Howard L Fields

Summary

Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Ask the experts: What has the establishment of multidisciplinary pain centers done to improve the management of chronic pain conditions?
    Howard L Fields
    5858 Horton Street, Suite 200, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
    Pain Manag 1:23-4. 2011
  2. ncbi request reprint Ventral tegmental area neurons in learned appetitive behavior and positive reinforcement
    Howard L Fields
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center and Wheeler Center for the Neurobiology of Addiction, University of California, San Francisco, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 30:289-316. 2007
  3. ncbi request reprint Understanding how opioids contribute to reward and analgesia
    Howard L Fields
    Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94608, USA
    Reg Anesth Pain Med 32:242-6. 2007
  4. ncbi request reprint Midbrain dopamine neurons: projection target determines action potential duration and dopamine D(2) receptor inhibition
    Elyssa B Margolis
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
    J Neurosci 28:8908-13. 2008
  5. ncbi request reprint Orexin A in the VTA is critical for the induction of synaptic plasticity and behavioral sensitization to cocaine
    Stephanie L Borgland
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94110, USA
    Neuron 49:589-601. 2006
  6. pmc Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex contribution to behavioral and nucleus accumbens neuronal responses to incentive cues
    Akinori Ishikawa
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center and Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
    J Neurosci 28:5088-98. 2008
  7. ncbi request reprint Both kappa and mu opioid agonists inhibit glutamatergic input to ventral tegmental area neurons
    Elyssa B Margolis
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, 5858 Horton St, Suite 200, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
    J Neurophysiol 93:3086-93. 2005
  8. ncbi request reprint The ventral tegmental area is required for the behavioral and nucleus accumbens neuronal firing responses to incentive cues
    Irene A Yun
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
    J Neurosci 24:2923-33. 2004
  9. doi request reprint Delta-opioid receptor expression in the ventral tegmental area protects against elevated alcohol consumption
    Elyssa B Margolis
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
    J Neurosci 28:12672-81. 2008
  10. ncbi request reprint Endogenous opioid blockade and impulsive responding in alcoholics and healthy controls
    Jennifer M Mitchell
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California at San Francisco, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 32:439-49. 2007

Detail Information

Publications56

  1. doi request reprint Ask the experts: What has the establishment of multidisciplinary pain centers done to improve the management of chronic pain conditions?
    Howard L Fields
    5858 Horton Street, Suite 200, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
    Pain Manag 1:23-4. 2011
    ..In 1997, he was elected to membership in the Institute of Medicine and in 2010, he was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. ..
  2. ncbi request reprint Ventral tegmental area neurons in learned appetitive behavior and positive reinforcement
    Howard L Fields
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center and Wheeler Center for the Neurobiology of Addiction, University of California, San Francisco, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 30:289-316. 2007
    ..Consequently, identifying the neurotransmitter content and projection target of VTA neurons recorded in vivo will be critical for determining their contribution to learned appetitive behaviors...
  3. ncbi request reprint Understanding how opioids contribute to reward and analgesia
    Howard L Fields
    Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94608, USA
    Reg Anesth Pain Med 32:242-6. 2007
    ..The mesostriatal "reward" circuit, thus, appears to perform a function critical to decision making and can either amplify or suppress responses to noxious stimuli...
  4. ncbi request reprint Midbrain dopamine neurons: projection target determines action potential duration and dopamine D(2) receptor inhibition
    Elyssa B Margolis
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
    J Neurosci 28:8908-13. 2008
    ..Therefore, in the VTA, AP duration and inhibition by D(2)R agonists may be valid markers of DA content in neurons of known projection target...
  5. ncbi request reprint Orexin A in the VTA is critical for the induction of synaptic plasticity and behavioral sensitization to cocaine
    Stephanie L Borgland
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94110, USA
    Neuron 49:589-601. 2006
    ..These results provide in vitro and in vivo evidence for a critical role of orexin signaling in the VTA in neural plasticity relevant to addiction...
  6. pmc Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex contribution to behavioral and nucleus accumbens neuronal responses to incentive cues
    Akinori Ishikawa
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center and Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
    J Neurosci 28:5088-98. 2008
    ..These findings indicate that cue-evoked excitations and inhibitions of NAc core neurons depend on dmPFC projections to the NAc and that these phasic changes contribute to the behavioral response to reward-predictive cues...
