E I Eger

Summary

Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint The convulsant and anesthetic properties of cis-trans isomers of 1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane and 1,2-dichloroethylene
    E I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 93:922-7. 2001
  2. ncbi request reprint Age, minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration, and minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration-awake
    E I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 93:947-53. 2001
  3. pmc Is a new paradigm needed to explain how inhaled anesthetics produce immobility?
    Edmond I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 107:832-48. 2008
  4. ncbi request reprint Anesthetic properties of some fluorinated oxolanes and oxetanes
    Edmond I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 104:1090-7, tables of contents. 2007
  5. ncbi request reprint Acetylcholine receptors do not mediate the immobilization produced by inhaled anesthetics
    Edmond I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 94:1500-4, table of contents. 2002
  6. ncbi request reprint Isoflurane antagonizes the capacity of flurothyl or 1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane to impair fear conditioning to context and tone
    Edmond I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0464
    Anesth Analg 96:1010-8, table of contents. 2003
  7. ncbi request reprint Halothane and isoflurane have additive minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) effects in rats
    Edmond I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
    Anesth Analg 96:1350-3, table of contents. 2003
  8. ncbi request reprint Alpha-2 adrenoreceptors probably do not mediate the immobility produced by inhaled anesthetics
    Edmond I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 96:1661-4, table of contents. 2003
  9. doi request reprint Inhaled anesthetics do not combine to produce synergistic effects regarding minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration in rats
    Edmond I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia, S 455, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 107:479-85. 2008
  10. ncbi request reprint Anaesthesia defined (gentlemen, this is no humbug)
    Edmond I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 20:23-9. 2006

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications93

  1. ncbi request reprint The convulsant and anesthetic properties of cis-trans isomers of 1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane and 1,2-dichloroethylene
    E I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 93:922-7. 2001
    ..These isomeric effects may be as useful in defining receptor-anesthetic interactions as those found with optical isomers...
  2. ncbi request reprint Age, minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration, and minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration-awake
    E I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 93:947-53. 2001
    ..This article provides an algorithm that might be used to produce such a display, including provision of an estimate of the effect of nitrous oxide...
  3. pmc Is a new paradigm needed to explain how inhaled anesthetics produce immobility?
    Edmond I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 107:832-48. 2008
    ..A few plausible targets (e.g., sodium channels) merit further study, but there remains the possibility that immobilization results from a nonspecific mechanism...
  4. ncbi request reprint Anesthetic properties of some fluorinated oxolanes and oxetanes
    Edmond I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 104:1090-7, tables of contents. 2007
    ..Sevoflurane also can produce convulsions and postoperative agitation...
  5. ncbi request reprint Acetylcholine receptors do not mediate the immobilization produced by inhaled anesthetics
    Edmond I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 94:1500-4, table of contents. 2002
    ..We conclude that acetylcholine receptors do not seem to play a role as mediators of immobilization by inhaled anesthetics...
  6. ncbi request reprint Isoflurane antagonizes the capacity of flurothyl or 1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane to impair fear conditioning to context and tone
    Edmond I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0464
    Anesth Analg 96:1010-8, table of contents. 2003
    ..We conclude that conventional inhaled anesthetics and nonimmobilizers impair learning and memory by different mechanisms. The basis for this impairment remains unknown...
  7. ncbi request reprint Halothane and isoflurane have additive minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) effects in rats
    Edmond I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
    Anesth Analg 96:1350-3, table of contents. 2003
    ..These results suggest that the immobility produced by inhaled anesthetics need not result from their capacity to suppress transmission through dorsal horn neurons...
  8. ncbi request reprint Alpha-2 adrenoreceptors probably do not mediate the immobility produced by inhaled anesthetics
    Edmond I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 96:1661-4, table of contents. 2003
    ..Doses five-fold larger did not change MAC. Doses 10-fold larger decreased MAC. We conclude that alpha-adrenoreceptors do not or minimally mediate the capacity of inhaled anesthetics to produce immobility...
