Peter M Elias

Summary

Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Interactions among stratum corneum defensive functions
    Peter M Elias
    Dermatology Service, VA Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Exp Dermatol 14:719-26. 2005
  2. ncbi request reprint Basis for the permeability barrier abnormality in lamellar ichthyosis
    Peter M Elias
    Dermatology Service and Research Unit, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Exp Dermatol 11:248-56. 2002
  3. ncbi request reprint The aged epidermal permeability barrier: basis for functional abnormalities
    Peter M Elias
    Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    Clin Geriatr Med 18:103-20, vii. 2002
  4. ncbi request reprint Origin of the epidermal calcium gradient: regulation by barrier status and role of active vs passive mechanisms
    PeterM Elias
    Dermatology and Medical Services, Veterans Administration Medical Center and Departments of Dermatology and Medicine, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 119:1269-74. 2002
  5. ncbi request reprint The epidermal permeability barrier: from the early days at Harvard to emerging concepts
    Peter M Elias
    Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 122:xxxvi-xxxix. 2004
  6. ncbi request reprint The potential of metabolic interventions to enhance transdermal drug delivery
    Peter M Elias
    Dermatology Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Department of Dermatology and Medicine, University of California San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc 7:79-85. 2002
  7. ncbi request reprint Stratum corneum defensive functions: an integrated view
    Peter M Elias
    Dermatology Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 125:183-200. 2005
  8. ncbi request reprint Modulations in epidermal calcium regulate the expression of differentiation-specific markers
    Peter M Elias
    Dermatology and Medical Services, Veterans Administration Medical Center, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 119:1128-36. 2002
  9. pmc Maintenance of an acidic stratum corneum prevents emergence of murine atopic dermatitis
    Yutaka Hatano
    Dermatology Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 129:1824-35. 2009
  10. pmc Activators of PPARs and LXR decrease the adverse effects of exogenous glucocorticoids on the epidermis
    Marianne Demerjian
    Department of Dermatology, UCSF and VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Exp Dermatol 18:643-9. 2009

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications116 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Interactions among stratum corneum defensive functions
    Peter M Elias
    Dermatology Service, VA Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Exp Dermatol 14:719-26. 2005
    ..In this short review, we explore the ways in which the multiple defensive functions of the SC are linked and interrelated, either by their shared localization or by common biochemical processes...
  2. ncbi request reprint Basis for the permeability barrier abnormality in lamellar ichthyosis
    Peter M Elias
    Dermatology Service and Research Unit, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Exp Dermatol 11:248-56. 2002
    ....
  3. ncbi request reprint The aged epidermal permeability barrier: basis for functional abnormalities
    Peter M Elias
    Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    Clin Geriatr Med 18:103-20, vii. 2002
    ..Barrier repair therapy can be effective in restoring normal function if a cholesterol-dominant mixture of the three key physiologic lipids, including ceramides and free fatty acids, is emphasized...
  4. ncbi request reprint Origin of the epidermal calcium gradient: regulation by barrier status and role of active vs passive mechanisms
    PeterM Elias
    Dermatology and Medical Services, Veterans Administration Medical Center and Departments of Dermatology and Medicine, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 119:1269-74. 2002
    ..These results show that (i) barrier status regulates formation of the calcium gradient, and (ii) passive processes alone can account for the formation/maintenance of the calcium gradient...
  5. ncbi request reprint The epidermal permeability barrier: from the early days at Harvard to emerging concepts
    Peter M Elias
    Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 122:xxxvi-xxxix. 2004
  6. ncbi request reprint The potential of metabolic interventions to enhance transdermal drug delivery
    Peter M Elias
    Dermatology Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Department of Dermatology and Medicine, University of California San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc 7:79-85. 2002
    ..Yet, while these new approaches hold great promise, if equally effective in human skin, they pose new questions about the risks of a highly permeabilized stratum corneum...
  7. ncbi request reprint Stratum corneum defensive functions: an integrated view
    Peter M Elias
    Dermatology Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 125:183-200. 2005
    ..Finally, the clinical consequences and therapeutic implications of this integrated perspective are provided...
  8. ncbi request reprint Modulations in epidermal calcium regulate the expression of differentiation-specific markers
    Peter M Elias
    Dermatology and Medical Services, Veterans Administration Medical Center, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 119:1128-36. 2002
    ....
  9. pmc Maintenance of an acidic stratum corneum prevents emergence of murine atopic dermatitis
    Yutaka Hatano
    Dermatology Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 129:1824-35. 2009
    ..These results provide direct evidence for the "outside-inside" pathogenesis of AD and further suggest that maintenance of an acidic SC pH could prevent the emergence of AD in humans...
