S A Fiscus

Summary

Affiliation: University of North Carolina
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Changes in HIV-1 subtypes B and C genital tract RNA in women and men after initiation of antiretroviral therapy
    Susan A Fiscus
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 709 Mary Ellen Jones Bldg, CB7209, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7209, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 57:290-7. 2013
  2. pmc Multicenter evaluation of methods to quantitate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in seminal plasma
    S A Fiscus
    University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 38:2348-53. 2000
  3. ncbi request reprint Trends in interventions to reduce perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission in North Carolina
    Susan A Fiscus
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599 7140, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:664-8. 2002
  4. pmc Affordable, abbreviated roche monitor assay for quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in plasma
    Susan A Fiscus
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:4200-2. 2005
  5. pmc Comparison of blood collected in acid-citrate-dextrose and EDTA for use in human immunodeficiency virus peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures
    S A Fiscus
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7140, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 38:858-60. 2000
  6. pmc HIV-1 viral load assays for resource-limited settings
    Susan A Fiscus
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS Med 3:e417. 2006
  7. pmc Ultrasensitive p24 antigen assay for diagnosis of perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection
    Susan A Fiscus
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:2274-7. 2007
  8. ncbi request reprint Genotypic resistance and the treatment of HIV-1 infection in Espírito Santo, Brazil
    C D Pilcher
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7030, USA
    J Infect Dis 179:1259-63. 1999
  9. ncbi request reprint Changes in virologic markers as predictors of CD4 cell decline and progression of disease in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected adults treated with nucleosides. AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 175 Team
    S A Fiscus
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599 7140, USA
    J Infect Dis 177:625-33. 1998
  10. ncbi request reprint Hyper-excretion of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in saliva
    D C Shugars
    School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599 7450, USA
    J Dent Res 80:414-20. 2001

Detail Information

Publications77

  1. pmc Changes in HIV-1 subtypes B and C genital tract RNA in women and men after initiation of antiretroviral therapy
    Susan A Fiscus
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 709 Mary Ellen Jones Bldg, CB7209, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7209, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 57:290-7. 2013
    ....
  2. pmc Multicenter evaluation of methods to quantitate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in seminal plasma
    S A Fiscus
    University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 38:2348-53. 2000
    ..Quantitation of HIV-1 RNA in seminal plasma can be reliably accomplished using two commercially available assays, and may be incorporated into the evaluations of HIV-1 seropositive men enrolled in clinical studies...
  3. ncbi request reprint Trends in interventions to reduce perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission in North Carolina
    Susan A Fiscus
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599 7140, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:664-8. 2002
    ..We evaluated changes in the use of ART and mode of delivery among HIV positive pregnant women in North Carolina...
  4. pmc Affordable, abbreviated roche monitor assay for quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in plasma
    Susan A Fiscus
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:4200-2. 2005
    ..To make this approach feasible, Roche would have to provide additional lysis buffer and master mix...
  5. pmc Comparison of blood collected in acid-citrate-dextrose and EDTA for use in human immunodeficiency virus peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures
    S A Fiscus
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7140, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 38:858-60. 2000
    ..No significant differences between the anticoagulants were observed. Culture positivity was significantly associated with HIV RNA viral loads for both anticoagulants...
  6. pmc HIV-1 viral load assays for resource-limited settings
    Susan A Fiscus
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS Med 3:e417. 2006
  7. pmc Ultrasensitive p24 antigen assay for diagnosis of perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection
    Susan A Fiscus
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:2274-7. 2007
    ..Overall sensitivity and specificity were 91.7% and 98.5%, respectively. After exclusion of infants of less than 7 days of age, the sensitivity and specificity were 93.7% and 98.3%, respectively...
  8. ncbi request reprint Genotypic resistance and the treatment of HIV-1 infection in Espírito Santo, Brazil
    C D Pilcher
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7030, USA
    J Infect Dis 179:1259-63. 1999
    ....