  9. doi request reprint Inhaled anesthetics do not combine to produce synergistic effects regarding minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration in rats
    Edmond I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia, S 455, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 107:479-85. 2008
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Anaesthesia defined (gentlemen, this is no humbug)
    Edmond I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 20:23-9. 2006
    ..These and myriad other changes produced by inhaled anaesthetics are side effects; they do not define anaesthesia; only immobility and amnesia supply such a definition...
  11. ncbi request reprint Women appear to have the same minimum alveolar concentration as men: a retrospective study
    Edmond I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
    Anesthesiology 99:1059-61. 2003
    ..The authors assessed whether this finding applied to other/all anesthetics...
  12. ncbi request reprint Contrasting roles of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in the production of immobilization by conventional and aromatic anesthetics
    Edmond I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 102:1397-406. 2006
    ..We conclude that some aromatic anesthetics may produce immobility in the face of noxious stimulation by blocking the action of glutamate on NMDA receptors but that conventional inhaled anesthetics do not...
  13. ncbi request reprint Characteristics of anesthetic agents used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia
    Edmond I Eger
    Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0464, USA
    Am J Health Syst Pharm 61:S3-10. 2004
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Illustrations of inhaled anesthetic uptake, including intertissue diffusion to and from fat
    Edmond I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, S 455, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 100:1020-33. 2005
    ..We hope that these illustrations will allow anesthesia practitioners to appreciate the interactions of the factors that govern inhaled anesthetic pharmacokinetics...
  15. ncbi request reprint Mouse strain modestly influences minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration and convulsivity of inhaled compounds
    J M Sonner
    Department of Anesthesia, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 89:1030-4. 1999
    ....
  16. ncbi request reprint Nonimmobilizers and transitional compounds may produce convulsions by two mechanisms
    E I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 88:884-92. 1999
    ..Implications: Nonimmobilizers and transitional compounds may produce convulsions by two mechanisms. One correlates with lipophilicity (nonpolarity), and the other correlates with an action on GABA(A) receptors...
  17. ncbi request reprint Beta3-containing gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptors are not major targets for the amnesic and immobilizing actions of isoflurane
    Mark Liao
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 101:412-8, table of contents. 2005
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Blockade of acetylcholine receptors does not change the dose of etomidate required to produce immobility in rats
    Yi Zhang
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 104:850-2. 2007
    ..Sub-MAC concentrations of isoflurane alone profoundly block acetylcholine receptors, allowing for the possibility that atropine and mecamylamine have no effect because the receptors already are blocked...
  19. ncbi request reprint Recovery and kinetic characteristics of desflurane and sevoflurane in volunteers after 8-h exposure, including kinetics of degradation products
    E I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0464, USA
    Anesthesiology 87:517-26. 1997
    ..The authors determined the kinetic characteristics of desflurane and sevoflurane and those of compound A [CH2F-O-C(=CF2)(CF3)], a nephrotoxic degradation product of sevoflurane...
  20. ncbi request reprint Both cerebral GABA(A) receptors and spinal GABA(A) receptors modulate the capacity of isoflurane to produce immobility
    Y Zhang
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, California
    Anesth Analg 92:1585-9. 2001
    ....
  21. ncbi request reprint Desflurane and nitrous oxide, but not nonimmobilizers, affect nociceptive responses
    J Sonner
    Department of Anesthesia, University of California San Francisco, 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 86:629-34. 1998
    ..In addition, we found that 0.1 MAC desflurane had a hyperalgesic effect (shortened TFL)...
  22. ncbi request reprint Hypothesis: volatile anesthetics produce immobility by acting on two sites approximately five carbon atoms apart
    E I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 88:1395-400. 1999
    ..This reasoning suggests that a distance equivalent to a four or five carbon atom chain, approximately 5 A, separates the two sites...
  23. ncbi request reprint Neither GABA(A) nor strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors are the sole mediators of MAC for isoflurane
    Y Zhang
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 92:123-7. 2001
    ..They are not, however, the only receptors that contribute to isoflurane-induced immobility (i.e., that determine the MAC of isoflurane)...
  24. ncbi request reprint Ethanol concentrations approaching minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration are required to suppress learning in a fear-potentiated startle paradigm in rats
    J M Sonner
    Department of Anesthesia, University of California San Francisco, 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 87:1398-403. 1998
    ..This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that the capacity of anesthetics and nonimmobilizers to impair learning and memory depends mostly on an action at a nonpolar site...