  10. pmc Activators of PPARs and LXR decrease the adverse effects of exogenous glucocorticoids on the epidermis
    Marianne Demerjian
    Department of Dermatology, UCSF and VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Exp Dermatol 18:643-9. 2009
    ..Together, these studies demonstrate that PPAR and LXR activators can prevent several of the adverse effects of topical GC on the epidermis...
  11. ncbi request reprint Liver X receptor activators display anti-inflammatory activity in irritant and allergic contact dermatitis models: liver-X-receptor-specific inhibition of inflammation and primary cytokine production
    Ashley J Fowler
    Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 120:246-55. 2003
    ..LXR activators could provide a new class of therapeutic agents for the treatment of cutaneous inflammatory disorders...
  12. pmc Murine atopic dermatitis responds to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and beta/delta (but not gamma) and liver X receptor activators
    Yutaka Hatano
    Dermatology Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 125:160-9.e1-5. 2010
    ..Additionally, some of these activators exhibit potent antihyperplastic and anti-inflammatory activity in irritant contact dermatitis and acute allergic contact dermatitis murine models...
  13. doi request reprint Topical peroxisome proliferator activated receptor activators accelerate postnatal stratum corneum acidification
    Joachim W Fluhr
    Dermatology and Medical Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 129:365-74. 2009
    ..Hence, PPARalpha activators might be useful to prevent or treat certain common neonatal dermatoses...
  14. pmc Filaggrin deficiency confers a paracellular barrier abnormality that reduces inflammatory thresholds to irritants and haptens
    Tiffany C Scharschmidt
    Department of Dermatology, Dermatology Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, Calif 94121, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 124:496-506, 506.e1-6. 2009
    ..Yet additional acquired stressors might be necessary because the same mutations can result in a noninflammatory disorder, ichthyosis vulgaris...
  15. ncbi request reprint Stratum corneum acidification in neonatal skin: secretory phospholipase A2 and the sodium/hydrogen antiporter-1 acidify neonatal rat stratum corneum
    Joachim W Fluhr
    Dermatology and Medical Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 122:320-9. 2004
    ..Conversely, the impaired acidification of neonatal SC, which has important functional and clinical consequences, can be explained by the relatively low activities of one or both of these mechanisms at birth...
  16. ncbi request reprint Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma activation stimulates keratinocyte differentiation
    Man Mao-Qiang
    Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco and VA Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 123:305-12. 2004
    ..These observations suggest that thiazolidindiones and perhaps other PPAR-gamma activators maybe useful in the treatment of cutaneous disorders...
  17. pmc Ceramide stimulates ABCA12 expression via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {delta} in human keratinocytes
    Yan J Jiang
    Metabolism Section, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Northern California Institute for Research and Education, University of California, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:18942-52. 2009
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Topical liver x receptor activators accelerate postnatal acidification of stratum corneum and improve function in the neonate
    Joachim W Fluhr
    Dermatology and Medical Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 125:1206-14. 2005
    ..These results demonstrate that LXR activators stimulate the formation of an acidic SC and improve both permeability barrier homeostasis and SC integrity/cohesion...
  19. pmc Topical apigenin improves epidermal permeability barrier homoeostasis in normal murine skin by divergent mechanisms
    Maihua Hou
    Dermatology Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Exp Dermatol 22:210-5. 2013
    ..Apigenin could be useful for the prevention and treatment of skin disorders characterized by permeability barrier dysfunction, associated with reduced filaggrin levels and impaired antimicrobial defenses, such as atopic dermatitis...
  20. ncbi request reprint Short-term glucocorticoid treatment compromises both permeability barrier homeostasis and stratum corneum integrity: inhibition of epidermal lipid synthesis accounts for functional abnormalities
    Jack S Kao
    Dermatology and Medical Services Metabolism, VA Medical Center San Francisco and Department of Dermatology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, U S A
    J Invest Dermatol 120:456-64. 2003
    ..Finally, topical replenishment with epidermal physiologic lipids could represent a potential method to reduce the adverse cutaneous effects of both topical glucocorticoid treatment and Cushing's syndrome...
  21. pmc Characterization of a hapten-induced, murine model with multiple features of atopic dermatitis: structural, immunologic, and biochemical changes following single versus multiple oxazolone challenges
    Mao Qiang Man
    Dermatology Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 128:79-86. 2008
    ..Because of its reproducibility, predictability, and low cost, this model could prove useful for evaluating both pathogenic mechanisms and potential therapies for AD...
