Martin Flajnik

Summary

Affiliation: University of Maryland
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Evolution of innate and adaptive immunity: can we draw a line?
    Martin F Flajnik
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland at Baltimore School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 1559, USA
    Trends Immunol 25:640-4. 2004
  2. pmc Diversity and repertoire of IgW and IgM VH families in the newborn nurse shark
    Lynn L Rumfelt
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA
    BMC Immunol 5:8. 2004
  3. pmc Construction of a nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and a preliminary genome survey
    Meizhong Luo
    Arizona Genomics Institute, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    BMC Genomics 7:106. 2006
  4. doi request reprint Immunology: the origin of sweetbreads in lampreys?
    Martin Flajnik
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland at Baltimore, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Curr Biol 21:R218-20. 2011
  5. ncbi request reprint Comparative genomics of the MHC: glimpses into the evolution of the adaptive immune system
    M F Flajnik
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland at Baltimore, Room 13 009, 655 West Baltimore Street, Baltimore, MD 21021, USA
    Immunity 15:351-62. 2001
  6. pmc Origin and evolution of the adaptive immune system: genetic events and selective pressures
    Martin F Flajnik
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland at Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    Nat Rev Genet 11:47-59. 2010
  7. ncbi request reprint Comparative analyses of immunoglobulin genes: surprises and portents
    Martin F Flajnik
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland at Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 2:688-98. 2002
  8. pmc IgD, like IgM, is a primordial immunoglobulin class perpetuated in most jawed vertebrates
    Yuko Ohta
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland, 655 West Baltimore Street, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:10723-8. 2006
  9. ncbi request reprint Insight into the primordial MHC from studies in ectothermic vertebrates
    M F Flajnik
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore 21201, USA
    Immunol Rev 167:59-67. 1999
  10. ncbi request reprint Two ancient allelic lineages at the single classical class I locus in the Xenopus MHC
    M F Flajnik
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami School of Medicine, FL 33136, USA
    J Immunol 163:3826-33. 1999

Research Grants

  1. EVOLUTION OF ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY
    Martin F Flajnik; Fiscal Year: 2010
  2. EVOLUTION OF ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY
    Martin Flajnik; Fiscal Year: 2006
  3. EVOLUTION OF ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY
    Martin Flajnik; Fiscal Year: 2007
  4. ONTOGENY AND PHYLOGENY OF THE MHC
    Martin Flajnik; Fiscal Year: 2007
  5. EVOLUTION OF ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY
    Martin Flajnik; Fiscal Year: 2009
  6. EVOLUTION OF ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY
    Martin Flajnik; Fiscal Year: 2009
  7. Highly Stable, Anthrax-specific Shark Antibody Fragment
    Martin Flajnik; Fiscal Year: 2004
  8. EVOLUTION OF ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY
    Martin Flajnik; Fiscal Year: 1999
  9. ONTOGENY AND PHYLOGENY OF THE MHC
    Martin Flajnik; Fiscal Year: 2003
  10. ONTOGENY AND PHYLOGENY OF THE MHC
    Martin Flajnik; Fiscal Year: 2009

