G L Drusano

Summary

Affiliation: University of Florida
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Pharmacodynamic analysis of a serine protease inhibitor, MK-4519, against hepatitis C virus using a novel in vitro pharmacodynamic system
    Ashley N Brown
    Institute for Therapeutic Innovation, College of Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Florida Albany Campus, Albany, New York, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:1170-81. 2012
  2. pmc Resistance emergence mechanism and mechanism of resistance suppression by tobramycin for cefepime for Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    G L Drusano
    Ordway Research Institute, Albany, New York, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:231-42. 2012
  3. pmc Impact of granulocytes on the antimicrobial effect of tedizolid in a mouse thigh infection model
    G L Drusano
    Emerging Infections and Pharmacodynamics Laboratory, Ordway Research Institute, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:5300-5. 2011
  4. pmc The combination of meropenem and levofloxacin is synergistic with respect to both Pseudomonas aeruginosa kill rate and resistance suppression
    Arnold Louie
    Ordway Research Institute, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:2646-54. 2010
  5. pmc Interaction between fluconazole and amphotericin B in mice with systemic infection due to fluconazole-susceptible or -resistant strains of Candida albicans
    A Louie
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43:2841-7. 1999
  6. pmc Use of an in vitro pharmacodynamic model to derive a moxifloxacin regimen that optimizes kill of Yersinia pestis and prevents emergence of resistance
    A Louie
    Ordway Research Institute, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:822-30. 2011
  7. pmc Impact of different carbapenems and regimens of administration on resistance emergence for three isogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with differing mechanisms of resistance
    Arnold Louie
    Ordway Research Institute, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:2638-45. 2010
  8. pmc In vivo pharmacodynamics of torezolid phosphate (TR-701), a new oxazolidinone antibiotic, against methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in a mouse thigh infection model
    Arnold Louie
    Emerging Infections and Pharmacodynamics Laboratory, Ordway Research Institute, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:3453-60. 2011
  9. pmc Use of an in vitro pharmacodynamic model to derive a linezolid regimen that optimizes bacterial kill and prevents emergence of resistance in Bacillus anthracis
    A Louie
    Ordway Research Institute, 150 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:2486-96. 2008
  10. pmc Pharmacodynamics of β-lactamase inhibition by NXL104 in combination with ceftaroline: examining organisms with multiple types of β-lactamases
    Arnold Louie
    Ordway Research Institute, Emerging Infections Pharmacodynamics Laboratory, Albany, New York, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:258-70. 2012

Detail Information

Publications52

  1. pmc Pharmacodynamic analysis of a serine protease inhibitor, MK-4519, against hepatitis C virus using a novel in vitro pharmacodynamic system
    Ashley N Brown
    Institute for Therapeutic Innovation, College of Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Florida Albany Campus, Albany, New York, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:1170-81. 2012
    ..In summary, our findings show that the BelloCell system is a useful and clinically relevant tool for predicting optimal dosage regimens for anti-HCV compounds...
  2. pmc Resistance emergence mechanism and mechanism of resistance suppression by tobramycin for cefepime for Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    G L Drusano
    Ordway Research Institute, Albany, New York, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:231-42. 2012
    ..For P. aeruginosa resistance suppression, combination therapy is critical...
  3. pmc Impact of granulocytes on the antimicrobial effect of tedizolid in a mouse thigh infection model
    G L Drusano
    Emerging Infections and Pharmacodynamics Laboratory, Ordway Research Institute, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:5300-5. 2011
    ..The majority of the bacterial cell killing in normal animals was attributable to the effect of TR-700 mediated through granulocytes. Additional studies need to be undertaken to elucidate the mechanism underlying this observation...
  4. pmc The combination of meropenem and levofloxacin is synergistic with respect to both Pseudomonas aeruginosa kill rate and resistance suppression
    Arnold Louie
    Ordway Research Institute, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:2646-54. 2010
    ..This combination should be evaluated in a clinical trial...