  7. ncbi request reprint Both kappa and mu opioid agonists inhibit glutamatergic input to ventral tegmental area neurons
    Elyssa B Margolis
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, 5858 Horton St, Suite 200, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
    J Neurophysiol 93:3086-93. 2005
    ..These findings show that MOP-R and KOP-R agonists regulate excitatory input onto each VTA cell type...
  8. ncbi request reprint The ventral tegmental area is required for the behavioral and nucleus accumbens neuronal firing responses to incentive cues
    Irene A Yun
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
    J Neurosci 24:2923-33. 2004
    ..Our findings suggest a neural mechanism by which the dopamine-dependent firing of NAc neurons mediates goal-directed behavior...
  9. doi request reprint Delta-opioid receptor expression in the ventral tegmental area protects against elevated alcohol consumption
    Elyssa B Margolis
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
    J Neurosci 28:12672-81. 2008
    ..Together, our findings demonstrate the protective nature of VTA DORs and identify an important new target for therapeutic intervention for alcoholism...
  10. ncbi request reprint Endogenous opioid blockade and impulsive responding in alcoholics and healthy controls
    Jennifer M Mitchell
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California at San Francisco, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 32:439-49. 2007
    ..Determining the biological basis of this dependence could have important implications for effective alcoholism treatment...
  11. ncbi request reprint Endogenous opioids encode relative taste preference
    Sharif A Taha
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 24:1220-6. 2006
    ..Our results indicate that endogenous opioid signaling contributes to the encoding of relative reward value...
  12. pmc Basolateral amygdala neurons facilitate reward-seeking behavior by exciting nucleus accumbens neurons
    Frederic Ambroggi
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, Wheeler Center for the Neurobiology of Addiction, and Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
    Neuron 59:648-61. 2008
    ..These results indicate that BLA input is required for dopamine to enhance the cue-evoked firing of NAc neurons and that this enhanced firing promotes reward-seeking behavior...
  13. ncbi request reprint Dissociation of the role of nucleus accumbens dopamine in responding to reward-predictive cues and waiting for reward
    Ken T Wakabayashi
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
    Behav Brain Res 154:19-30. 2004
    ..These results suggest that waiting for reward without increased caloric energy expenditure does not require NAc dopamine...
  14. pmc Roles of nucleus accumbens core and shell in incentive-cue responding and behavioral inhibition
    Frederic Ambroggi
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, Wheeler Center for the Neurobiology of Addiction, and Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
    J Neurosci 31:6820-30. 2011
    ..Neurons with similar firing patterns could also have different effects on behavior due to their distinct projection targets...
  15. pmc Ventral tegmental area glutamate neurons: electrophysiological properties and projections
    Thomas S Hnasko
    Department of Physiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    J Neurosci 32:15076-85. 2012
    ..Thus, glutamate neurons form a physiologically and anatomically distinct subpopulation of VTA projection neurons...
  16. ncbi request reprint Firing of nucleus accumbens neurons during the consummatory phase of a discriminative stimulus task depends on previous reward predictive cues
    Saleem M Nicola
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, Emeryville 94608, USA
    J Neurophysiol 91:1866-82. 2004
    ..These findings are consistent with a contribution of NAc neurons to both reward consummatory and reward seeking behavior...
  17. pmc The ventral tegmental area revisited: is there an electrophysiological marker for dopaminergic neurons?
    Elyssa B Margolis
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California San Francisco, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
    J Physiol 577:907-24. 2006
    ..We conclude that reliable physiological criteria for VTA DA neuron identification have yet to be determined, and that the criteria currently being used are unreliable...
  18. pmc Alcohol self-administration, anxiety, and cortisol levels predict changes in delta opioid receptor function in the ventral tegmental area
    Jennifer M Mitchell
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California, San Francisco 94608, USA
    Behav Neurosci 126:515-22. 2012
    ..These data also extend our understanding of the possible therapeutic value of the DOR for treatment of alcoholism by showing that its relevant synaptic action persists during abstinence...