  25. ncbi request reprint Desflurane and the nonimmobilizer 1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane suppress learning by a mechanism independent of the level of unconditioned stimulation
    J M Sonner
    Department of Anesthesia, University of California San Francisco 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 87:200-5. 1998
    ..We conclude that suppression of learning and memory by desflurane and 2N does not result from decreased sensitivity to the unconditioned stimulus (the footshock) and that the potency of 2N is consistent with its lipophilicity...
  26. ncbi request reprint Spinal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors may contribute to the immobilizing action of isoflurane
    Caroline Stabernack
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, 94143, USA
    Anesth Analg 96:102-7, table of contents. 2003
    ..Because neither IT nor IV MK 801 provide complete anesthesia, these findings also call into question the notion that NMDA blockade alone suffices to produce anesthesia as defined by immobility in the face of noxious stimulation...
  27. ncbi request reprint Forty-hertz midlatency auditory evoked potential activity predicts wakeful response during desflurane and propofol anesthesia in volunteers
    R C Dutton
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California San Francisco, 94143 0464, USA
    Anesthesiology 91:1209-20. 1999
    ..The authors sought midlatency auditory evoked potential indices that successfully differentiated wakeful responsiveness and unconsciousness...
  28. ncbi request reprint Cardiovascular effects of I653 in swine
    R B Weiskopf
    Department of Anesthesia, University of California, San Francisco
    Anesthesiology 69:303-9. 1988
    ..2 MAC, 120 +/- 4 at 1.6 MAC). Systemic vascular resistance increased slightly at 1.6 MAC compared to the values at 0.8 and 1.2 MAC, but was always less than in the conscious condition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  29. ncbi request reprint I-653 resists degradation in rats
    D D Koblin
    Department of Anesthesia, Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94121
    Anesth Analg 67:534-8. 1988
    ..The relative stability of I-653 indicates that it may possess minimal toxic properties...
  30. ncbi request reprint Mutation of KCNK5 or Kir3.2 potassium channels in mice does not change minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration
    Karin M Gerstin
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco 94110, USA
    Anesth Analg 96:1345-9, table of contents. 2003
    ..In addition, we found that the weaver mice did not differ from control mice in their susceptibility to convulsions from the nonimmobilizers flurothyl [di-(2,2,2,-trifluoroethyl)ether] or 2N (1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane)...
  31. ncbi request reprint Acetylcholine receptors and thresholds for convulsions from flurothyl and 1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane
    Edmond I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
    Anesth Analg 95:1611-5, table of contents. 2002
    ..00091 atm and 0.062 atm for flurothyl and 2N, respectively) that approximate those that produce convulsions (0.0015 atm and 0.04 atm)...
  32. ncbi request reprint Glycine receptors mediate part of the immobility produced by inhaled anesthetics
    Yi Zhang
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, 94143, USA
    Anesth Analg 96:97-101, table of contents. 2003
    ..82). These results support the hypothesis that glycine receptors mediate part of the immobilization produced by inhaled anesthetics...
  33. ncbi request reprint Halothane, but not the nonimmobilizers perfluoropentane and 1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane, depresses synaptic transmission in hippocampal CA1 neurons in rats
    D M Taylor
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0648, USA
    Anesth Analg 89:1040-5. 1999
    ..IMPLICATIONS: Halothane, but not the nonimmobilizers 1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane and perfluoropentane, inhibits hippocampal synaptic transmission at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses...
  34. ncbi request reprint The concentration of isoflurane required to suppress learning depends on the type of learning
    R C Dutton
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California San Francisco, 94143 0464, USA
    Anesthesiology 94:514-9. 2001
    ..To determine whether these types of learning were differentially affected by anesthesia, the authors applied isoflurane during the training phases of fear conditioning paradigms for freezing to context and freezing to tone...
  35. ncbi request reprint Naturally occurring variability in anesthetic potency among inbred mouse strains
    J M Sonner
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 91:720-6. 2000
    ..Our results suggest that multiple genes underlie the observed variability in anesthetic potency...
