Affiliation: University of Colorado Health Sciences Center
- Inhibitory neurophysiological deficit as a phenotype for genetic investigation of schizophreniaR Freedman
Psychiatry and Pharmacology, University of Colorado, CO 80262, USA
Am J Med Genet 97:58-64. 2000..It is certain that there are many genetic factors in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder; what is needed is a complete and precise description of the contribution of each individual factor to the pathophysiology of these illnesses...
- Early biomarkers of psychosisRobert Freedman
Department of Psychiatry C 268 71, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA
Dialogues Clin Neurosci 7:17-29. 2005..Examples are given from work on the role of the alpha(T)nicotinic receptor and its gene CHRNA7 on chromosome 15 in the neurobiology and genetic transmission of schizophrenia...
- SchizophreniaRobert Freedman
Institute for Children's Mental Disorders, University of Colorado and the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Denver, USA
N Engl J Med 349:1738-49. 2003
- Characterization of allelic variants at chromosome 15q14 in schizophreniaR Freedman
Department of Psychiatry, Denver VA MIRECC, Denver, CO, USA
Genes Brain Behav 5:14-22. 2006..Further sequencing in these two groups may yield more definitive identification of the molecular pathology...
- Initial phase 2 trial of a nicotinic agonist in schizophreniaRobert Freedman
Department of Psychiatry, Denver VA Medical Center and University of Colorado, Denver, CO 80262, USA
Am J Psychiatry 165:1040-7. 2008..The agent 3-(2,4-dimethoxybenzylidene) anabaseine (DMXB-A) is a partial alpha(7)-nicotinic agonist and can be taken orally. A phase 1 trial showed evidence for cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia...
- Input dysfunction, schizotypy, and genetic models of schizophreniaRobert Freedman
Department of Psychiatry and Pharmacology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Campus Box C 268 71, 4200 E Ninth Avenue, Denver, CO 80262, USA
Schizophr Res 54:25-32. 2002..Thus, as predicted by Venables, the substrates of schizotypy and schizophrenia may arise from variants in normal brain function...
- Evidence for the multigenic inheritance of schizophreniaR Freedman
Department of Psychiatry, Denver VA Medical Center and University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado 80262, USA
Am J Med Genet 105:794-800. 2001....
- The alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and the pathology of hippocampal interneurons in schizophreniaR Freedman
Departments of Psychiatry and Pharmacology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center and Denver VA Medical Center, Campus Box C 268 71, Room 3F10, 4200 East Ninth Avenue, Denver, CO 80262, USA
J Chem Neuroanat 20:299-306. 2000..The alpha7-receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel that admits calcium ions into cells, and it has been proposed to have various developmental roles. Its malfunction may be part of the developmental pathogenesis of schizophrenia...
- The genetics of sensory gating deficits in schizophreniaRobert Freedman
Departments of Psychiatry and Pharmacology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 4200 East Ninth Avenue, C 268 71, Denver, CO 80262, USA
Curr Psychiatry Rep 5:155-61. 2003..Polymorphisms in the core promoter of the gene are associated with schizophrenia and also with diminished inhibition of the P50 response. These genetic data may identify a new pathophysiologic target for drug discovery...
- Proof-of-concept trial of an alpha7 nicotinic agonist in schizophreniaAnn Olincy
Department of Veterans Affairs Schizophrenia Research Center, Denver, Colorado, USA
Arch Gen Psychiatry 63:630-8. 2006....
- Effects of an alpha 7-nicotinic agonist on default network activity in schizophreniaJason R Tregellas
Department of Psychiatry, Denver VA Medical Center, VISN19 MIRECC, Colorado, USA
Biol Psychiatry 69:7-11. 2011..This study examined the effects of DMXB-A on default network activity as a biomarker for drug effects on pathologic brain function associated with schizophrenia...
- Olanzapine improves deficient sensory inhibition in DBA/2 miceJohanna K Simosky
Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado, USA
Brain Res 1233:129-36. 2008..This improvement was blocked by pre-administration of alpha-bungarotoxin but not di-hydro-beta-erythroidine. Like clozapine, olanzapine acts via alpha7 nicotinic receptors to elicit improved inhibitory processing of auditory stimuli...
- Inhibition of the P50 cerebral evoked response to repeated auditory stimuli: results from the Consortium on Genetics of SchizophreniaAnn Olincy
Department of Psychiatry, Veterans Affairs Denver Medical Center VISN 19 MIRECC, CO 80045, USA
Schizophr Res 119:175-82. 2010....