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications41

  1. ncbi request reprint Evolution of innate and adaptive immunity: can we draw a line?
    Martin F Flajnik
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland at Baltimore School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 1559, USA
    Trends Immunol 25:640-4. 2004
    ..Although we draw no startling conclusions, we hope to encourage different thought patterns when viewing immune systems...
  2. pmc Diversity and repertoire of IgW and IgM VH families in the newborn nurse shark
    Lynn L Rumfelt
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA
    BMC Immunol 5:8. 2004
    ..This nurse shark study examined the IgM and IgW VH repertoire from birth through adult life, and analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of these gene families...
  3. pmc Construction of a nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and a preliminary genome survey
    Meizhong Luo
    Arizona Genomics Institute, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    BMC Genomics 7:106. 2006
    ....
  4. doi request reprint Immunology: the origin of sweetbreads in lampreys?
    Martin Flajnik
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland at Baltimore, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Curr Biol 21:R218-20. 2011
    ..A new study in lampreys indicates that the pharyngeal epithelium of the gill basket supports the development of T-like cells, suggesting the existence of a primitive thymus in these oldest of vertebrates...
  5. ncbi request reprint Comparative genomics of the MHC: glimpses into the evolution of the adaptive immune system
    M F Flajnik
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland at Baltimore, Room 13 009, 655 West Baltimore Street, Baltimore, MD 21021, USA
    Immunity 15:351-62. 2001
    ....
  6. pmc Origin and evolution of the adaptive immune system: genetic events and selective pressures
    Martin F Flajnik
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland at Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    Nat Rev Genet 11:47-59. 2010
    ..We offer insights into the latest advances in this field and speculate on the selective pressures that led to the emergence and maintenance of the AIS...
  7. ncbi request reprint Comparative analyses of immunoglobulin genes: surprises and portents
    Martin F Flajnik
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland at Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 2:688-98. 2002
    ....
  8. pmc IgD, like IgM, is a primordial immunoglobulin class perpetuated in most jawed vertebrates
    Yuko Ohta
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland, 655 West Baltimore Street, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:10723-8. 2006
    ..Our study suggests that IgD/W has played varied roles in different vertebrate taxa since the inception of the adaptive immune system, and it may have been preserved as a flexible locus over evolutionary time to complement steadfast IgM...
  9. ncbi request reprint Insight into the primordial MHC from studies in ectothermic vertebrates
    M F Flajnik
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore 21201, USA
    Immunol Rev 167:59-67. 1999
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Two ancient allelic lineages at the single classical class I locus in the Xenopus MHC
    M F Flajnik
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami School of Medicine, FL 33136, USA
    J Immunol 163:3826-33. 1999
    ..Surprisingly, the alpha3 domains are homogenized in both lineages, suggesting that interallelic gene conversion/recombination maintains the high sequence similarity...
  11. ncbi request reprint Localization and differential expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase in the amphibian Xenopus upon antigen stimulation and during early development
    Shauna Marr
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    J Immunol 179:6783-9. 2007
    ..This study highlights the conserved involvement of XlAID during Ag-dependent B cell responses in Xenopus but also suggests another role in B cell differentiation earlier in ontogeny...
  12. ncbi request reprint Identification and genetic mapping of Xenopus TAP2 genes
    Y Ohta
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA
    Immunogenetics 49:171-82. 1999
    ..Similar to LMP7 and class Ia,TAP2 is expressed ubiquitously with highest levels in intestine and spleen...
  13. ncbi request reprint Shark immunity bites back: affinity maturation and memory response in the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum
    Helen Dooley
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
    Eur J Immunol 35:936-45. 2005
    ..However, our data suggest that there may also be specific lineages for the different forms (pentameric versus monomeric) of the IgM isotype...
  14. ncbi request reprint Immunoglobulins in the eggs of the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum
    Ashley N Haines
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, 655 W Baltimore Street, Rm 13 009, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA
    Dev Comp Immunol 29:417-30. 2005
    ..Using monoclonal antibodies, we establish the presence of two classes of Igs in nurse shark eggs: 7S IgM and IgNAR. The potential transfer of immunoglobulins from elasmobranch eggs is discussed...
  15. ncbi request reprint Somatic hypermutation and junctional diversification at Ig heavy chain loci in the nurse shark
    Karolina Malecek
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, State University of New York Health Science Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA
    J Immunol 175:8105-15. 2005
    ..The cis-regulatory elements targeting somatic hypermutation must have already existed in the ancestral Ig gene, before H and L chain divergence...
  16. pmc First molecular and biochemical analysis of in vivo affinity maturation in an ectothermic vertebrate
    Helen Dooley
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 655 West Baltimore Street, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:1846-51. 2006
    ..Because the family clones were all obtained after immunization, they provide insight into the in vivo maturation mechanisms, in general, and for single-domain antibody fragments...
  17. ncbi request reprint Ancestral organization of the MHC revealed in the amphibian Xenopus
    Yuko Ohta
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland, 655 West Baltimore Street, BRB13 009, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    J Immunol 176:3674-85. 2006
    ..Thus, the amphibian MHC is the most evolutionary conserved MHC so far analyzed...
  18. ncbi request reprint Four primordial immunoglobulin light chain isotypes, including lambda and kappa, identified in the most primitive living jawed vertebrates
    Michael F Criscitiello
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Eur J Immunol 37:2683-94. 2007
    ....
  19. pmc An evolutionarily mobile antigen receptor variable region gene: doubly rearranging NAR-TcR genes in sharks
    Michael F Criscitiello
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland, Howard Hall, Suite 324, 660 West Redwood Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 1559, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:5036-41. 2006
    ..Furthermore, these data support the view that gamma/delta TcRs have for long used structural conformations recognizing free antigen...
  20. ncbi request reprint Maturation of shark single-domain (IgNAR) antibodies: evidence for induced-fit binding
    Robyn L Stanfield
    Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Mol Biol 367:358-72. 2007