  22. ncbi request reprint Deficiency of PPARbeta/delta in the epidermis results in defective cutaneous permeability barrier homeostasis and increased inflammation
    Mao Qiang Man
    Department of Dermatology, University of California San Francisco and VA Medical Center San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 128:370-7. 2008
    ..Together, these results further demonstrate that PPARbeta/delta in the epidermis: (1) is required for permeability barrier homeostasis; (2) regulates keratinocyte proliferation; and (3) modulates cutaneous inflammation...
  23. ncbi request reprint Mechanisms by which psychologic stress alters cutaneous permeability barrier homeostasis and stratum corneum integrity
    Eung Ho Choi
    Dermatology and Medical Services Metabolism, VA Medical Center San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 124:587-95. 2005
    ..These studies suggest that topical treatment with epidermal physiologic lipids could be beneficial in stress-induced, barrier-associated dermatoses, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis...
  24. ncbi request reprint Structural and functional consequences of loricrin mutations in human loricrin keratoderma (Vohwinkel syndrome with ichthyosis)
    Matthias Schmuth
    Dermatology and Metabolism Medicine Services, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 122:909-22. 2004
    ..But in contrast to lamellar ichthyosis, the CE scaffold partially normalizes in the outer SC in loricrin keratoderma...
  25. ncbi request reprint Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-beta/delta stimulates differentiation and lipid accumulation in keratinocytes
    Matthias Schmuth
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 122:971-83. 2004
    ..Together, these studies indicate that PPAR-beta/delta activation stimulates keratinocyte differentiation, is anti-inflammatory, improves barrier homeostasis, and stimulates TG accumulation in keratinocytes...
  26. ncbi request reprint PPAR and LXR activators regulate ABCA12 expression in human keratinocytes
    Yan J Jiang
    Metabolism Section, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Northern California Institute for Research and Education, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 128:104-9. 2008
    ..Together, our data demonstrate that PPAR and LXR activators increase ABCA12 expression, providing an additional mechanism by which PPAR and LXR activators promote epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis...
  27. ncbi request reprint Basis for improved permeability barrier homeostasis induced by PPAR and LXR activators: liposensors stimulate lipid synthesis, lamellar body secretion, and post-secretory lipid processing
    Mao Qiang Man
    Department of Dermatology, University of California and VA Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 126:386-92. 2006
    ..Since the liposensors are activated by endogenous lipid metabolites, they may serve as unique regulators of barrier homeostasis...
  28. ncbi request reprint Regulation of ABCA1 expression in human keratinocytes and murine epidermis
    Yan J Jiang
    Metabolism Section, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Northern California Institute for Research and Education, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    J Lipid Res 47:2248-58. 2006
    ....
  29. doi request reprint PPARδ activation promotes stratum corneum formation and epidermal permeability barrier development during late gestation
    Yan J Jiang
    Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Metabolism Section, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 130:511-9. 2010
    ..These studies show that PPARdelta has a role in SC formation and permeability barrier development...
  30. ncbi request reprint Functional consequences of a neutral pH in neonatal rat stratum corneum
    Joachim W Fluhr
    Dermatology and Medical Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 123:140-51. 2004
    ..The delay in acidification of neonatal SC results in abnormalities in permeability barrier homeostasis and SC integrity and are likely due to pH-induced modulations in enzyme activity...
  31. ncbi request reprint Stratum corneum acidification is impaired in moderately aged human and murine skin
    Eung Ho Choi
    Department of Dermatology, University of California San Francisco and Dermatology Service, Veteran s Administration Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 127:2847-56. 2007
    ..These abnormalities were normalized by exogenously acidifying the SC, suggesting a basis for the well-known acidification therapies that are widely used to treat the pathologic xerosis/eczema seen in moderately aged humans...
  32. pmc The role of CD44 in cutaneous inflammation
    Mona Man
    Department of Dermatology, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Exp Dermatol 18:962-8. 2009
    ....
  33. pmc Acute modulations in permeability barrier function regulate epidermal cornification: role of caspase-14 and the protease-activated receptor type 2
    Marianne Demerjian
    Dermatology and Medical Metabolism Services, Veterans Administration Medical Center, 4510 Clement St, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Am J Pathol 172:86-97. 2008
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint Serine protease signaling of epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis
    Jean Pierre Hachem
    Department of Dermatology and Medical Services Metabolism, VA Medical Center, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 126:2074-86. 2006
    ....