- Physiology of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and schizoaffective disorderLaura F Martin
Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, 4200 East Ninth Avenue, Denver, CO 80262, USA
Am J Psychiatry 164:1900-6. 2007..A second aim was to determine whether subjects with schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type, were neurophysiologically more similar to subjects with schizophrenia or subjects with bipolar disorder...
- Abnormal auditory N100 amplitude: a heritable endophenotype in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia probandsBruce I Turetsky
Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
Biol Psychiatry 64:1051-9. 2008..We report initial results from the COGS dataset of auditory N100 amplitude and gating as candidate endophenotypes...
- Functional magnetic resonance imaging of effects of a nicotinic agonist in schizophreniaJason R Tregellas
Department of Psychiatry, Denver VA Medical Center VISN19 MIRECC and University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
Neuropsychopharmacology 35:938-42. 2010..Imaging of drug response is useful in planning future clinical tests of this compound and other nicotinic agonists for schizophrenia...
- Sensory gating and alpha-7 nicotinic receptor gene allelic variants in schizoaffective disorder, bipolar typeLaura F Martin
Department of Psychiatry, Denver Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Denver, Colorado 80262, USA
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 144:611-4. 2007..The purpose of this study was to determine if CHRNA7 promoter allelic variants are also associated with abnormal P50 ratios in persons with schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type...
- Initial heritability analyses of endophenotypic measures for schizophrenia: the consortium on the genetics of schizophreniaTiffany A Greenwood
Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, USA
Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:1242-50. 2007..Exploration of the genetic architecture of specific endophenotypes may be a powerful strategy for understanding the genetic basis of schizophrenia...
- Multiple genes in the 15q13-q14 chromosomal region are associated with schizophreniaSarah H Stephens
Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Denver, Colorado 80045, USA
Psychiatr Genet 22:1-14. 2012..This study fine-mapped genes at 15q13-q14 to determine whether the association is unique to CHRNA7...
- A 2-base pair deletion polymorphism in the partial duplication of the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine gene (CHRFAM7A) on chromosome 15q14 is associated with schizophreniaMelissa L Sinkus
Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado at Denver, Denver, CO 80045, USA
Brain Res 1291:1-11. 2009..005, allele p=0.015), and in Caucasians (genotype p=0.015, allele p=0.009). We conclude that the presence of the 2 bp polymorphism at the CHRFAM7A locus may have a functional significance in schizophrenia...
- Multi-site studies of acoustic startle and prepulse inhibition in humans: initial experience and methodological considerations based on studies by the Consortium on the Genetics of SchizophreniaNeal R Swerdlow
Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, USA
Schizophr Res 92:237-51. 2007..Genetic studies now often employ multiple, geographically dispersed test sites to accommodate the need for large and complex study samples. Here, we assessed the feasibility of using PPI in multi-site studies...
- Comparison of polymorphisms in the alpha7 nicotinic receptor gene and its partial duplication in schizophrenic and control subjectsJudith Gault
Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado 80262, USA
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 123:39-49. 2003..Twenty-one variants were found in the exons, but non-synonymous changes were rare. Although the expression of CHRNA7 is decreased in schizophrenia, the general structure of the remaining receptors is likely to be normal...
- Varied effects of atypical neuroleptics on P50 auditory gating in schizophrenia patientsLawrence E Adler
Box C268-26, Psychiatry, University of Colorado Health Science Ctr, 4200 East 9th Ave, Denver, CO 80262, USA
Am J Psychiatry 161:1822-8. 2004..All other groups exhibited auditory P50 response inhibition that was significantly poorer than that of the healthy subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Improvement in P50 gating appears to be greatest in patients treated with clozapine...
- Ventral striatal blood flow is altered by acute nicotine but not withdrawal from nicotineJody Tanabe
Department of Radiology, University of Colorado at Denver Health Sciences, Denver, CO 80262, USA
Neuropsychopharmacology 33:627-33. 2008..The lack of a main effect on withdrawal, but correlation of thalamic blood flow with withdrawal symptoms suggests that more complex mechanisms mediate the subjective features of the withdrawal state...
- Research review: Cholinergic mechanisms, early brain development, and risk for schizophreniaRandal G Ross
Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA
J Child Psychol Psychiatry 51:535-49. 2010..Therapeutic implications, including perinatal dietary choline supplementation, are discussed...