  5. pmc Interaction between fluconazole and amphotericin B in mice with systemic infection due to fluconazole-susceptible or -resistant strains of Candida albicans
    A Louie
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43:2841-7. 1999
    ..These results suggest that the combination of Flu and AmB should be used with caution in infections due to fungi that are usually susceptible to both antifungal agents and as empirical antifungal drug therapy...
  6. pmc Use of an in vitro pharmacodynamic model to derive a moxifloxacin regimen that optimizes kill of Yersinia pestis and prevents emergence of resistance
    A Louie
    Ordway Research Institute, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:822-30. 2011
    ..pestis infections in humans. Studies of moxifloxacin in animal models of plague are warranted...
  7. pmc Impact of different carbapenems and regimens of administration on resistance emergence for three isogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with differing mechanisms of resistance
    Arnold Louie
    Ordway Research Institute, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:2638-45. 2010
    ..For the wild-type organism, the 1-g, 4-h infusion regimen is preferred. For organisms with resistance mutations, larger doses or addition of a second drug should be studied...
  8. pmc In vivo pharmacodynamics of torezolid phosphate (TR-701), a new oxazolidinone antibiotic, against methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in a mouse thigh infection model
    Arnold Louie
    Emerging Infections and Pharmacodynamics Laboratory, Ordway Research Institute, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:3453-60. 2011
    ..Dose fractionation studies showed that AUC/MIC was the pharmacodynamic index linked with efficacy, indicating that once-daily dosing in humans is feasible...
  9. pmc Use of an in vitro pharmacodynamic model to derive a linezolid regimen that optimizes bacterial kill and prevents emergence of resistance in Bacillus anthracis
    A Louie
    Ordway Research Institute, 150 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:2486-96. 2008
    ..The lower dosage for the pharmacodynamically optimized regimen may decrease drug toxicity. Also, the QD administration schedule may improve patient compliance...
  10. pmc Pharmacodynamics of β-lactamase inhibition by NXL104 in combination with ceftaroline: examining organisms with multiple types of β-lactamases
    Arnold Louie
    Ordway Research Institute, Emerging Infections Pharmacodynamics Laboratory, Albany, New York, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:258-70. 2012
    ..This combination dosing regimen should allow for optimal bacterial cell kill (highest likelihood of successful clinical outcome) and the suppression of resistance emergence...
  11. pmc Differing effects of combination chemotherapy with meropenem and tobramycin on cell kill and suppression of resistance of wild-type Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and its isogenic MexAB efflux pump-overexpressed mutant
    G L Drusano
    Ordway Research Institute, 150 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:2266-73. 2009
    ..When resistance suppression is explored by combination chemotherapy, it is important to examine the impacts of differing resistance mechanisms for both agents...
  12. pmc Pharmacodynamics of fluconazole in a murine model of systemic candidiasis
    A Louie
    Department of Medicine, Albany Medical College, New York 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42:1105-9. 1998
    ..Thus, dose-fractionation studies demonstrated that the pharmacodynamic parameter of fluconazole that best predicted outcome was the AUC/MIC ratio...
  13. doi request reprint Impact of short-course quinolone therapy on susceptible and resistant populations of Staphylococcus aureus
    G L Drusano
    Emerging Infections and Host Defense Laboratory, Ordway Research Institute, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    J Infect Dis 199:219-26. 2009
    ..Ultimately, the susceptible population became dominant by day 13. Modeling demonstrated that the resistant isolates grew more slowly and had a higher natural death rate...
  14. pmc Is 60 days of ciprofloxacin administration necessary for postexposure prophylaxis for Bacillus anthracis?
    G L Drusano
    Ordway Research Institute, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:3973-9. 2008
    ....
  15. pmc Pharmacodynamics of daptomycin in a murine thigh model of Staphylococcus aureus infection
    A Louie
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:845-51. 2001
    ..5, 5.6, and 15 mg/kg i.p., showed no difference in effect at each total 24-h dose level by schedule, indicating that the AUC/MIC ratio is the dynamically linked variable...