  9. ncbi request reprint Changes in virologic markers as predictors of CD4 cell decline and progression of disease in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected adults treated with nucleosides. AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 175 Team
    S A Fiscus
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599 7140, USA
    J Infect Dis 177:625-33. 1998
    ..Plasma HIV-1 RNA appears to be the best predictor of long-term CD4 cell count responses and disease progression...
  10. ncbi request reprint Hyper-excretion of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in saliva
    D C Shugars
    School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599 7450, USA
    J Dent Res 80:414-20. 2001
    ..Morphological characterization of cell pellets identified lymphocytes as a likely HIV-1 source. These collective findings are consistent with an oral HIV-1 reservoir in selected individuals...
  11. ncbi request reprint Reduction of concentration of HIV-1 in semen after treatment of urethritis: implications for prevention of sexual transmission of HIV-1. AIDSCAP Malawi Research Group
    M S Cohen
    Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599 7030, USA
    Lancet 349:1868-73. 1997
    ..We investigated the hypothesis that STDs increase the likelihood of transmission of HIV-1 through increased concentration of the virus in semen...
  12. pmc Genotypic susceptibility scores and HIV type 1 RNA responses in treatment-experienced subjects with HIV type 1 infection
    Jeffrey A Anderson
    UNC Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27759, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 24:685-94. 2008
    ..These data indicate that GSS may be a useful tool in selecting drug regimens in HIV-1-infected subjects to maximize virologic response and improve treatment outcomes...
  13. ncbi request reprint Plasma HIV burden in Malawian children co-infected with rotavirus
    C Jere
    Department of Microbiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA
    AIDS 15:1439-42. 2001
    ..Low CD4 cell counts, but not HIV-1-RNA concentrations, were predictive of Death. Local, enteric rotavirus infection did not appear to affect blood HIV viral load or CD4 cell counts in this small group of children...
  14. ncbi request reprint The pharmacokinetics, safety, and initial virologic response of a triple-protease inhibitor salvage regimen containing amprenavir, saquinavir, and ritonavir
    Amanda H Corbett
    Schools of Pharmacy and Medicine, University of North Carolina Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 36:921-8. 2004
    ..These data suggest that amprenavir/saquinavir/ritonavir may be a viable salvage regimen in heavily PI-experienced individuals. New formulations of amprenavir and saquinavir may simplify this regimen...
  15. ncbi request reprint Sensitive method for the detection of infectious HIV in semen of seropositive individuals
    P L Vernazza
    Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA
    J Virol Methods 56:33-40. 1996
    ..It is concluded that the method is highly sensitive for the detection of HIV from semen. However, the recovery rate of infectious cell-free virus in seminal fluid from clinical samples is infrequent...
  16. ncbi request reprint The effects of protease inhibitor therapy on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 levels in semen (AIDS clinical trials group protocol 850)
    J J Eron
    Department of Medicine, Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7030, USA
    J Infect Dis 181:1622-8. 2000
    ..Persistent replication of HIV in the genital tract may have implications for the selection of resistant virus and sexual transmission of HIV-1...
  17. ncbi request reprint The effect of Plasmodium falciparum malaria on HIV-1 RNA blood plasma concentration
    I F Hoffman
    University of North Carolina, Division of Infectious Diseases, Chapel Hill, USA
    AIDS 13:487-94. 1999
    ..This study was undertaken to determine the relative effect of malaria infection on HIV concentration in blood plasma, and prospectively to monitor viral concentrations after antimalarial therapy...
  18. ncbi request reprint HIV in body fluids during primary HIV infection: implications for pathogenesis, treatment and public health
    C D Pilcher
    School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599-7030, USA
    AIDS 15:837-45. 2001
    ..Antiretroviral therapy is unlikely to limit initial virus spread to most tissue compartments, but may control genital tract shedding and central nervous system expansion in primary infection...
  19. pmc Multiple V1/V2 env variants are frequently present during primary infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    Kimberly Ritola
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 22 062 Lineberger Cancer Center, CB 7295, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7295, USA
    J Virol 78:11208-18. 2004
    ..Alternatively, the inefficient transfer of a multiply infected cell could account for both the low probability of transmission and the transfer of multiple variants...