- FMRI of response to nicotine during a smooth pursuit eye movement task in schizophreniaJason R Tregellas
Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA
Am J Psychiatry 162:391-3. 2005..This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine changes in brain hemodynamic response associated with nicotine administration during a smooth pursuit eye movement task in subjects with schizophrenia...
- Alpha-7 nicotinic receptor agonists: potential new candidates for the treatment of schizophreniaLaura F Martin
Department of Psychiatry, Department of Veterans Affairs and University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 4200 East Ninth Avenue, C268 71, Denver, CO 80262, USA
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 174:54-64. 2004..This inhibitory process, which involves the alpha(7) nicotinic receptor mediated release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by hippocampal interneurons, represents a potential new target for therapeutic intervention in schizophrenia...
- Admixture analysis of smooth pursuit eye movements in probands with schizophrenia and their relatives suggests gain and leading saccades are potential endophenotypesRandal G Ross
Department of Psychiatry, Denver Veterans Administration Medical Center, Colorado, USA
Psychophysiology 39:809-19. 2002..Relatives of childhood-onset and adult-onset probands had similar impairments. Gain and frequency of leading saccades may be genetic endophenotypes in childhood-onset and adult-onset schizophrenia...
- P50 sensory gating in adolescents from a pacific island isolate with elevated risk for schizophreniaMarina Myles-Worsley
Department of Psychiatry, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, USA
Biol Psychiatry 55:663-7. 2004..The results are consistent with the hypothesis that genetic liability in HR offspring increases risk for prodromal symptoms, and prodromal symptoms, in turn, increase risk for impaired sensory gating...
- Analysis of 94 candidate genes and 12 endophenotypes for schizophrenia from the Consortium on the Genetics of SchizophreniaTiffany A Greenwood
Department of Psychiatry, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0804, USA
Am J Psychiatry 168:930-46. 2011....
- Effects of nicotine on cognitive deficits in schizophreniaJosette G Harris
Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, CO 80262, USA
Neuropsychopharmacology 29:1378-85. 2004..Effects on attention may be severely limited by tachyphylaxis, such that decremented performance occurs in smokers, while modest effects may be achieved in nonsmokers...
- Brain activation during smooth-pursuit eye movementsJody Tanabe
Department of Radiology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, 80262, USA
Neuroimage 17:1315-24. 2002..In addition, session-dependent changes in activation were greater in some regions than others and may indicate areas of brain, such as the supplementary eye fields, that are sensitive to attentional modulation of eye movements...
- Effects of nicotine on hippocampal and cingulate activity during smooth pursuit eye movement in schizophreniaJody Tanabe
Department of Radiology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado 80262, USA
Biol Psychiatry 59:754-61. 2006..The purpose of this work was to determine if nicotine differentially affects brain activity in schizophrenic and control subjects during pursuit eye tracking...
- Neurobiology of smooth pursuit eye movement deficits in schizophrenia: an fMRI studyJason R Tregellas
Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver 80262, USA
Am J Psychiatry 161:315-21. 2004..The investigators used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare brain hemodynamic response during a smooth pursuit eye movement task in patients with schizophrenia and healthy comparison subjects...
- Association of promoter variants in the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit gene with an inhibitory deficit found in schizophreniaSherry Leonard
Department of Psychiatry, Campus Box C 268 71, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 4200 E Ninth Ave, Denver, CO 80262, USA
Arch Gen Psychiatry 59:1085-96. 2002..This study presents DNA sequence analysis of the core promoter region for CHRNA7 in schizophrenic and control subjects...
- Increased hemodynamic response in the hippocampus, thalamus and prefrontal cortex during abnormal sensory gating in schizophreniaJason R Tregellas
VISN19 MIRECC, Denver VA Medical Center, Denver, Colorado, USA
Schizophr Res 92:262-72. 2007..This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the functional neuroanatomy of sensory gating deficits in schizophrenia...
- Schizophrenia and the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptorLaura F Martin
Research Service, VA Eastern Colorado Health Care System, Denver, Colorado 80220, USA
Int Rev Neurobiol 78:225-46. 2007..alpha7 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists appear to be viable candidates for the treatment of cognitive disturbances in schizophrenia...