    ..In addition, a residue in the HV4 loop plays an important role in antibody-antigen interaction, consistent with the high rate of somatic mutations in this non-CDR loop...
  21. pmc The plasticity of immunoglobulin gene systems in evolution
    Ellen Hsu
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA
    Immunol Rev 210:8-26. 2006
    ....
  22. doi request reprint Evolutionarily conserved and divergent regions of the autoimmune regulator (Aire) gene: a comparative analysis
    Mark Saltis
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Immunogenetics 60:105-14. 2008
    ..These findings reveal a very rapid evolution of certain regions of aire during vertebrate evolution and support the existence of an aire-dependent mechanism of T cell tolerance dating back at least to the emergence of bony fish...
  23. ncbi request reprint Shark Ig light chain junctions are as diverse as in heavy chains
    Marshall Fleurant
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, State University of New York Health Science Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA
    J Immunol 173:5574-82. 2004
    ....
  24. ncbi request reprint Hypermutation in shark immunoglobulin light chain genes results in contiguous substitutions
    Susan S Lee
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA
    Immunity 16:571-82. 2002
    ..We suggest this is one of several pathways of hypermutation diversifying shark antigen-receptor genes--point mutations, tandem mutations, and mutations with a G-C preference--that coevolved with or preceded gene rearrangement...
  25. ncbi request reprint Structural analysis, selection, and ontogeny of the shark new antigen receptor (IgNAR): identification of a new locus preferentially expressed in early development
    Marilyn Diaz
    Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Immunogenetics 54:501-12. 2002
    ....
  26. ncbi request reprint Selection and characterization of naturally occurring single-domain (IgNAR) antibody fragments from immunized sharks by phage display
    Helen Dooley
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, Scotland, UK
    Mol Immunol 40:25-33. 2003
    ..This approach can therefore be considered as an alternative route for the isolation of minimal antigen-binding fragments with favorable characteristics...
  27. ncbi request reprint Molecular cloning of C4 gene and identification of the class III complement region in the shark MHC
    Tokio Terado
    Department of Experimental Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Ohtsu shi, Shiga, Japan
    J Immunol 171:2461-6. 2003
    ....
  28. ncbi request reprint Two highly divergent ancient allelic lineages of the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) gene in Xenopus: further evidence for co-evolution among MHC class I region genes
    Yuko Ohta
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
    Eur J Immunol 33:3017-27. 2003
    ..Furthermore, like the LMP7 lineages, the TAP lineages were detected in most Xenopus species that diverged from a common ancestor 80-100 MYA, suggesting that the 'class I region' biallelic lineages are under balancing selection...
  29. ncbi request reprint Unprecedented multiplicity of Ig transmembrane and secretory mRNA forms in the cartilaginous fish
    Lynn L Rumfelt
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA
    J Immunol 173:1129-39. 2004
    ..Furthermore, these Tm cDNAs are prototypical and the truncated variants may translate as more stable protein at the cell surface...
  30. ncbi request reprint Immunology: another manifestation of GOD
    Martin F Flajnik
    Nature 430:157-8. 2004
  31. ncbi request reprint Homologs of CD83 from elasmobranch and teleost fish
    Yuko Ohta
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    J Immunol 173:4553-60. 2004
    ..These results suggest that the role of CD83, an adhesion molecule for cell-mediated immunity, has been conserved over 450 million years of vertebrate evolution...
  32. ncbi request reprint Proteasome, transporter associated with antigen processing, and class I genes in the nurse shark Ginglymostoma cirratum: evidence for a stable class I region and MHC haplotype lineages
    Yuko Ohta
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    J Immunol 168:771-81. 2002
    ..These data further support the principle of a primordial class I region with few class I genes. Finally, multiple paternities in one family were demonstrated, with potential segregation distortions...
  33. ncbi request reprint Crystal structure of a shark single-domain antibody V region in complex with lysozyme
    Robyn L Stanfield
    Department of Molecular Biology, Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 305:1770-3. 2004
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint Cloning and characterization of Xenopus beta2-microglobulin
    Rebecca Stewart
    School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE, UK
    Dev Comp Immunol 29:723-32. 2005
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint J chain in the nurse shark: implications for function in a lower vertebrate
    Valerie S Hohman
    Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    J Immunol 170:6016-23. 2003
    ..Analysis of J chain sequences in diverse species is in agreement with accepted phylogenetic relationships, with the exception of the earthworm, suggesting that the reported presence of J chain in invertebrates should be reassessed...
  36. ncbi request reprint Immunogenetics: alternative strategies in adaptive immunity and the rise of comparative immunogenomics
    Martin F Flajnik
    Curr Opin Immunol 19:522-5. 2007
  37. ncbi request reprint Xenopus class II A genes: studies of genetics, polymorphism, and expression
    Yu Liu
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami School of Medicine, P O Box 016960, R 138, Miami, FL 33101, USA
    Dev Comp Immunol 26:735-50. 2002
    ..Surprisingly, transcript sizes of class II A alleles/isotypes are diverse, suggesting that Xenopus class II allelic lineages are very old...
  38. ncbi request reprint The leukocyte common antigen (CD45) of the Pacific hagfish, Eptatretus stoutii: implications for the primordial function of CD45
    Taeko Nagata
    Department of Biosystems Science, School of Advanced Sciences, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, SOKENDAI, Shonan Village, Hayama 240 0193, Japan
    Immunogenetics 54:286-91. 2002
    ..It is likely that CD45 was recruited to activate lymphocytes through antigen receptors encoded by rearranging genes in jawed vertebrates...
  39. pmc Immunoglobulin heavy chain exclusion in the shark
    Karolina Malecek
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn, Brooklyn, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 6:e157. 2008
    ..This regulation may be shared by higher vertebrates in which additional mechanistic and regulatory elements have evolved with their structurally complex IgH locus...
  40. ncbi request reprint Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferases from elasmobranchs reveal structural conservation within vertebrates
    Simona Bartl
    Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, 8272 Moss Landing Road, CA 95039, Moss Landing, USA
    Immunogenetics 55:594-604. 2003
    ..Thus, unlike other molecules of adaptive immunity, TdT is a member of an ancient gene family with a clear gene phylogeny and a high degree of similarity, which implies the existence of TdT ancestors in jawless fishes and invertebrates...
  41. ncbi request reprint The last flag unfurled? A new immunoglobulin isotype in fish expressed in early development
    Martin F Flajnik
    Nat Immunol 6:229-30. 2005