  36. ncbi request reprint The effect of rigidity, shape, unsaturation, and length on the anesthetic potency of hydrocarbons
    E I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 92:1477-82. 2001
    ..0055 atm) and that 3-hexyne was more potent (MAC 0.0146 +/- 0.0014 atm) than n-hexane (MAC 0.0467 +/- 0.0055 atm). We conclude that the site of anesthetic action can accommodate straight rigid structures of up to six carbons in length...
  37. ncbi request reprint Repetitive rapid increases in desflurane concentration blunt transient cardiovascular stimulation in humans
    R B Weiskopf
    Department of Anesthesia, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0648
    Anesthesiology 81:843-9. 1994
    ..We hypothesized that the initial increase in concentration would produce greater changes than subsequent increases...
  38. ncbi request reprint Thiopental produces immobility primarily by supraspinal actions in rats
    Caroline Stabernack
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, S 455, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 100:128-36. 2005
    ..We conclude that, unlike inhaled anesthetics, the immobilizing action of thiopental is largely supraspinal. Centers in the brain other than those near the third and fourth ventricles produce the greatest effect...
  39. ncbi request reprint Hexafluorobenzene acts in the spinal cord, whereas o-difluorobenzene acts in both brain and spinal cord, to produce immobility
    Joseph F Antognini
    Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Anesth Analg 104:822-8. 2007
    ..We sought to test such an applicability by determining whether the cord mediated the immobilizing effects of two aromatic anesthetics that differ greatly in their ability to block N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors...
  40. ncbi request reprint The excitatory and inhibitory effects of nitrous oxide on spinal neuronal responses to noxious stimulation
    Joseph F Antognini
    Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Anesth Analg 104:829-35. 2007
    ..We hypothesized that, like other inhaled anesthetics, N2O would depress spinal neuronal responses to noxious stimulation...
  41. ncbi request reprint Alterations in spinal, but not cerebral, cerebrospinal fluid Na+ concentrations affect the isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration in rats
    Michael J Laster
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 105:661-5. 2007
    ..Accordingly, in the present study, we examined the effect of altering intrathecal versus intracerebroventricular concentrations of Na+ on MAC...
  42. ncbi request reprint Gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptors do not mediate the immobility produced by isoflurane
    Yi Zhang
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 99:85-90. 2004
    ..This supports the view that GABAA receptors do not mediate immobilization for isoflurane...
  43. ncbi request reprint Changing from isoflurane to desflurane toward the end of anesthesia does not accelerate recovery in humans
    M A Neumann
    Department of Anesthesia, University of California, San Francisco, 94143, USA
    Anesthesiology 88:914-21. 1998
    ..The authors tried to determine whether substituting desflurane for isoflurane in the last 30 min of a 120-min anesthetic would accelerate recovery...
  44. ncbi request reprint Luciferase as a model for the site of inhaled anesthetic action
    Y Zhang
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 93:1246-52. 2001
    ..Luciferase may not provide a good surrogate for the site at which anesthetics act...
  45. pmc A method for recording single unit activity in lumbar spinal cord in rats anesthetized with nitrous oxide in a hyperbaric chamber
    Joseph F Antognini
    Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of California, Davis, TB 170, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Neurosci Methods 160:215-22. 2007
    ..This technique is well-suited to study actions of weak anesthetics such as N(2)O and Xe at working pressures of 4-5 atm or greater. The safety of such pressures depends on the wall thickness and chamber diameter...
  46. pmc Increases in spinal cerebrospinal fluid potassium concentration do not increase isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration in rats
    Dimitry Shnayderman
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 107:879-84. 2008
    ..Accordingly, in the present study, we examined the effect of altering intrathecal concentrations of K(+) on MAC...
  47. ncbi request reprint Tutorial: context-sensitive decrement times for inhaled anesthetics
    Edmond I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia, S 455, University of California San Francisco, CA 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 101:688-96, table of contents. 2005
    ..These changes are shown to be the result of the relative solubility of each anesthetic in blood and tissue. An increase in cardiac output is also shown to delay awakening...
  48. ncbi request reprint The use of the potassium channel activator riluzole to test whether potassium channels mediate the capacity of isoflurane to produce immobility
    Yilei Xing
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco 94110, USA
    Anesth Analg 97:1020-4, table of contents. 2003
    ..We conclude that although riluzole exhibited anesthetic effects, the similar dose response from IV or intrathecal infusion suggests systemic absorption and actions in the brain rather than the spinal cord...