- Deconstructing schizophrenia: an overview of the use of endophenotypes in order to understand a complex disorderDavid L Braff
Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, Mail Code 0804, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
Schizophr Bull 33:21-32. 2007..The endophenotype strategy offers powerful and exciting opportunities to understand the genetically conferred neurobiological vulnerabilities and possible new strong inference and molecularly based treatments for schizophrenia...
- Clozapine improves deficient inhibitory auditory processing in DBA/2 mice, via a nicotinic cholinergic mechanismJohanna K Simosky
Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Campus Box C268 71, 4200 East 9th Avenue, Denver, CO 80262, USA
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 165:386-96. 2003..The atypical antipsychotic clozapine also normalizes this deficit in schizophrenia patients, but by an unknown mechanism...
- Increased hippocampal volume in schizophrenics' parents with ancestral history of schizophreniaJosette G Harris
Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 4200 E. 9th Avenue, Denver, CO 80262, USA
Schizophr Res 55:11-7. 2002..Rather, it appears that clinically unaffected parents who transmit apparent genetic risk for schizophrenia may have increased hippocampal volume, which may be a protective factor against the illness...
- Sensory gating impairment associated with schizophrenia persists into REM sleepMichael A Kisley
Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center and Denver Veteran s Affairs Medical Center, Denver, Colorado, USA
Psychophysiology 40:29-38. 2003..These results suggest that REM sleep is an appropriate state during which to assess P50 gating in order to disentangle the effects of state and trait on sensory gating impairment in other clinical populations...
- Perinatal choline effects on neonatal pathophysiology related to later schizophrenia riskRandal G Ross
Department of Psychiatry, Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, USA
Am J Psychiatry 170:290-8. 2013..The authors investigated the effects of perinatal choline supplementation on the development of cerebral inhibition in human infants...
- The Consortium on the Genetics of Endophenotypes in Schizophrenia: model recruitment, assessment, and endophenotyping methods for a multisite collaborationMonica E Calkins
Neuropsychiatry Section, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, 10 Gates, 3400 Spruce St, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Schizophr Bull 33:33-48. 2007..The purpose of this article is to provide a description of the COGS structure and methods, including participant recruitment and assessment...
- Antidepressants may mitigate the effects of prenatal maternal anxiety on infant auditory sensory gatingSharon K Hunter
Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, USA
Am J Psychiatry 169:616-24. 2012..The authors used P50 auditory sensory gating, a putative marker of early attentional processes measurable in young infants, to assess the impact of maternal anxiety and antidepressant use...
- Clinically responsible genetic testing in neuropsychiatric patients: a bridge too far and too soonDavid L Braff
University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, 9500 Gilman Drive, Mail Code 0804, La Jolla, CA 92093-0804, USA
Am J Psychiatry 165:952-5. 2008
- Development of the alpha7 nicotinic cholinergic receptor in rat hippocampal formationCatherine E Adams
VAMC Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 4200 East Ninth Avenue, Box C268 71, Denver, CO 80262, USA
Brain Res Dev Brain Res 139:175-87. 2002..The early appearance and complex, prolonged pattern of development of the alpha7 receptor suggest that it may influence processes as diverse as cell migration, dendritic elaboration and apoptosis during hippocampal maturation...
- Early postnatal development of sensory gatingMichael A Kisley
Schizophrenia Research Center, Denver Veteran s Affairs Medical Center, Colorado, USA
Neuroreport 14:693-7. 2003..Nevertheless, these results demonstrate that the neural circuits underlying sensory gating are functional very early in postnatal development...
- Genetics of chromosome 15q13-q14 in schizophreniaSherry Leonard
Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Fitzsimmons Campus, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA
Biol Psychiatry 60:115-22. 2006..Evidence from multiple studies supports a broad region of genetic linkage around the marker D15S1360...
- Electrophysiological phenotypesRobert Freedman
Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO, USA
Methods Mol Med 77:215-25. 2003
- Monitoring eye movements during fMRI tasks with echo planar imagesJason R Tregellas
Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver 80262, USA
Hum Brain Mapp 17:237-43. 2002..We demonstrate that local eye movements will influence whole-head motion correction procedures, resulting in inaccurate movement parameters and potentially lowering the sensitivity to detect activations...
- Comparison of detrending methods for optimal fMRI preprocessingJody Tanabe
Department of Radiology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado 80262, USA
Neuroimage 15:902-7. 2002..However, auto-detrending (selecting the best algorithm or none, if detrending is not useful) appears to be the most judicious choice, particularly for analyzing fMRI data with weak activations in the presence of baseline drift...