  35. pmc pH-regulated mechanisms account for pigment-type differences in epidermal barrier function
    Roshan Gunathilake
    Department of Dermatology, Veteran Affairs Medical Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 129:1719-29. 2009
    ..These studies show marked pigment-type differences in epidermal structure and function that are pH driven...
  36. pmc Resveratrol stimulates sphingosine-1-phosphate signaling of cathelicidin production
    Kyungho Park
    Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 133:1942-9. 2013
    ..These results demonstrate that the dietary stilbenoid RESV stimulates S1P signaling of CAMP production through an NF-κB-->C/EBPα-dependent mechanism, leading to enhanced antimicrobial defense against exogenous microbial pathogens...
  37. pmc Psychological stress downregulates epidermal antimicrobial peptide expression and increases severity of cutaneous infections in mice
    Karin M Aberg
    Dermatology and Medical Metabolism Services, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and Department of Dermatology, UCSF, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Clin Invest 117:3339-49. 2007
    ..We believe this to be the first mechanistic link between PS and increased susceptibility to infection by microbial pathogens...
  38. ncbi request reprint Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in epidermal development in utero
    Matthias Schmuth
    Departments of Medicine Dermatology, University of California San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 119:1298-303. 2002
    ..The transient and incomplete nature of the developmental delay, however, is consistent with regulation of the late stages of epidermal development by multiple factors...
  39. ncbi request reprint Ceramides stimulate caspase-14 expression in human keratinocytes
    Yan J Jiang
    Metabolism Section, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Northern California Institute for Research and Education, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Exp Dermatol 22:113-8. 2013
    ..These studies show that ceramides, an important structural lipid, stimulate caspase-14 expression providing a mechanism for coordinately regulating the formation of lipid lamellar membranes with the formation of corneocytes...
  40. pmc A novel role of a lipid species, sphingosine-1-phosphate, in epithelial innate immunity
    Kyungho Park
    Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 33:752-62. 2013
    ....
  41. pmc Topical antihistamines display potent anti-inflammatory activity linked in part to enhanced permeability barrier function
    Tzu Kai Lin
    Dermatology Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and Department of Dermatology, UCSF, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 133:469-78. 2013
    ..These results could shift current paradigms of antihistamine utilization from a predominantly systemic to a topical approach...
  42. pmc Ablation of the calcium-sensing receptor in keratinocytes impairs epidermal differentiation and barrier function
    Chia Ling Tu
    Endocrine Unit, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 132:2350-9. 2012
    ..3%) diet. Deleting CaR perturbs the epidermal Ca(2+) gradient and impairs keratinocyte differentiation and permeability barrier homeostasis, indicating a key role for the CaR in normal epidermal development...
  43. pmc Regulation of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide expression by an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling, vitamin D receptor-independent pathway
    Kyungho Park
    Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:34121-30. 2011
    ..Hence, ER stress increases CAMP expression via NF-κB-C/EBPα activation, independent of VDR, illuminating a novel VDR-independent role for ER stress in stimulating innate immunity...
  44. pmc Vitamin D receptor and coactivators SRC2 and 3 regulate epidermis-specific sphingolipid production and permeability barrier formation
    Yuko Oda
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 129:1367-78. 2009
    ..In contrast, DRIP silencing had no apparent effect on these processes indicating that the two classes of coactivators are differentially utilized...
  45. pmc Epidermal vascular endothelial growth factor production is required for permeability barrier homeostasis, dermal angiogenesis, and the development of epidermal hyperplasia: implications for the pathogenesis of psoriasis
    Peter M Elias
    Dermatology Service 190, VA Medical Center, 4150 Clement St, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Am J Pathol 173:689-99. 2008
    ....
  46. pmc Regulation of ABCG1 expression in human keratinocytes and murine epidermis
    Yan J Jiang
    Metabolism Section, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Northern California Institute for Research and Education, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    J Lipid Res 51:3185-95. 2010
    ....
  47. pmc Focal adhesion kinase controls pH-dependent epidermal barrier homeostasis by regulating actin-directed Na+/H+ exchanger 1 plasma membrane localization
    Dusko Ilic
    Dermatology Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Am J Pathol 170:2055-67. 2007
    ..Thus, for plasma membrane localization in terminally differentiated keratinocytes, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 requires an intact actin cytoskeleton, which is impaired in FAK-deficient cells...
  48. ncbi request reprint Glucocorticoid blockade reverses psychological stress-induced abnormalities in epidermal structure and function
    Eung Ho Choi
    Dermatology and Medical Services Metabolism Section, Veteran Affairs Medical Center, 111F 4150 Clement St, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 291:R1657-62. 2006
    ....