  49. ncbi request reprint Halothane depresses C-fiber-evoked windup of deep dorsal horn neurons in mice
    Jason M Cuellar
    Section of Neurobiology, Physiology and Behavior, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Neurosci Lett 363:207-11. 2004
    ..9 to 1.1 MAC decreased windup (-35+/-7%, P<0.01). We conclude that halothane depresses neuronal windup in the range that prevents movement, and that the effect on windup might play a role in halothane's immobilizing action...
  50. doi request reprint Increasing the duration of isoflurane anesthesia decreases the minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration in 7-day-old but not in 60-day-old rats
    Greg Stratmann
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Anesth Analg 109:801-6. 2009
    ..After 15 min of anesthesia in 7-day-old rats, MAC was 3.5% compared with 1.3% at 4 h. We investigated whether kinetic or dynamic factors mediated this decrease...
  51. ncbi request reprint Chirality in anesthesia II: stereoselective modulation of ion channel function by secondary alcohol enantiomers
    Robert Brosnan
    Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, USA
    Anesth Analg 103:86-91, table of contents. 2006
    ..We recommend that enantioselectivity not be used as a test of relevance for inhaled anesthetic targets...
  52. ncbi request reprint Effect of isoflurane and other potent inhaled anesthetics on minimum alveolar concentration, learning, and the righting reflex in mice engineered to express alpha1 gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors unresponsive to isoflurane
    James M Sonner
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0464, USA
    Anesthesiology 106:107-13. 2007
    ..To test this, the authors created gene knock-in mice harboring mutations that render the receptors insensitive to isoflurane while preserving sensitivity to halothane...
  53. ncbi request reprint Temporal summation governs part of the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane anesthesia
    Robert C Dutton
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0464, USA
    Anesthesiology 98:1372-7. 2003
    ..General anesthesia may delay the onset of movement in response to noxious stimulation. The authors hypothesized that the production of immobility could involve depression of time-related processes involved in the generation of movement...
  54. ncbi request reprint Cyclosporine can increase isoflurane MAC
    Claus U Niemann
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Anesth Analg 95:930-4, table of contents. 2002
    ..Cyclosporine did not significantly increase HPWL. Contrary to our hypotheses, cyclosporine increases rather than decreases MAC, but does not confer appreciable analgesia...
  55. ncbi request reprint Isoflurane causes anterograde but not retrograde amnesia for pavlovian fear conditioning
    Robert C Dutton
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0464, USA
    Anesthesiology 96:1223-9. 2002
    ..Such disruption would allow suppression of memory of previous untoward events. The authors examined whether isoflurane provides retrograde amnesia for classic (Pavlovian) fear conditioning...
  56. ncbi request reprint Short-term memory resists the depressant effect of the nonimmobilizer 1-2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane (2N) more than long-term memory
    Robert C Dutton
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 94:631-9; table of contents. 2002
    ..5% 2N does not preclude transmission of tone and shock signals to the site where tone-shock associations are formed...
  57. ncbi request reprint A brief history of the origin of minimum alveolar concentration (MAC)
    Edmond I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia, University of California, San Francisco, 94143 0464, USA
    Anesthesiology 96:238-9. 2002
  58. ncbi request reprint Anesthetic properties of the ketone bodies beta-hydroxybutyric acid and acetone
    Liya Yang
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 105:673-9. 2007
    ..We tested the hypothesis that two metabolites that are elevated in ketosis (beta-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetone) modulate ion channels in a manner similar to anesthetics and produce anesthesia in animals...
  59. pmc Knockout of the gene encoding the K(2P) channel KCNK7 does not alter volatile anesthetic sensitivity
    C Spencer Yost
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, Medical Sciences Building, 513 Parnassus Avenue, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Behav Brain Res 193:192-6. 2008
    ..Additional studies with transgenic animals will help define the overall role of the K(2P) channels in normal neurophysiology and in volatile anesthetic mechanisms...