  16. pmc Meropenem penetration into epithelial lining fluid in mice and humans and delineation of exposure targets
    G L Drusano
    Ordway Research Institute, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:3406-12. 2011
    ..Combination chemotherapy is likely required in humans if we are to minimize resistance emergence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. This combination needs evaluation both in the murine pneumonia model and in humans...
  17. pmc Nucleoside analog 1592U89 and human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor 141W94 are synergistic in vitro
    G L Drusano
    Departments of Medicine and Pharmacology Albany Medical College, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42:2153-9. 1998
    ..These data, with favorable findings from phase I/II trials for each drug alone, suggest that the combination of 1592U89 plus 141W94 should be further evaluated in clinical trials...
  18. pmc Modeling combinations of antiretroviral agents in vitro with integration of pharmacokinetics: guidance in regimen choice for clinical trial evaluation
    G L Drusano
    Department of Medicine, Albany Medical College, New York 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 40:1143-7. 1996
    ....
  19. pmc Impact of burden on granulocyte clearance of bacteria in a mouse thigh infection model
    G L Drusano
    Ordway Research Institute, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:4368-72. 2010
    ..aureus. Bacterial kill by granulocytes is saturable. No difference between saturation points of different isolates was seen. A higher bacterial burden means an increasing reliance on chemotherapy to drive bacterial clearance...
  20. pmc Use of preclinical data for selection of a phase II/III dose for evernimicin and identification of a preclinical MIC breakpoint
    G L Drusano
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:13-22. 2001
    ..aureus), 1 log killing (enterococci), or 90% E(max) AUC/MIC targets. This same approach may also be used to set preliminary in vitro MIC breakpoints...
  21. pmc Mathematical modeling of the interrelationship of CD4 lymphocyte count and viral load changes induced by the protease inhibitor indinavir
    G L Drusano
    Department of Medicine, Albany Medical College, New York 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42:358-61. 1998
    ....
  22. pmc Pharmacodynamics of levofloxacin in a murine pneumonia model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection: determination of epithelial lining fluid targets
    Arnold Louie
    Emerging Infections and Pharmacodynamics Laboratory, Ordway Research Institute, 150 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:3325-30. 2009
    ..More isolates need to be studied to make these observations more robust...
  23. pmc Use of drug effect interaction modeling with Monte Carlo simulation to examine the impact of dosing interval on the projected antiviral activity of the combination of abacavir and amprenavir
    G L Drusano
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44:1655-9. 2000
    ..This approach may be helpful in the preclinical evaluation of multidrug anti-infective regimens...
  24. pmc Impact of spore biology on the rate of kill and suppression of resistance in Bacillus anthracis
    G L Drusano
    Ordway Research Institute, 150 New Scotland Ave, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:4718-25. 2009
    ..Spore biology has a major impact on drug therapy and resistance suppression. These findings explain why all drugs of different classes have approximately the same rate of organism clearance for Bacillus anthracis...
  25. pmc Flow cytometric determination of ganciclovir susceptibilities of human cytomegalovirus clinical isolates
    J M McSharry
    Albany Medical College, New York 12208, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 36:958-64. 1998
    ..The flow cytometric assay for determining ganciclovir susceptibility of HCMV is quantitative, and objective, and potentially automatable, and its results are reproducible among laboratories...
  26. ncbi request reprint Hollow-fiber unit evaluation of a new human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitor, BMS-232632, for determination of the linked pharmacodynamic variable
    G L Drusano
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Research Institute, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    J Infect Dis 183:1126-9. 2001
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint Impact of drug-exposure intensity and duration of therapy on the emergence of Staphylococcus aureus resistance to a quinolone antimicrobial
    V H Tam
    Emerging Infections and Host Defense Laboratory, Ordway Research Institute, Albany, NY, USA
    J Infect Dis 195:1818-27. 2007
    ..All of the prospectively determined predictions were fulfilled in this validation experiment...