  49. pmc Co-regulation and interdependence of the mammalian epidermal permeability and antimicrobial barriers
    Karin M Aberg
    Dermatology Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 128:917-25. 2008
    ..These studies demonstrate that (1) the permeability and antimicrobial barriers are coordinately regulated by permeability barrier requirements and (2) CRAMP is required for permeability barrier homeostasis...
  50. ncbi request reprint The effect of LXR activators on AP-1 proteins in keratinocytes
    Matthias Schmuth
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 123:41-8. 2004
    ..These results indicate that oxysterols induce specific AP-1 proteins, thereby activating involucrin, one of the genes required for epidermal differentiation...
  51. doi request reprint Thematic review series: skin lipids. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and liver X receptors in epidermal biology
    Matthias Schmuth
    Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Lipid Res 49:499-509. 2008
    ..Because of their broad profile of beneficial effects on skin homeostasis, PPAR and LXR have great potential to serve as drug targets for common skin diseases such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and skin cancer...
  52. ncbi request reprint Imiquimod-induced interleukin-1 alpha stimulation improves barrier homeostasis in aged murine epidermis
    Chantel O Barland
    Department of Dermatology, University of California at San Francisco, and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 122:330-6. 2004
    ....
  53. ncbi request reprint Neonatal development of the stratum corneum pH gradient: localization and mechanisms leading to emergence of optimal barrier function
    Martin J Behne
    Department of Dermatology, University of California San Francisco, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 120:998-1006. 2003
    ..Thus, full barrier competence appears to require the extension of acidification in microdomains from the SC/SG interface outward toward the skin surface in the immediate postnatal period...
  54. ncbi request reprint The regulation of permeability barrier homeostasis
    Kenneth R Feingold
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 127:1574-6. 2007
    ..Ikeyama and colleagues provide data that the nitric oxide signaling pathway also regulates barrier homeostasis...
  55. ncbi request reprint Sustained serine proteases activity by prolonged increase in pH leads to degradation of lipid processing enzymes and profound alterations of barrier function and stratum corneum integrity
    Jean Pierre Hachem
    Dermatology, VA Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 125:510-20. 2005
    ..In conclusion, prolonged SC neutralization provokes profound abnormalities in SC function, due to pH-induced high SP activity that, in turn, degrades lipid processing enzymes and CD proteins...
  56. ncbi request reprint Topical treatment with thiazolidinediones, activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, normalizes epidermal homeostasis in a murine hyperproliferative disease model
    Marianne Demerjian
    Department of Dermatology, University of California San Francisco and VA Medical Center, 4150 Clement Street, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Exp Dermatol 15:154-60. 2006
    ....
  57. ncbi request reprint IL-6 stimulates but is not essential for stratum corneum formation and permeability barrier development during gestation
    Yan J Jiang
    Metabolism Section, NCIRE, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Exp Dermatol 19:e31-6. 2010
    ..These low IL-6 levels may account, at least in part, for the absence of epidermal abnormalities in IL-6 KO mice. In conclusion, exogenous IL-6 accelerates epidermal ontogenesis, but it is not essential for normal epidermal maturation...
  58. ncbi request reprint Pathophysiologic basis for growth failure in children with ichthyosis: an evaluation of cutaneous ultrastructure, epidermal permeability barrier function, and energy expenditure
    David G Moskowitz
    Department of Dermatolog, University of California San Francisco, and the Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, 94143, USA
    J Pediatr 145:82-92. 2004
    ..Because an impaired epidermal permeability barrier is present in many of the ichthyoses, we examined the contribution of barrier failure to caloric requirements in children with ichthyosis and growth failure...
  59. pmc Abnormal skin barrier in the etiopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis
    Peter M Elias
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, 94121, USA
    Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 9:437-46. 2009
    ..We will review here emerging evidence that the inflammation in atopic dermatitis results from inherited and acquired insults to the barrier and the therapeutic implications of this new paradigm...
  60. ncbi request reprint pH directly regulates epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis, and stratum corneum integrity/cohesion
    Jean Pierre Hachem
    University of California San Francisco Medical Center, Department of Dermatology, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 121:345-53. 2003
    ....
  61. ncbi request reprint Fatty acid 2-hydroxylase, encoded by FA2H, accounts for differentiation-associated increase in 2-OH ceramides during keratinocyte differentiation
    Yoshikazu Uchida
    Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:13211-9. 2007
    ..Thus, late differentiation-linked increases in FA2H expression are essential for epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis...