  19. ncbi request reprint Kappa-opioid agonists directly inhibit midbrain dopaminergic neurons
    Elyssa B Margolis
    Joint University of California San Francisco University of California, Berkeley Bioengineering Graduate Group, San Francisco, California 94143 0775, USA
    J Neurosci 23:9981-6. 2003
    ..These results provide a cellular mechanism for the opposing behavioral effects of KOR and MOR agonists and shed light on how KORs might regulate the motivational effects of both natural rewards and addictive drugs...
  20. ncbi request reprint Rat nucleus accumbens neurons persistently encode locations associated with morphine reward
    Paul W German
    Neuroscience Graduate Program, Department of Neurologyiology, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Neurophysiol 97:2094-106. 2007
    ..This long-lasting change in population responses of NAc neurons to initially neutral locations is a neural correlate of the change in location preference manifest as CPP...
  21. ncbi request reprint Inhibitions of nucleus accumbens neurons encode a gating signal for reward-directed behavior
    Sharif A Taha
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
    J Neurosci 26:217-22. 2006
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Immediate reward bias in humans: fronto-parietal networks and a role for the catechol-O-methyltransferase 158(Val/Val) genotype
    Charlotte A Boettiger
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
    J Neurosci 27:14383-91. 2007
    ..These results shed new light on the neurobiological underpinnings of temporal discounting behavior and identify novel behavioral and neural consequences of genetic variation in dopamine metabolism...
  23. pmc A single cocaine exposure enhances both opioid reward and aversion through a ventral tegmental area-dependent mechanism
    Joseph A Kim
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, Wheeler Center for the Neurobiology of Addiction and Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:5664-9. 2004
    ..Thus, through a circuit involving the ventral tegmental area, a single cocaine exposure enhanced both micro-opioid receptor reward and kappa-opioid receptor aversion...
  24. doi request reprint Nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons target non-dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area
    Yanfang Xia
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, Wheeler Center for Neurobiology of Addiction, and Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
    J Neurosci 31:7811-6. 2011
    ..We found that the NAc directly targets non-dopaminergic VTA neurons, including some that project back to the NAc. These MSN GABAergic terminals are opioid sensitive and act via GABA(A) receptors...
  25. ncbi request reprint Contrasting effects of dopamine and glutamate receptor antagonist injection in the nucleus accumbens suggest a neural mechanism underlying cue-evoked goal-directed behavior
    Irene A Yun
    Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 20:249-63. 2004
    ....
  26. pmc Opioid modulation of ventral pallidal afferents to ventral tegmental area neurons
    Gregory O Hjelmstad
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, Wheeler Center for the Neurobiology of Addiction, and Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
    J Neurosci 33:6454-9. 2013
    ..Both of these actions decrease GABAergic input onto VTA neurons, revealing two mechanisms by which endogenous or exogenous opioids can activate VTA neurons, including DA neurons...
  27. ncbi request reprint How prior reward experience biases exploratory movements: a probabilistic model
    Paul W German
    Neuroscience Graduate Program, Department of Neurologyiology, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Neurophysiol 97:2083-93. 2007
    ..This finding sharply delineates and constrains possible neural mechanisms for a class of self-initiated, goal-directed behaviors toward previously rewarded locations...
  28. doi request reprint Naltrexone aversion and treatment efficacy are greatest in humans and rats that actively consume high levels of alcohol
    Jennifer M Mitchell
    Department of Neurology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 33:72-80. 2009
    ..We conclude that naltrexone treatment efficacy is greater during active ethanol consumption and may be partly due to aversive side effects...
  29. ncbi request reprint Encoding of palatability and appetitive behaviors by distinct neuronal populations in the nucleus accumbens
    Sharif A Taha
    Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    J Neurosci 25:1193-202. 2005
    ....
  30. ncbi request reprint Catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype modulates opioid release in decision circuitry
    Jennifer M Mitchell
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California San Francisco, Emeryville, California, USA Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    Clin Transl Sci 6:400-3. 2013
    ..These data suggest that genetic regulation of dopamine levels can affect alcohol consumption in part by modulating endogenous opioid release in specific brain regions implicated in reward, which in turn promotes impulsive choice...
  31. pmc Parceling human accumbens into putative core and shell dissociates encoding of values for reward and pain
    Marwan N Baliki
    Department of Physiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60611, and Department of Neurology and Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, Emeryville, California 94608
    J Neurosci 33:16383-93. 2013
    ..Overall, we demonstrate that the human NAc can be parceled based on structural and functional connectivity, and that activity in these subdivisions differentially encodes values for expected pain relief and for expected monetary reward. ..