  60. pmc Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha 4 subunit knockout mice are resistant to the amnestic effect of isoflurane
    Vinuta Rau
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 109:1816-22. 2009
    ..GABA(A)-Rs containing the alpha4 subunit are highly concentrated in the hippocampus and thalamus, and when combined with delta subunits they mediate tonic inhibition, which is sensitive to low concentrations of isoflurane...
  61. pmc Isoflurane suppresses stress-enhanced fear learning in a rodent model of post-traumatic stress disorder
    Vinuta Rau
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0464, USA
    Anesthesiology 110:487-95. 2009
    ..Subsequent exposure to a single foot shock produces an enhanced fear response. This effect is akin to sensitized reactions shown by some post-traumatic stress disorder patients to cues previously associated with the traumatic event...
  62. ncbi request reprint Inhaled anesthetics and immobility: mechanisms, mysteries, and minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration
    James M Sonner
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    Anesth Analg 97:718-40. 2003
    ..g., gamma-aminobutyric acid A, acetylcholine, potassium, 5-hydroxytryptamine-3, opioids, and alpha(2)-adrenergic), whereas other receptors/channels (e.g., glycine, N-methyl-D-aspartate, and sodium) remain credible candidates...
  63. ncbi request reprint Naloxone does not increase the minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration of sevoflurane in mice
    Mark Liao
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 102:1452-5. 2006
    ..1% and 5.5% +/- 10.0% with the administration of 0.1 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg of naloxone. We do not find that naloxone increases MAC. Opioid receptors do not underlie a portion of the capacity of inhaled anesthetics to produce immobility...
  64. pmc Alpha 1 subunit-containing GABA type A receptors in forebrain contribute to the effect of inhaled anesthetics on conditioned fear
    James M Sonner
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 68:61-8. 2005
    ..These results indicate that alpha1-containing GABA(A)-Rs in the hippocampus, amygdala, and/or cortex influence the amnestic effects of inhaled anesthetics and may be an important molecular target of the drug isoflurane...
  65. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of spinal protein kinase C-epsilon or -gamma isozymes does not affect halothane minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration in rats
    Jennifer A Shumilla
    Department of Anesthesia, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Anesth Analg 99:82-4. 2004
    ....
  66. ncbi request reprint Solubility of volatile anesthetics in bovine white matter, cortical gray matter, thalamus, hippocampus, and hypothalamic area
    Mireille A Neumann
    Department of Anesthesia and Periopertive Care, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 100:1003-6. 2005
    ..These data may be useful in defining the parts of the brain involved with return to consciousness during recovery from anesthesia...
  67. ncbi request reprint Administration of epinephrine does not increase learning of fear to tone in rats anesthetized with isoflurane or desflurane
    James M Sonner
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care S 455, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 100:1333-7, table of contents. 2005
    ..36 +/- 0.04 MAC in rats injected with 0.1 mg/kg of epinephrine i.p. We conclude that exogenous epinephrine does not decrease amnesia produced by inhaled isoflurane or desflurane, as assessed by fear conditioning to a tone in rats...
  68. ncbi request reprint The effect of three inhaled anesthetics in mice harboring mutations in the GluR6 (kainate) receptor gene
    James M Sonner
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 101:143-8, table of contents. 2005
    ..The mutations of GluR6 that were studied did not affect the capacity of isoflurane to interfere with fear conditioning...
  69. ncbi request reprint Insulin decreases isoflurane minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration in rats independently of an effect on the spinal cord
    Yilei Xing
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 98:1712-7, table of contents. 2004
    ..The sites at which insulin acts to decrease MAC appear to be supraspinal rather than spinal. The effect may be due to a capacity of insulin to produce analgesia through an action on one or more neurotransmitter receptors...
  70. ncbi request reprint Effect of nitrous oxide on folate and vitamin B12 metabolism in patients
    D D Koblin
    Department of Anesthesia, Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121
    Anesth Analg 71:610-7. 1990
    ..Although an occasional patient may prove highly susceptible to and develop signs of severe vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency after exposure to N2O, our findings suggest that this is a rare event...
  71. doi request reprint Obesity modestly affects inhaled anesthetic kinetics in humans
    Hendrikus J M Lemmens
    Department of Anesthesia, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Anesth Analg 107:1864-70. 2008
    ..This hypothesis implies that the effect of obesity would be greater with a more soluble anesthetic such as isoflurane versus desflurane...