  62. pmc Formation and functions of the corneocyte lipid envelope (CLE)
    Peter M Elias
    Dermatology Services, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Electronic address
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1841:314-8. 2014
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. Guest Editors: Kenneth R. Feingold and Peter Elias. ..
  63. ncbi request reprint NHE1 regulates the stratum corneum permeability barrier homeostasis. Microenvironment acidification assessed with fluorescence lifetime imaging
    Martin J Behne
    Dermatology Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:47399-406. 2002
    ....
  64. ncbi request reprint Is endogenous glycerol a determinant of stratum corneum hydration in humans?
    Eung Ho Choi
    Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 125:288-93. 2005
    ..These results also provide a rationale for the development of glycerol-containing therapeutic moisturizers...
  65. pmc Ichthyosis update: towards a function-driven model of pathogenesis of the disorders of cornification and the role of corneocyte proteins in these disorders
    Matthias Schmuth
    Department of Dermatology, University of California, VAMC Metabolism 111F, 4150 Clement Street, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Adv Dermatol 23:231-56. 2007
  66. doi request reprint Hydrolytic pathway protects against ceramide-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes exposed to UVB
    Yoshikazu Uchida
    Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 130:2472-80. 2010
    ..Thus, Cer → sphingosine → S1Pmetabolic conversion protects against UVB-induced, Cer-mediated apoptosis in keratinocytes, but excessive UVB overwhelms this mechanism, thereby leading to keratinocyte apoptosis...
  67. pmc The neuroendocrine peptide catestatin is a cutaneous antimicrobial and induced in the skin after injury
    Katherine A Radek
    Department of Dermatology, Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California 92161, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 128:1525-34. 2008
    ..JID JOURNAL CLUB ARTICLE: For questions, answers, and open discussion about this article please go to http://network.nature.com/group/jidclub...
  68. ncbi request reprint Glycerol regulates stratum corneum hydration in sebaceous gland deficient (asebia) mice
    Joachim W Fluhr
    Dermatology Services, Veterans Administration Medical Center, and Department of Dermatology University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 120:728-37. 2003
    ..These results show that sebaceous-gland-derived glycerol is a major contributor to stratum corneum hydration...
  69. ncbi request reprint Oxysterol stimulation of epidermal differentiation is mediated by liver X receptor-beta in murine epidermis
    Laszlo G Komuves
    Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 118:25-34. 2002
    ..The ability of oxysterols to reverse epidermal hyperplasia suggests that these agents could be beneficial for the treatment of skin disorders associated with hyperproliferation and/or altered differentiation...
  70. ncbi request reprint Scavenger receptor class B type I is expressed in cultured keratinocytes and epidermis. Regulation in response to changes in cholesterol homeostasis and barrier requirements
    Hiroki Tsuruoka
    Dermatology and Medical Metabolism Services, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:2916-22. 2002
    ..Second, the increase in SR-BI following barrier disruption suggests that SR-BI expression increases to facilitate cholesterol uptake leading to barrier restoration...
  71. ncbi request reprint LXR and PPAR activators stimulate cholesterol sulfotransferase type 2 isoform 1b in human keratinocytes
    Yan J Jiang
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    J Lipid Res 46:2657-66. 2005
    ..Thus, LXR and PPAR activators regulate the expression of SULT2B1b, the key enzyme in the synthesis of CS, which is a potent regulator of epidermal differentiation and corneocyte desquamation...
  72. pmc Pathogenesis of permeability barrier abnormalities in the ichthyoses: inherited disorders of lipid metabolism
    Peter M Elias
    Dermatology Services, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Lipid Res 49:697-714. 2008
    ..The barrier abnormality provokes the clinical phenotype in these disorders not only by stimulating epidermal proliferation, but also by inducing inflammation...
  73. pmc Basis for the barrier abnormality in atopic dermatitis: outside-inside-outside pathogenic mechanisms
    Peter M Elias
    Dermatology Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, Calif 94121, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 121:1337-43. 2008
    ..In this review we will assess emerging evidence that inflammation in AD results from inherited and acquired insults to the barrier and the therapeutic implications of this paradigm...
  74. ncbi request reprint Enlightened therapy of the disorders of cornification
    Mary L Williams
    Department of Dermatology, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco 94143, USA
    Clin Dermatol 21:269-73. 2003
  75. ncbi request reprint Topical peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha activators reduce inflammation in irritant and allergic contact dermatitis models
    Mary Y Sheu
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 118:94-101. 2002
    ....