  32. doi request reprint Dopamine, corticostriatal connectivity, and intertemporal choice
    Andrew S Kayser
    Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    J Neurosci 32:9402-9. 2012
    ..These results indicate that raising cortical dopamine levels attenuates impulsive choice by changing corticostriatal function...
  33. doi request reprint Alcohol consumption induces endogenous opioid release in the human orbitofrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens
    Jennifer M Mitchell
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
    Sci Transl Med 4:116ra6. 2012
    ..These results also suggest a possible mechanism by which opioid antagonists such as naltrexone act to treat alcohol abuse...
  34. doi request reprint Isolating event-related neuronal responses by deconvolution
    Ali Ghazizadeh
    Joint Bioengineering Program, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    J Neurophysiol 104:1790-802. 2010
    ..The improvements over PETH in analyzing real data are demonstrated using simulated data and a sample electrophysiological recording obtained from rats in a task involving responses to a reward predictive cue...
  35. pmc Cue-evoked encoding of movement planning and execution in the rat nucleus accumbens
    Sharif A Taha
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
    J Physiol 584:801-18. 2007
    ..These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a subpopulation of nucleus accumbens neurons contributes to the selection and execution of specific motivated behaviours...
  36. pmc A pause in nucleus accumbens neuron firing is required to initiate and maintain feeding
    Michael Krause
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, Wheeler Center for the Neurobiology of Addiction, and Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
    J Neurosci 30:4746-56. 2010
    ..These results directly support the hypothesis that a significant subpopulation of NAc neurons inhibit palatable food consumption and that a pause in their firing is required to initiate and maintain consumption...
  37. pmc Varenicline decreases alcohol consumption in heavy-drinking smokers
    Jennifer M Mitchell
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, 5858 Horton Street, Suite 200, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 223:299-306. 2012
    ..Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:12518-12523, 2007) and in human laboratory and open-label studies (Fucito et al., Psychopharmacology (Berl) 215:655-663, 2011; McKee et al., Biol Psychiatry 66:185-190 2009)...
  38. doi request reprint Prefrontal cortex mediates extinction of responding by two distinct neural mechanisms in accumbens shell
    Ali Ghazizadeh
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, Wheeler Center for the Neurobiology of Addiction, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
    J Neurosci 32:726-37. 2012
    ..The second is by increasing the basal firing of NAcS neurons that tonically inhibit reward seeking. These results identify the vmPFC and the NAcS as critical elements of the circuits relevant to suppression of inappropriate actions...
  39. ncbi request reprint Cue-evoked firing of nucleus accumbens neurons encodes motivational significance during a discriminative stimulus task
    Saleem M Nicola
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, Emeryville 94608, USA
    J Neurophysiol 91:1840-65. 2004
    ..These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the firing of subpopulations of NAc neurons encode both the predictive value of environmental stimuli and the specific motor behaviors required to respond to them...
  40. ncbi request reprint Local application of the cannabinoid receptor agonist, WIN 55,212-2, to spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis differentially affects nociceptive and non-nociceptive neurons
    Alex M Papanastassiou
    Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0114, USA
    Pain 107:267-75. 2004
    ..Furthermore, the particular sensitivity of PDC activity, a measure of neuronal hyperexcitability, to cannabinoid receptor agonists may be relevant to the treatment of persistent craniofacial pain...
  41. pmc Kappa opioids selectively control dopaminergic neurons projecting to the prefrontal cortex
    Elyssa B Margolis
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California at San Francisco, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:2938-42. 2006
    ..Selective control of VTA DA neurons projecting to the mPFC has important implications for understanding addiction, attention disorders, and schizophrenia, all of which are associated with DA dysfunction in the mPFC...
  42. ncbi request reprint Intra-VTA deltorphin, but not DPDPE, induces place preference in ethanol-drinking rats: distinct DOR-1 and DOR-2 mechanisms control ethanol consumption and reward
    Jennifer M Mitchell
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, Emeryville, California Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, California
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 38:195-203. 2014
    ....
  43. ncbi request reprint Impulsive responding in alcoholics
    Jennifer M Mitchell
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94608, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 29:2158-69. 2005
    ..In DD paradigms subjects choose between a small, immediate reward and a larger, delayed reward...