  20. ncbi request reprint Frequent detection of acute primary HIV infection in men in Malawi
    Christopher D Pilcher
    Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    AIDS 18:517-24. 2004
    ..Acute (antibody-negative) HIV infection is associated with high transmission potential but is rarely recognized...
  21. ncbi request reprint Envelope diversity, coreceptor usage and syncytium-inducing phenotype of HIV-1 variants in saliva and blood during primary infection
    Stephanie A Freel
    School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    AIDS 17:2025-33. 2003
    ....
  22. pmc Differential extracellular and intracellular concentrations of zidovudine and lamivudine in semen and plasma of HIV-1-infected men
    Julie B Dumond
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 3318 Kerr Hall, CB 7360, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7360, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 48:156-62. 2008
    ..To quantitate extracellular and intracellular zidovudine (ZDV) and lamivudine (3TC) concentrations in blood and semen of HIV-1-infected men...
  23. ncbi request reprint Effects of formulation and dosing strategy on amprenavir concentrations in the seminal plasma of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected men
    Naumann I Chaudry
    School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 35:760-2. 2002
    ..The majority of these concentrations were greater than the plasma protein-corrected 50% inhibitory concentration for wild-type human immunodeficiency virus type 1...
  24. pmc Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in saliva and blood plasma by V3-specific heteroduplex tracking assay and genotype analyses
    S A Freel
    School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    J Virol 75:4936-40. 2001
    ..These findings raise the possibility of using saliva as a noninvasive fluid for evaluating and monitoring viral evolution in infected persons...
  25. ncbi request reprint Trends in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) counseling, testing, and antiretroviral treatment of HIV-infected women and perinatal transmission in North Carolina
    S A Fiscus
    Department of Microbiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7140, USA
    J Infect Dis 180:99-105. 1999
    ..8%) of 57 infants had virus isolates with at least one mutation in the reverse transcriptase gene associated with reduced phenotypic susceptibility to zidovudine...
  26. pmc Qualitative human immunodeficiency virus RNA analysis of dried blood spots for diagnosis of infections in infants
    Ryan J S Kerr
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 11 141 Lineberger Cancer Center, CB 7295, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:220-2. 2009
    ..The assay was 99% sensitive (128/129) and 100% specific (162/162). This may prove useful in resource-limited settings, since it precludes the need for a phlebotomist and maintenance of a cold chain...
  27. ncbi request reprint Protease inhibitor and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor concentrations in the genital tract of HIV-1-infected women
    Sherene S Min
    Schools of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599 7360, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 37:1577-80. 2004
    ..Of 8 ARVs, CVF concentrations ranged from <10% to >100% of BP concentrations. These large differences in CVF penetration suggest that further research into ARV pharmacokinetics and drug efficacy in the FGT is necessary...
  28. ncbi request reprint HIV-1 populations in blood and breast milk are similar
    Gavin J Henderson
    UNC Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7295, USA
    Virology 330:295-303. 2004
    ..The absence of unique variants and the lack of significant differences in the relative abundance of variants between these compartments support the conclusion that viruses in the blood plasma and breast milk are well equilibrated...
  29. pmc Amplified transmission of HIV-1: comparison of HIV-1 concentrations in semen and blood during acute and chronic infection
    Christopher D Pilcher
    Center for Infectious Diseases, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7030, USA
    AIDS 21:1723-30. 2007
    ..This study was conducted to compare viral dynamics in blood and semen between subjects with antibody negative, acute HIV-1 infection and other subjects with later stages of infection...
  30. pmc Optimizing screening for acute human immunodeficiency virus infection with pooled nucleic acid amplification tests
    Daniel J Westreich
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:1785-92. 2008
    ..Used selectively and carefully, the simple models developed here can guide the selection of a pooling algorithm for the detection of AHI cases in a wide variety of settings...