  76. ncbi request reprint The skin barrier as an innate immune element
    Peter M Elias
    Department of Dermatology, University of California San Francisco Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Semin Immunopathol 29:3-14. 2007
    ..But antimicrobial peptide synthesis and delivery to the SC interstices accelerates after external insults to the barrier...
  77. pmc Leptin modulates the effects of acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase deficiency on murine fur and sebaceous glands
    Hubert C Chen
    Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, San Francisco, California 94141 9100, USA
    J Clin Invest 109:175-81. 2002
    ..Our findings indicate that DGAT1 plays an important role in normal fur and sebaceous gland physiology and provide evidence that leptin modulates these processes in the skin...
  78. pmc Skin barrier function
    Peter M Elias
    Dermatology Service 190, VA Medical Center, 4150 Clement Street, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 8:299-305. 2008
    ..Therapy based upon this new view of pathogenesis should emphasize approaches that correct the primary abnormality in barrier function, which drives downstream inflammation and allows unrestricted antigen access...
  79. pmc Barrier requirements as the evolutionary "driver" of epidermal pigmentation in humans
    Peter M Elias
    Dermatology Services, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California, USA
    Am J Hum Biol 22:526-37. 2010
    ..We summarize evidence here that epidermal interfollicular pigmentation in early hominids likely evolved in response to stress to the permeability barrier...
  80. ncbi request reprint Abnormal skin barrier in the etiopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis
    Peter M Elias
    Dermatology Service 190, VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 9:265-72. 2009
    ..This article reviews emerging evidence that the inflammation in AD results from inherited and acquired insults to the barrier, as well as the therapeutic implications of this new paradigm...
  81. ncbi request reprint Expression and regulation of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol- 3-phosphate acyltransferases in the epidermis
    Biao Lu
    Dermatology and Medicine Services, Veterans Administration Medical Center and University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    J Lipid Res 46:2448-57. 2005
    ..Because upregulation of mAGPAT mRNAs after tape-stripping could be partially reversed by artificial barrier restoration by occlusion, these studies suggest that an increase in the expression of AGPATs is linked to barrier requirements...
  82. ncbi request reprint Stimulation of PPARalpha promotes epidermal keratinocyte differentiation in vivo
    L G Kömüves
    Departments of Dermatology, Medicine, and Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 115:353-60. 2000
    ..We have also shown that this increase in gene expression requires an intact AP-1 response element at -2117 to -2111 bp. Thus, stimulation of PPARalpha stimulates keratinocyte/epidermal differentiation and inhibits proliferation...
  83. ncbi request reprint The ENaC channel is required for normal epidermal differentiation
    T Mauro
    Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 118:589-94. 2002
    ..These data suggest that the epithelial sodium channel modulates ionic signaling for specific aspects of epidermal differentiation, such as synthesis or processing of differentiation- specific proteins, and lipid secretion...
  84. pmc Differential regulation of epidermal function by VDR coactivators
    D D Bikle
    Endocrine Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 121:308-13. 2010
    ..These findings provide a basis by which we can understand how one receptor (VDR) and one ligand (1,25(OH)2D3) can regulate a large number of genes in a sequential and differentiation specific fashion...
  85. ncbi request reprint The calcium sensing receptor and its alternatively spliced form in murine epidermal differentiation
    Y Oda
    Department of Medicine and Dermatology, University of California San Francisco, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Biol Chem 275:1183-90. 2000
    ..These results indicate that CaR is important in epidermal differentiation, and that the alternatively spliced form does not fully compensate for loss of the full-length CaR...
  86. ncbi request reprint Epithelial sodium channels are upregulated during epidermal differentiation
    Y Oda
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, VA Medical Center San Francisco, 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 113:796-801. 1999
    ....
  87. ncbi request reprint Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors reduce phorbol ester-induced cutaneous inflammation and hyperplasia
    W M Holleran
    Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco
    Arch Dermatol Res 289:138-44. 1997
    ..Moreover, the delivery of this class of inhibitors across intact stratum corneum implies that MMP inhibition could provide an approach to the topical treatment of inflammatory dermatoses...
  88. ncbi request reprint Mice lacking 25OHD 1alpha-hydroxylase demonstrate decreased epidermal differentiation and barrier function
    D D Bikle
    Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, 4150 Clement Street 111N, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 89:347-53. 2004
    ..Thus 1,25(OH)(2)D is essential for normal epidermal differentiation, most likely by inducing the proteins and mediating the calcium signaling in the epidermis required for the generation and maintenance of the barrier...