  72. ncbi request reprint Do N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors mediate the capacity of inhaled anesthetics to suppress the temporal summation that contributes to minimum alveolar concentration?
    Robert C Dutton
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 102:1412-8. 2006
    ..NMDA receptor blockade may contribute to the MAC produced by inhaled anesthetics that potently inhibit NMDA receptors in vitro but not those that have a limited in vitro effect...
  73. ncbi request reprint Temperatures in soda lime during degradation of desflurane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane by desiccated soda lime
    Michael J Laster
    Department of Anesthesia, S 455, University of California San Francisco, CA 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 101:753-7, table of contents. 2005
    ..The use of 2 canisters increased the duration but not the peak of increased temperature reached with 3.0 MAC sevoflurane. No fires resulted from degradation of any anesthetic...
  74. ncbi request reprint Blockade of 5-HT2A receptors may mediate or modulate part of the immobility produced by inhaled anesthetics
    Yi Zhang
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Anesth Analg 97:475-9, table of contents. 2003
    ..However, because MAC for isoflurane is predominantly determined in the spinal cord, this result is consistent at most with a minor contribution of these receptors to the immobilizing action of isoflurane...
  75. ncbi request reprint Do dopamine receptors mediate part of MAC?
    Yasumasa Tanifuji
    Department of Anesthesia, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 103:1177-81. 2006
    ..Such findings suggest that dopamine receptors might mediate part of the capacity of inhaled anesthetics to provide immobility in the face of noxious stimulation...
  76. ncbi request reprint Temporal and spatial determinants of sacral dorsal horn neuronal windup in relation to isoflurane-induced immobility
    Robert C Dutton
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    Anesth Analg 105:1665-74, table of contents. 2007
    ....
  77. ncbi request reprint Sevoflurane degradation by carbon dioxide absorbents may produce more than one nephrotoxic compound in rats
    Caroline R Stabernack
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, and the Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
    Can J Anaesth 50:249-52. 2003
    ..In rats, compound A can produce renal corticomedullary necrosis. We tested whether other compounds produced by sevoflurane degradation also could produce corticomedullary necrosis...
  78. ncbi request reprint Mouse chromosome 7 harbors a quantitative trait locus for isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration
    Michael Cascio
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 105:381-5. 2007
    ..The location on the genome of genes or other genetic elements controlling quantiative traits is called quantitative trait loci (QTLs). In this study we sought to detect a quantitative trait locus underlying isoflurane MAC in mice...
  79. ncbi request reprint Anesthetic properties of carbon dioxide in the rat
    Robert J Brosnan
    Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Anesth Analg 105:103-6. 2007
    ..Carbon dioxide decreases halothane minimum alveolar concentrations (MAC) in dogs when Paco(2) exceeds 95 mm Hg. We sought to confirm these findings for several potent inhaled anesthetics in rats...
  80. ncbi request reprint Propofol's effects on nociceptive behavior and spinal c-fos expression after intraplantar formalin injection in mice with a mutation in the gamma-aminobutyric acid-type(A) receptor beta3 subunit
    Austin W Merrill
    Section of Neurobiology, Physiology and Behavior, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Anesth Analg 103:478-83, table of contents. 2006
    ..These data indicate that although propofol produces anesthesia, it does not prevent the FLI that is associated with nociception, a finding consistent with propofol lacking analgesic properties...
  81. ncbi request reprint The ventilatory stimulant doxapram inhibits TASK tandem pore (K2P) potassium channel function but does not affect minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration
    Joseph F Cotten
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California San Francisco, USA
    Anesth Analg 102:779-85. 2006
    ..Our data indicate that TASK-1 and TASK-3 do not play a role in mediating the immobility produced by halothane, although they are plausible molecular targets for the ventilatory effects of doxapram...
  82. ncbi request reprint Mice with a melanocortin 1 receptor mutation have a slightly greater minimum alveolar concentration than control mice
    Yilei Xing
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0464, USA
    Anesthesiology 101:544-6. 2004
  83. pmc The clinical use of desflurane
    E I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia, University of California, San Francisco 94143-0464
    Yale J Biol Med 66:491-500. 1993
    ..The qualitative exceptions to this resemblence are that desflurane is more pungent and produces a greater increase in heart rate, particularly at deeper levels of anesthesia...
