128:1863-6. 2008

Research Grants22

  1. PROTEOGLYCANS WOUND REPAIR AND INFLAMMATION
    Richard Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The GAG ligand(s) responsible for activation will be sought and gene expression profiles investigated. Successful completion of these aims will reveal fundamental events in wound repair and may suggest new approaches to wound therapy. ..
  2. 2007 Antimicrobial Peptides Gordon Conference
    Richard Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The organizational philosophy is to encourage diverse participation, and maintain an eye towards gender issues, junior scientists, minorities, and individuals with physical limitations. ..
  3. Cathelicidins in Skin Immunity
    Richard Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Addressing the aims of this proposal will continue to provide insight into the pathogenesis of human infectious disease and offer additional novel alternatives to standard antimicrobial therapy. ..
  4. Proteolysis and Skin Antimicrobials
    Richard Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This work will suggest novel approaches for fighting infectious disease of the skin. ..
  5. Cathelicidins in Skin Immunity
    Richard Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Addressing the aims of this proposal will continue to provide insight into the pathogenesis of human infectious disease and offer additional novel alternatives to standard antimicrobial therapy. ..
  6. Proteolysis and Skin Antimicrobials
    Richard L Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This work will suggest novel approaches for fighting infectious disease of the skin. ..
  7. Skin Microbiome in epidermal immune defense
    Richard L Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This proposal will study the molecular mechanisms of these actions, and advance understanding of the beneficial effects of the normal skin microflora. ..
  8. Cathelicidins in Skin Immunity
    Richard L Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Addressing the aims of this proposal will continue to provide insight into the pathogenesis of human infectious disease and offer additional novel alternatives to standard antimicrobial therapy. ..
  9. Proteolysis and Skin Antimicrobials
    Richard Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This work will suggest novel approaches for fighting infectious disease of the skin. ..
  10. Proteolysis and Skin Antimicrobials
    Richard Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This work will suggest novel approaches for fighting infectious disease of the skin. ..
  11. PROTEOGLYCANS WOUND REPAIR AND INFLAMMATION
    Richard Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The GAG ligand(s) responsible for activation will be sought and gene expression profiles investigated. Successful completion of these aims will reveal fundamental events in wound repair and may suggest new approaches to wound therapy. ..
  12. Cathelicidins in Skin Immunity
    Richard Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  13. PROTEOGLYCANS WOUND REPAIR AND INFLAMMATION
    Richard Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The GAG ligand(s) responsible for activation will be sought and gene expression profiles investigated. Successful completion of these aims will reveal fundamental events in wound repair and may suggest new approaches to wound therapy. ..
  14. Cathelicidins in Skin Immunity
    Richard Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  15. Cathelicidins in Skin Immunity
    Richard Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  16. PROTEOGLYCANS WOUND REPAIR AND INFLAMMATION
    Richard Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The GAG ligand(s) responsible for activation will be sought and gene expression profiles investigated. Successful completion of these aims will reveal fundamental events in wound repair and may suggest new approaches to wound therapy. ..
  17. Cathelicidins in Skin Immunity
    Richard Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  18. PROTEOGLYCANS WOUND REPAIR AND INFLAMMATION
    Richard Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The GAG ligand(s) responsible for activation will be sought and gene expression profiles investigated. Successful completion of these aims will reveal fundamental events in wound repair and may suggest new approaches to wound therapy. ..
  19. Cathelicidins in Skin Immunity
    Richard Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  20. Skin Microbiome in epidermal immune defense
    Richard L Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..This proposal will study the molecular mechanisms of these actions, and advance understanding of the beneficial effects of the normal skin microflora. ..