  31. pmc Diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in infants by use of dried blood spots and an ultrasensitive p24 antigen assay
    Ada Cachafeiro
    Department Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7290, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:459-62. 2009
    ..4% (67/71) and the specificity was 100% (431/431) for infants with DBS specimens <or=20 months old; DBS older than 30 months demonstrated only 72.2% sensitivity (39/54) (P < 0.001) but displayed 100% specificity (61/61)...
  32. ncbi request reprint Rational testing of the HIV-exposed infant
    D K Benjamin
    Duke University Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    Pediatrics 108:E3. 2001
    ..Given the low probability of disease in patients who have had 3 negative PCR tests, documentation of a negative ELISA may not be an appropriate use of medical resources...
  33. pmc Acute HIV infection among pregnant women in Malawi
    Cynthia L Gay
    Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7030, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 66:356-60. 2010
    ..Dual HIV rapid tests have high sensitivity and specificity. HIV testing should be repeated in the third trimester and/or at delivery...
  34. pmc Performance characteristics of the Cavidi ExaVir viral load assay and the ultra-sensitive P24 assay relative to the Roche Monitor HIV-1 RNA assay
    Paul Stewart
    The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Biostatistics, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7420, USA paul
    J Clin Virol 49:198-204. 2010
    ....
  35. pmc Nevirapine resistance in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-positive infants determined using dried blood spots stored for up to six years at room temperature
    Julie A E Nelson
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, UNC Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:1209-11. 2009
    ..Nevirapine resistance was found in 7/16 (43.5%) HIV-1-positive HIVNET 024 infants at 4 to 6 weeks, but no resistance was found at other time points...
  36. pmc The public health approach to identify antiretroviral therapy failure: high-level nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance among Malawians failing first-line antiretroviral therapy
    Mina C Hosseinipour
    University of North Carolina Project, Lilongwe, Malawi
    AIDS 23:1127-34. 2009
    ..We evaluated drug resistance patterns among patients failing first-line ART on the basis of clinical or immunological criteria in Lilongwe and Blantyre, Malawi...
  37. ncbi request reprint Rapid, real-time detection of acute HIV infection in patients in Africa
    Susan A Fiscus
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina UNC at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7290, USA
    J Infect Dis 195:416-24. 2007
    ..We conducted a prospective study to evaluate methods of detecting clients with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) who were acutely coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Lilongwe, Malawi...
  38. ncbi request reprint Detection of acute infections during HIV testing in North Carolina
    Christopher D Pilcher
    Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA
    N Engl J Med 352:1873-83. 2005
    ..North Carolina has added nucleic acid amplification testing for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to standard HIV antibody tests to detect persons with acute HIV infection who are viremic but antibody-negative...
  39. pmc Comparison of two rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) assays, Determine HIV-1/2 and OraQuick Advance Rapid HIV-1/2, for detection of recent HIV seroconversion
    Rachana Kshatriya
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7290, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:3482-3. 2008
    ....
  40. ncbi request reprint Frequent detection of acute HIV infection in pregnant women
    Kristine B Patterson
    School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    AIDS 21:2303-8. 2007
    ..Universal prenatal HIV antibody testing, which does not detect acute HIV, is standard for pregnant women in the United States. Unrecognized HIV acquisition during pregnancy may result in higher rates of perinatal transmission...
  41. pmc Improved detection of acute HIV-1 infection in sub-Saharan Africa: development of a risk score algorithm
    Kimberly A Powers
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7435, USA
    AIDS 21:2237-42. 2007
    ..To facilitate the efficient use of these tests, we sought to develop a risk score algorithm for identifying likely AHI cases and targeting the tests towards those individuals...
  42. ncbi request reprint Real-time, universal screening for acute HIV infection in a routine HIV counseling and testing population
    Christopher D Pilcher
    Department of Medicien, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7030, USA
    JAMA 288:216-21. 2002
    ..However, HIV nucleic acid-based testing is widely used to screen for antibody-negative acute infection among low-risk blood donors...