  84. ncbi request reprint Chirality in anesthesia I: minimum alveolar concentration of secondary alcohol enantiomers
    Albert Won
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, S 455, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 103:81-4, table of contents. 2006
    ..No stereoselectivity was observed for 2-hexanol and 2-heptanol. These findings may permit studies of chirality in anesthesia, particularly in in vitro systems where metabolism does not occur, using inexpensive volatile compounds...
  85. ncbi request reprint R (+) etomidate and the photoactivable R (+) azietomidate have comparable anesthetic activity in wild-type mice and comparably decreased activity in mice with a N265M point mutation in the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor beta3 subunit
    Mark Liao
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, S 455, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 101:131-5, table of contents. 2005
    ..6 +/- 1.5 min and 7.2 +/- 1.8 min, respectively), emphasizing the contribution of this residue as a determinant of a behavioral response of azietomidate in mice...
  86. doi request reprint Is synergy the rule? A review of anesthetic interactions producing hypnosis and immobility
    Jan F A Hendrickx
    Department of Anesthesia, Onze Lieve Vrouw Hospital, Moorselbaan 164, 9300 Aalst, Belgium
    Anesth Analg 107:494-506. 2008
    ..We applied this reasoning in a review of published data on anesthetic drug interactions for the end-points of hypnosis and immobility...
  87. ncbi request reprint Sevoflurane decreases bispectral index values more than does halothane at equal MAC multiples
    Hildebrand S Schwab
    Department of Anesthesia, University Clinics Basel, CH 4031 Basel, Switzerland
    Anesth Analg 99:1723-7, table of contents. 2004
    ..0001). This finding adds to other evidence indicating that BIS is drug specific...
  88. ncbi request reprint Isoflurane depresses windup of C fiber-evoked limb withdrawal with variable effects on nociceptive lumbar spinal neurons in rats
    Steven L Jinks
    Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of California Davis, One Shields Drive, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Anesth Analg 99:1413-9; table of contents. 2004
    ..7 MAC value at 0.9, 1.1, and 1.4 MAC, respectively. Isoflurane depressed excitability and variably affected windup of lumbar spinal cord neurons, while uniformly depressing windup of limb withdrawals in a concentration-dependent manner...
  89. pmc The effects of volatile aromatic anesthetics on voltage-gated Na+ channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes
    Takafumi Horishita
    Waggoner Center for Alcohol and Addiction Research, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station A4800, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Anesth Analg 107:1579-86. 2008
    ..In the present study we tested whether diverse aromatic anesthetics consistently inhibit sodium channel function...
  90. pmc General anesthetics have additive actions on three ligand gated ion channels
    Andrew Jenkins
    Department of Anesthesiology, Emory University School of Medicine, 1462 Clifton Rd NE Suite 420, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Anesth Analg 107:486-93. 2008
    ....
  91. pmc Intrathecal veratridine administration increases minimum alveolar concentration in rats
    Yi Zhang
    Department of Anesthesiology, Fuwai Hospital and Cardiovascular Institute, Beijing, China
    Anesth Analg 107:875-8. 2008
    ..We hypothesized that the intrathecal administration of veratridine, a drug that enhances the activity or effect of sodium channels, should increase MAC...
  92. doi request reprint Additivity versus synergy: a theoretical analysis of implications for anesthetic mechanisms
    Steven L Shafer
    Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University Medical Center, 622 W 168th St, PH 5 505, New York, NY 10032 3725, USA
    Anesth Analg 107:507-24. 2008
    ..Synergy implies multiple sites of action by definition. In this essay, we explore the converse: does additivity imply a single site of action?..
  93. ncbi request reprint Determination of the EC50 amnesic concentration of etomidate and its diffusion profile in brain tissue: implications for in vitro studies
    Claudia Benkwitz
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53711, USA
    Anesthesiology 106:114-23. 2007
    ..However, the free aqueous concentration of etomidate that corresponds to amnesia in vivo and the diffusion profile of etomidate in brain slices are not known...