- Tropisetron improves deficits in auditory P50 suppression in schizophreniaKaori Koike
Department of Psychiatry, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan
Schizophr Res 76:67-72. 2005..These data are consistent with biological activity at a pathophysiological mechanism in schizophrenia and support further trials of this drug as a possible therapeutic for neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia...
- Heritability and reliability of P300, P50 and duration mismatch negativityMei Hua Hall
Social, Genetic Developmental Psychiatry Research Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London, PO80, De Crespigny Park, London, SE5 8AF, UK
Behav Genet 36:845-57. 2006..Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been suggested as possible endophenotypes of schizophrenia. We investigated the test-retest reliabilities and heritabilities of three ERP components in healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs...
- The choice of antipsychotic drugs for schizophreniaRobert Freedman
N Engl J Med 353:1286-8. 2005
- Behavioral and electrophysiological indices of temporal processing dysfunction in schizophreniaDeana B Davalos
Department of Psychology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 17:517-25. 2005..These results suggest that behavioral measures of time processing may reflect different processes than those captured by preattentive physiological measures in this population...
- Neuronal dysfunction and schizophrenia symptomsRobert Freedman
Am J Psychiatry 164:385-90. 2007
- Verbal working memory impairments in individuals with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives: findings from the Consortium on the Genetics of SchizophreniaWilliam P Horan
Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 6968, USA
Schizophr Res 103:218-28. 2008....
- Tropisetron improves deficient inhibitory auditory processing in DBA/2 mice: role of alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptorsKenji Hashimoto
Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, 1 8 1 Inohana, Chiba, Chiba 260 8670, Japan
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 183:13-9. 2005..Similar to schizophrenic patients, DBA/2 mice spontaneously exhibit a deficit in inhibitory processing of the P20-N40 auditory evoked potential, which is thought to be a rodent analog of the human P50 auditory evoked potential...
- The costs of drugs for schizophreniaRobert Freedman
Am J Psychiatry 163:2029-31. 2006
- Successful multi-site measurement of antisaccade performance deficits in schizophreniaAllen D Radant
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States
Schizophr Res 89:320-9. 2007..These results confirm previous findings of antisaccade deficits in schizophrenia subjects and support the use of the antisaccade task as a potential schizophrenia endophenotype in multi-site genetic studies...
- Recent advances in the development of novel pharmacological agents for the treatment of cognitive impairments in schizophreniaRobert W Buchanan
Schizophr Bull 33:1120-30. 2007..This article reviews the rationale for these 3 approaches and provides an update on the development of therapeutic agents, which act through one of these 3 mechanisms...
- Exacerbation of schizophrenia by vareniclineRobert Freedman
Am J Psychiatry 164:1269. 2007
- No significant association of 14 candidate genes with schizophrenia in a large European ancestry sample: implications for psychiatric geneticsAlan R Sanders
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences, Evanston Northwestern Healthcare Research Institute, Evanston, IL 60201 3137, USA
Am J Psychiatry 165:497-506. 2008....
- Genomewide association for schizophrenia in the CATIE study: results of stage 1P F Sullivan
Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7264, USA
Mol Psychiatry 13:570-84. 2008....
- Genomewide linkage scan of 409 European-ancestry and African American families with schizophrenia: suggestive evidence of linkage at 8p23.3-p21.2 and 11p13.1-q14.1 in the combined sampleBrian K Suarez
Department of Psychiatry and Genetics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA
Am J Hum Genet 78:315-33. 2006..3-p15.2, 5p15.2-q13.3, 10p15.3-p14, 10q25.3-q26.3, and 11p13-q23.3. The highest increase in Z(lr) scores was observed for 5p14.1-q12.1, where the maximum Z(lr) increased from 2.77 initially to 3.80 after fine mapping in the EA families...
- Cannabis, inhibitory neurons, and the progressive course of schizophreniaRobert Freedman
Am J Psychiatry 165:416-9. 2008
- Whole-genome association study of bipolar disorderP Sklar
Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
Mol Psychiatry 13:558-69. 2008..Given the heritability of BP disorder, the lack of agreement between studies emphasizes that susceptibility alleles are likely to be modest in effect size and require even larger samples for detection...
- Psychotherapy in the Journal: what's missing?Glen O Gabbard
Am J Psychiatry 163:182-4. 2006