  43. ncbi request reprint Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in breast-milk components
    Irving F Hoffman
    Center for Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7030, USA
    J Infect Dis 188:1209-12. 2003
    ..Whole milk demonstrated higher sensitivity and mean concentration than any other single component. Sensitivity was enhanced by analyzing all 4 components of breast milk...
  44. ncbi request reprint The pharmacokinetics of amprenavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine in the genital tracts of men infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (AIDS clinical trials group study 850)
    Arlene S Pereira
    Division of Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    J Infect Dis 186:198-204. 2002
    ..The antiretroviral effect of APV monotherapy was related to APV concentrations...
  45. ncbi request reprint Weighted phenotypic susceptibility scores are predictive of the HIV-1 RNA response in protease inhibitor-experienced HIV-1-infected subjects
    Ronald Swanstrom
    University of North Carolina Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599, USA
    J Infect Dis 190:886-93. 2004
    ..This suggests that the prospective evaluation of PSS to identify regimens that maximize decreases in VL to reduce the probability of virologic rebound could improve antiretroviral treatment...
  46. pmc Quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in plasma by using blood dried on filter paper
    S A Fiscus
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599 7140, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 36:258-60. 1998
    ..RNA values from filter paper, corrected for the hematocrit, gave results comparable to those of the standard assay in terms of sensitivity and reproducibility...
  47. pmc The pharmacokinetics and viral activity of tenofovir in the male genital tract
    Manoli Vourvahis
    Division of Pharmacotherapy and Experimental Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7360, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 47:329-33. 2008
    ..To measure tenofovir (TFV) concentrations in the male genital tract (GT) after single and multiple doses of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and evaluate the HIV-1 RNA response to monotherapy...
  48. pmc Genital tract, cord blood, and amniotic fluid exposures of seven antiretroviral drugs during and after pregnancy in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected women
    Rosa F Yeh
    School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:2367-74. 2009
    ..Measurement of antiretroviral exposure in maternal genital secretions, cord BP, and amniotic fluid may be needed to identify signals of subtherapeutic or supratherapeutic drug exposure...
  49. ncbi request reprint Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic investigation of efavirenz in the semen and blood of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected men
    Y Sunila Reddy
    School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    J Infect Dis 186:1339-43. 2002
    ..In SP, EFV reaches concentrations above the HIV-1 IC(90)(WT) throughout the dosing interval. EFV-containing regimens effectively suppress HIV-1 RNA in SP...
  50. ncbi request reprint Quantitation of HIV-1 viral RNA in blood plasma and genital secretions
    Susan A Fiscus
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 304:201-13. 2005
    ..This chapter describes methods of collection, processing, and testing in blood, plasma, and male and female genital secretions for quantifying HIV RNA...
  51. ncbi request reprint Genotypic analysis of the protease and reverse transcriptase of HIV type 1 subtype C isolates from antiretroviral drug-naive adults in Malawi
    L A Petch
    UNC Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 21:799-805. 2005
    ..Further studies will be needed to determine the clinical impact of these polymorphisms on viral susceptibility to existing antiretroviral drugs...
  52. pmc Increased human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) env compartmentalization in the presence of HIV-1-associated dementia
    Kimberly Ritola
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, UNC Center for AIDS Research, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7295, USA
    J Virol 79:10830-4. 2005
    ..Alternatively, HAD may be associated with a more pronounced state of immunosuppression that permits more extensive replication and independent evolution within the CNS compartment...
  53. doi request reprint Preexisting resistance to nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors predicts virologic failure of an efavirenz-based regimen in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected subjects
    Daniel R Kuritzkes
    Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    J Infect Dis 197:867-70. 2008
    ..27 [95% confidence interval], 1.15-4.49; P = .018). These results support resistance testing before starting antiretroviral therapy...
  54. ncbi request reprint Age-related immune dysfunction in health and in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease: association of age and HIV infection with naive CD8+ cell depletion, reduced expression of CD28 on CD8+ cells, and reduced thymic volumes
    Robert C Kalayjian
    MetroHealth Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
    J Infect Dis 187:1924-33. 2003
    ..Because of their common association with age and HIV disease, naive CD8(+) cell depletion, diminished CD28 expression on CD8(+) cells, and reduced thymic volumes are possible correlates of the interaction of age with HIV disease...