Research Grants27

  1. EVOLUTION OF ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY
    Martin F Flajnik; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We are especially interested in studying the structure and function of human immune molecules (the antibody isotype IgD and the ??? T cell receptor), whose functions have not been well defined. ..
  2. EVOLUTION OF ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY
    Martin Flajnik; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  3. EVOLUTION OF ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY
    Martin Flajnik; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We are especially interested in studying the structure and function of human immune molecules (the antibody isotype IgD and the ??? T cell receptor), whose functions have not been well defined. ..
  4. ONTOGENY AND PHYLOGENY OF THE MHC
    Martin Flajnik; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..tropicalis), we will begin to analyze the modes of silencing in the tetraploids and eventually the higher order octo- and dodecaploid individuals. ..
  5. EVOLUTION OF ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY
    Martin Flajnik; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We are especially interested in studying the structure and function of human immune molecules (the antibody isotype IgD and the ??? T cell receptor), whose functions have not been well defined. ..
  6. EVOLUTION OF ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY
    Martin Flajnik; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We are especially interested in studying the structure and function of human immune molecules (the antibody isotype IgD and the ??? T cell receptor), whose functions have not been well defined. ..
  7. Highly Stable, Anthrax-specific Shark Antibody Fragment
    Martin Flajnik; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  8. EVOLUTION OF ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY
    Martin Flajnik; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..It is likely that NAR will be the first characterized novel antigen recognition molecule in a long line awaiting discovery. ..
  9. ONTOGENY AND PHYLOGENY OF THE MHC
    Martin Flajnik; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  10. ONTOGENY AND PHYLOGENY OF THE MHC
    Martin Flajnik; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..tropicalis), we will begin to analyze the modes of silencing in the tetraploids and eventually the higher order octo- and dodecaploid individuals. ..