  44. ncbi request reprint Cholecystokinin is necessary for the expression of morphine conditioned place preference
    Jennifer M Mitchell
    Department of Neurology, Box 0114, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 85:787-95. 2006
    ..These results indicate that endogenous CCK modulates the incentive-salience of morphine-associated cues and suggest that CCK antagonists may be useful in the treatment of drug craving...
  45. ncbi request reprint Treatment response in antidepressant-naïve postherpetic neuralgia patients: double-blind, randomized trial
    Michael C Rowbotham
    UCSF Pain Clinical Research Center, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, San Francisco, California 94115, USA
    J Pain 6:741-6. 2005
    ....
  46. pmc Reliability in the identification of midbrain dopamine neurons
    Elyssa B Margolis
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California San Francisco, Emeryville, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e15222. 2010
    ..7±0.9 min; n = 10). Thus TH is a highly reliable molecular marker for DA neurons in VTA patch clamp recordings provided compatible microelectrode solutions are used...
  47. ncbi request reprint Glutamatergic activation of anterior cingulate cortex produces an aversive teaching signal
    Joshua P Johansen
    Department of Neurology, and The W M Keck Foundation Center for Integrative Neuroscience, University of California, San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, S 784, San Francisco, California 94143 0453, USA
    Nat Neurosci 7:398-403. 2004
    ..Our results support the idea that a shared ACC pathway mediates both pain-induced negative affect and a nociceptor-driven aversive teaching signal...
  48. pmc A novel opioid receptor-mediated enhancement of GABAA receptor function induced by stress in ventral tegmental area neurons
    Elyssa B Margolis
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Centre, 5858 Horton Street, Suite no 200, Emeryville, CA, USA
    J Physiol 589:4229-42. 2011
    ....
  49. ncbi request reprint Kappa opioid receptor activation in the nucleus accumbens inhibits glutamate and GABA release through different mechanisms
    Gregory O Hjelmstad
    Department of Neurology, Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, Emeryville, California 94143, USA
    J Neurophysiol 89:2389-95. 2003
    ..These results indicate that KOP receptor activation inhibits GABA release by reducing Ca(2+) influx, but inhibits glutamate release at a step downstream of Ca(2+) entry...
  50. ncbi request reprint A single injection of the kappa opioid antagonist norbinaltorphimine increases ethanol consumption in rats
    Jennifer M Mitchell
    Department of Neurology, University of California at San Francisco, P O Box 0114, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 182:384-92. 2005
    ..If KOR antagonists increase drug self-administration then it is likely that endogenous KOR agonists directly modulate drug intake...
  51. ncbi request reprint Peptidergic nociceptors of both trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia express serotonin 1D receptors: implications for the selective antimigraine action of triptans
    Sonja Potrebic
    Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0452, USA
    J Neurosci 23:10988-97. 2003
    ..Our finding, that 5-HT1D receptors are distributed in nociceptors throughout the body, raises the possibility that triptans can regulate not only headache-associated pain but also nociceptive responses in extracranial tissues...
  52. pmc The doctor's dilemma: opiate analgesics and chronic pain
    Howard L Fields
    Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, 5858 Horton Street, Suite 200, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
    Neuron 69:591-4. 2011
    ..Because opiate analgesics are highly addictive substances, their use in the treatment of chronic nonmalignant pain remains controversial...
  53. ncbi request reprint Should we be reluctant to prescribe opioids for chronic non-malignant pain?
    Howard L Fields
    Pain 129:233-4. 2007
  54. ncbi request reprint The Asp40 mu-opioid receptor allele does not predict naltrexone treatment efficacy in heavy drinkers
    Jennifer M Mitchell
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 27:112-5. 2007
  55. ncbi request reprint Isolating the modulatory effect of expectation on pain transmission: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study
    John R Keltner
    Pain Management Center, Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    J Neurosci 26:4437-43. 2006
    ..We propose that pain intensity expectancy modulates activations produced by noxious stimuli through a distinct modulatory network that converges with afferent nociceptive input in the nCF...
  56. ncbi request reprint Pain and the placebo: what we have learned
    Ginger A Hoffman
    Department of Linguistics and Philosophy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
    Perspect Biol Med 48:248-65. 2005
    ....