  55. pmc Multicenter evaluation of use of dried blood and plasma spot specimens in quantitative assays for human immunodeficiency virus RNA: measurement, precision, and RNA stability
    Don Brambilla
    New England Research Center, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:1888-93. 2003
    ..Dried blood and dried plasma spots can be used as an easy and inexpensive means for the collection and storage of specimens under field conditions for the diagnosis of HIV infection and the monitoring of antiretroviral therapy...
  56. ncbi request reprint Gender differences in perinatal HIV acquisition among African infants
    Taha E Taha
    Infectious Diseases Program, Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, MBBS, Room E7138, 615 N Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Pediatrics 115:e167-72. 2005
    ..We investigated gender-specific risks of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) at birth and at 6 to 8 weeks among infants born to HIV-infected African women...
  57. ncbi request reprint Prolonged CD4+ cell/virus load discordance during treatment with protease inhibitor-based highly active antiretroviral therapy: immune response and viral control
    Susan A Sufka
    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Infect Dis 187:1027-37. 2003
    ..These findings suggest that discordant responses may be related to enhanced HIV-directed immune responses, diminished cellular activation, decreased viral replication capacity, and preservation of non-syncytium-inducing virus strains...
  58. ncbi request reprint Durability of response to treatment among antiretroviral-experienced subjects: 48-week results from AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 359
    Roy M Gulick
    Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    J Infect Dis 186:626-33. 2002
    ..These results show that some patients who experience treatment failure can demonstrate durable virologic and immunologic responses with salvage antiretroviral regimens...
  59. pmc Comparison of an assay using signal amplification of the heat-dissociated p24 antigen with the Roche Monitor human immunodeficiency virus RNA assay
    Alvaro Pascual
    Department of Microbiology, Universidad de Sevilla, Seville, Spain
    J Clin Microbiol 40:2472-5. 2002
    ..HIV subtypes A to F were all recognized. This assay should be useful for monitoring patients in resource-poor countries and for monitoring vaccine recipients...
  60. ncbi request reprint Addition of cyclophosphamide to antiretroviral therapy does not diminish the cellular reservoir in HIV-infected persons
    John A Bartlett
    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 18:535-43. 2002
    ..We conclude that the addition of CTX to ART did not diminish the cellular reservoir in HIV-infected persons...
  61. pmc Regional clustering of shared neutralization determinants on primary isolates of clade C human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from South Africa
    Renata Bures
    Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Virol 76:2233-44. 2002
    ..The clustering of shared neutralization determinants on clade C primary HIV-1 isolates from South Africa suggests that neutralizing antibodies induced by vaccines will have less epitope diversity to overcome at a regional level...
  62. ncbi request reprint Nevirapine and zidovudine at birth to reduce perinatal transmission of HIV in an African setting: a randomized controlled trial
    Taha E Taha
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    JAMA 292:202-9. 2004
    ....
  63. ncbi request reprint Nevirapine (NVP) resistance in women with HIV-1 subtype C, compared with subtypes A and D, after the administration of single-dose NVP
    Susan H Eshleman
    Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Infect Dis 192:30-6. 2005
    ..Here, we evaluate the rate of NVP resistance mutations in women with subtype C...
  64. ncbi request reprint Distinct mechanisms of T cell reconstitution can be identified by estimating thymic volume in adult HIV-1 disease
    Robert C Kalayjian
    Division of Infectious Diseases, MetroHealth Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44109 1998, USA
    J Infect Dis 192:1577-87. 2005
    ..We have attempted to identify factors associated with T cell reconstitution in response to highly active antiretroviral therapy...