  89. ncbi request reprint 25 Hydroxyvitamin D 1 alpha-hydroxylase is required for optimal epidermal differentiation and permeability barrier homeostasis
    D D Bikle
    Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of California, San Francisco 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 122:984-92. 2004
    ....
  90. ncbi request reprint Cholesterol sulfate stimulates involucrin transcription in keratinocytes by increasing Fra-1, Fra-2, and Jun D
    K Hanley
    Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    J Lipid Res 42:390-8. 2001
    ..S. He, P. Lau, A. Moser, P. M. Elias, D. D. Bikle, M. L. Williams, and K. R. Feingold. Cholesterol sulfate stimulates involucrin transcription in keratinocytes by increasing Fra-1, Fra-2, and Jun D. J. Lipid Res. 2001. 42: 390--398...
  91. ncbi request reprint Testosterone perturbs epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis
    J S Kao
    Dermatology and Medical Services (Metabolism, VAMC, Department of Dermatology, UCSF, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 116:443-51. 2001
    ..These studies demonstrate that fluctuations in testosterone modulate barrier function, and that testosterone repletion can have negative consequences for permeability barrier homeostasis...
  92. ncbi request reprint Extracellular pH Controls NHE1 expression in epidermis and keratinocytes: implications for barrier repair
    J P Hachem
    Dermatology and Medical Services Metabolism, VA Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 125:790-7. 2005
    ..3 medium. These data suggest that the keratinocyte NHE1 is regulated by extracellular pH. SC barrier break also upregulates NHE1 expression, but this response seems to be mediated by concomitant changes in SC pH...
  93. ncbi request reprint Pathogenesis of the permeability barrier abnormality in epidermolytic hyperkeratosis
    M Schmuth
    Internal Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 117:837-47. 2001
    ....
  94. ncbi request reprint Parallel regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 and the enzymes of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis but not ceramide synthesis in cultured human keratinocytes and murine epidermis
    I R Harris
    Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco 94121, USA
    J Lipid Res 39:412-22. 1998
    ..In contrast, SPT appears to be regulated by different mechanisms, consistent with the different time course of its stimulation after barrier disruption...
  95. ncbi request reprint Glucocorticoid deficiency delays stratum corneum maturation in the fetal mouse
    K Hanley
    Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0316, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 111:440-4. 1998
    ..These data demonstrate that fetal glucocorticoid deficiency delays SC maturation, and suggests that normal levels of glucocorticoids are not absolutely required for SC development...
  96. ncbi request reprint Permeability barrier requirements regulate epidermal beta-glucocerebrosidase
    W M Holleran
    Department of Dermatology, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco
    J Lipid Res 35:905-12. 1994
    ..These results indicate that epidermal processing of GlcCer to Cer by GlcCer'ase is required for barrier homeostasis, and that this important enzymatic step is regulated by barrier requirements...
  97. ncbi request reprint Farnesol stimulates differentiation in epidermal keratinocytes via PPARalpha
    K Hanley
    Departments of Dermatology, University of California San Francisco, School of Medicine, California 94143, USA
    J Biol Chem 275:11484-91. 2000
    ..These findings suggest a novel role for selected isoprenoid cholesterol intermediates in the regulation of differentiation-specific gene transcription and a convergence of PPARalpha with the cholesterol synthetic pathway...
  98. ncbi request reprint Generation of free fatty acids from phospholipids regulates stratum corneum acidification and integrity
    J W Fluhr
    Dermatology Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 117:44-51. 2001
    ....
  99. pmc Desmoglein isoform distribution affects stratum corneum structure and function
    P M Elias
    Department of Dermatology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    J Cell Biol 153:243-9. 2001
    ..These data demonstrate that differential expression of desmoglein isoforms affects the major function of epidermis, the permeability barrier, by altering the structure of the stratum corneum...
  100. pmc Consequences of beta-glucocerebrosidase deficiency in epidermis. Ultrastructure and permeability barrier alterations in Gaucher disease
    W M Holleran
    Department of Dermatology, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco 94143
    J Clin Invest 93:1756-64. 1994
    ..Glucocerebrosidase therefore appears necessary for the generation of membranes of sufficient functional competence for epidermal barrier function...
  101. ncbi request reprint Vitamin C stimulates sphingolipid production and markers of barrier formation in submerged human keratinocyte cultures
    Y Uchida
    Dermatology Service and Research Unit, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 117:1307-13. 2001
    ..Thus, in submerged human keratinocytes, vitamin C induces both increased sphingolipid production and enhancement of permeability barrier structural markers...