Steven A Frank


Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA


  1. Frank S. Evolutionary design of regulatory control. II. Robust error-correcting feedback increases genetic and phenotypic variability. J Theor Biol. 2019;468:72-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, robust error correction in biological regulatory control may partly explain the puzzlingly high heritability of disease and, more generally, the surprisingly high heritability of fitness. ..
  2. Frank S. Natural selection. III. Selection versus transmission and the levels of selection. J Evol Biol. 2012;25:227-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The insights from these diverse applications lead to a deeper understanding of kin selection, group selection, multilevel evolutionary analysis and the philosophical problems of evolutionary units and individuality. ..
  3. Frank S, Crespi B. Pathology from evolutionary conflict, with a theory of X chromosome versus autosome conflict over sexually antagonistic traits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108 Suppl 2:10886-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Rapid evolution of conflicting X-linked and autosomal genes may cause divergence between populations and speciation. ..
  4. Frank S. Evolutionary design of regulatory control. I. A robust control theory analysis of tradeoffs. J Theor Biol. 2019;463:121-137 pubmed publisher
    ..The second article in this series analyzes how alternative regulatory designs influence the relative levels of genetic variability, stochasticity of trait expression, and heritability of disease. ..
  5. Frank S. Natural selection. IV. The Price equation. J Evol Biol. 2012;25:1002-19 pubmed publisher
    ..I discuss recent critiques of the Price equation by Nowak and van Veelen. ..
  6. Frank S. A general model of the public goods dilemma. J Evol Biol. 2010;23:1245-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the widespread importance of public goods, better models and tests would greatly deepen our understanding of many processes in biology and sociality. ..
  7. Frank S. Demography and the tragedy of the commons. J Evol Biol. 2010;23:32-9 pubmed publisher
    ..I conclude that analyses of sociality must account for both the behavioural associations of kin selection theory and the demographic consequences of life history theory. ..
  8. Frank S. Somatic mosaicism and disease. Curr Biol. 2014;24:R577-R581 pubmed publisher
    ..Likewise, neurodegenerative diseases may often begin from somatically mutated cells. If so, both neurodegeneration and cancer may be diseases of later life for which much of the risk may be set by early life somatic mutations. ..
  9. Frank S. The trade-off between rate and yield in the design of microbial metabolism. J Evol Biol. 2010;23:609-13 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Frank S. Measurement invariance explains the universal law of generalization for psychological perception. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115:9803-9806 pubmed publisher
    ..All of the additional assumptions and language associated with information, complexity, and empirical scaling are superfluous with regard to the broad patterns of perception. ..
  2. Frank S. Evolution of robustness and cellular stochasticity of gene expression. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001578 pubmed publisher
    ..Microbes provide excellent experimental models to analyze the relations between robust phenotypes and stochastic variability. ..
  3. Frank S. Microbial evolution: regulatory design prevents cancer-like overgrowths. Curr Biol. 2013;23:R343-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Theory predicts that microbial regulatory controls may be designed to limit the origin and competitive potential of rogue lineages. A new study shows how a Salmonella species protects itself against overgrowths. ..
  4. Frank S. The common patterns of nature. J Evol Biol. 2009;22:1563-85 pubmed publisher
  5. Frank S, Bush R. Barriers to antigenic escape by pathogens: trade-off between reproductive rate and antigenic mutability. BMC Evol Biol. 2007;7:229 pubmed
    ..These divergent selective pressures on reproductive rate and antigenic mutability may explain some of the observed differences between pathogens in age-class bias, reproductive rate, and antigenic variation. ..
  6. Frank S. Natural selection. V. How to read the fundamental equations of evolutionary change in terms of information theory. J Evol Biol. 2012;25:2377-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We can now read the equations of selection in terms of their natural meaning. Selection causes populations to accumulate information about the environment. ..
  7. Frank S, Chen P, Lipkin S. Kinetics of cancer: a method to test hypotheses of genetic causation. BMC Cancer. 2005;5:163 pubmed
    ..Our method of comparing genotypes provides good statistical tests even with small samples for each genotype. ..
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    Frank S. Within-host spatial dynamics of viruses and defective interfering particles. J Theor Biol. 2000;206:279-90 pubmed
    ..At higher replacement rates for host cells, nearly all cells become infected by DI particles and a low level of fluctuating, wild-type viremia persists...
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    Frank S, Barbour A. Within-host dynamics of antigenic variation. Infect Genet Evol. 2006;6:141-6 pubmed
    ..We illustrate the concept of connectivity pathways by reanalysis of data on transitions between variants from Borrelia hermsii. ..
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    Frank S. Perspective: repression of competition and the evolution of cooperation. Evolution. 2003;57:693-705 pubmed
    ..With the concepts made clear, I then explain the history of the idea. I finish by summarizing many new developments in this subject and the most promising lines for future study. ..