  65. ncbi request reprint Longitudinal assessment of immune response and viral characteristics in HIV-infected patients with prolonged CD4(+)/viral load discordance
    Susan S Kaplan
    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 22710, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 21:13-6. 2005
    ..Thus, CD4(+)/VL discordance can be maintained for periods exceeding 5 years in some patients receiving PI-based HAART without significant evolution of HIV resistance...
  66. pmc Comparison of two human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA surrogate assays to the standard HIV RNA assay
    Cheryl Jennings
    Rush Medical College, Department of Immunology Microbiology, 1653 W Congress Parkway, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:5950-6. 2005
    ..67, and r = 0.59 to 0.95, respectively). Thus, the use of these two assays for monitoring patients, together with less-frequent confirmation testing, offers a feasible alternative to frequent HIV RNA testing in resource-limited settings...
  67. ncbi request reprint Development of nevirapine resistance in infants is reduced by use of infant-only single-dose nevirapine plus zidovudine postexposure prophylaxis for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1
    Susan H Eshleman
    Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Infect Dis 193:479-81. 2006
    ..20/23 [87%]; P < .001). The risk of MTCT of HIV-1 was comparable with these regimens. Infant-only prophylaxis also eliminates the development of NVP resistance in mothers...
  68. ncbi request reprint Association between the replication capacity and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, in antiretroviral drug-naive Malawian women
    Susan H Eshleman
    Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Infect Dis 193:1512-5. 2006
    ..45 for each 10% increase in replication capacity [95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.90]; P = .0063), after adjustment for maternal HIV-1 load and other factors...
  69. ncbi request reprint Quantitative analysis of HIV-1 variants with the K103N resistance mutation after single-dose nevirapine in women with HIV-1 subtypes A, C, and D
    Tamara S Flys
    Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 42:610-3. 2006
    ..We used a sensitive point mutation assay, LigAmp, to detect and quantify K103N-containing variants in African women who received single-dose nevirapine (NVP) to prevent mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission...
  70. ncbi request reprint Comparison of HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission after single-dose nevirapine prophylaxis among African women with subtypes A, C, and D
    Susan H Eshleman
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 42:518-21. 2006
  71. pmc The impact of breastfeeding on the health of HIV-positive mothers and their children in sub-Saharan Africa
    Taha E Taha
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Bull World Health Organ 84:546-54. 2006
    ..We assessed the impact of breastfeeding by women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 on their morbidity and risk of mortality and on the mortality of their children...
  72. ncbi request reprint Resistance after single-dose nevirapine prophylaxis emerges in a high proportion of Malawian newborns
    Susan H Eshleman
    Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA
    AIDS 19:2167-9. 2005
    ..Nevirapine resistance was more frequent in infants with subtype C than with subtypes A and D (87 versus 50%, P = 0.016)...
  73. pmc Evaluation of an ultrasensitive p24 antigen assay as a potential alternative to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA viral load assay in resource-limited settings
    Richard A Respess
    Global AIDS Program, National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, Mail stop A 12, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:506-8. 2005
    ..4% at a viral load of <30,000 (232 specimens from 65 seropositive subjects). The assay was highly reproducible, with excellent correlation between duplicates and among three laboratories...
  74. ncbi request reprint Detection of acute HIV infections in an urban HIV counseling and testing population in the United States
    Frances H Priddy
    Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 44:196-202. 2007
    ..Antibody tests alone are insufficient for public health practice in high-risk urban HIV testing settings...
  75. ncbi request reprint Non-nucleoside phenotypic hypersusceptibility cut-point determination from ACTG 359
    Richard H Haubrich
    University of California San Diego, San Diego, California 92103, USA
    HIV Clin Trials 8:63-7. 2007
    ....
  76. ncbi request reprint HIV type 1 variants with nevirapine resistance mutations are rarely detected in antiretroviral drug-naive African women with subtypes A, C, and D
    Jessica D Church
    Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 23:764-8. 2007
    ....
  77. ncbi request reprint Late postnatal transmission of HIV-1 and associated factors
    Taha E Taha
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Infect Dis 196:10-4. 2007
    ..The present study was undertaken to determine the risk and timing of late postnatal transmission (LPT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)...