  28. ncbi request reprint Factors influencing the emergence of resistance to indinavir: role of virologic, immunologic, and pharmacologic variables
    G L Drusano
    Albany Medical College, New York 12208, USA
    J Infect Dis 178:360-7. 1998
    ..The goal of therapy should be to decrease the HIV-1 RNA load to a less-than-detectable level...
  29. pmc Effect of administration of moxifloxacin plus rifampin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis for 7 of 7 days versus 5 of 7 days in an in vitro pharmacodynamic system
    G L Drusano
    Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infections, Ordway Research Institute, Albany, New York, USA
    MBio 2:e00108-11. 2011
    ..This is particularly true for the portion of the population where the clearance is higher (1 SD above the mean)...
  30. pmc Penetration of meropenem into epithelial lining fluid of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia
    T P Lodise
    Ordway Research Institute, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:1606-10. 2011
    ....
  31. pmc Efficacies of high-dose fluconazole plus amphotericin B and high-dose fluconazole plus 5-fluorocytosine versus amphotericin B, fluconazole, and 5-fluorocytosine monotherapies in treatment of experimental endocarditis, endophthalmitis, and pyelonephritis d
    A Louie
    Divisions of Infectious Diseases, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43:2831-40. 1999
    ..03). However, as in the kidney, AmB plus Flu demonstrated antagonism versus AmB monotherapy in the treatment of C. albicans endocarditis (P < 0.05, P = 0.036, and P < 0.008 on days 5, 14, and 21, respectively)...
  32. pmc Identification of optimal renal dosage adjustments for traditional and extended-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam dosing regimens in hospitalized patients
    N Patel
    Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:460-5. 2010
    ..The CL(CR) adjustments for traditional and extended-infusion TZP dosing regimens should be considered at a CL(CR) of <or=20 ml/min...
  33. pmc Optimization of aminoglycoside therapy
    G L Drusano
    Ordway Research Institute, 150 New Scotland Ave, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:2528-31. 2011
    ..Furthermore, daily administration is much preferred, and stopping therapy as quickly as possible (a week or less may be optimal) will contribute to the ability to optimize therapy...
  34. pmc Saturability of granulocyte kill of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a murine model of pneumonia
    G L Drusano
    Ordway Research Institute, 150 New Scotland Ave, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:2693-5. 2011
    ..These findings suggest the need for aggressive chemotherapy early in the treatment of VAP to keep the burden from saturating the granulocytes. This should optimize the outcome for these seriously infected patients...
  35. ncbi request reprint The crisis of resistance: identifying drug exposures to suppress amplification of resistant mutant subpopulations
    G L Drusano
    Ordway Research Institute, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 42:525-32. 2006
    ..In each instance, quinolone antimicrobials were examined. More investigations with other pathogens and drug classes are required...
  36. pmc A population pharmacokinetic analysis of the penetration of the prostate by levofloxacin
    G L Drusano
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Departments of Medicine and Pharmacology, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44:2046-51. 2000
    ..14 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.20 to 19.6. Over 70% of the population had a penetration ratio in excess of 1.0. Levofloxacin adequately penetrates a noninflamed prostate and should be evaluated for the therapy of prostatitis...
  37. ncbi request reprint Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antimicrobials
    G L Drusano
    Ordway Research Institute, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 45:S89-95. 2007
    ..Use of Monte Carlo simulation allows identification of drug doses in the clinical arena to accomplish these ends. Such approaches should be applied to all old and new antibacterial agents...
  38. doi request reprint Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics: optimal antimicrobial therapy in the intensive care unit
    Thomas P Lodise
    Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, NY, USA
    Crit Care Clin 27:1-18. 2011
    ..Finally, we examine combination chemotherapy and strategies for optimizing the administration of multiple agents...
  39. pmc Impact of different factors on the probability of clinical response in tigecycline-treated patients with intra-abdominal infections
    S M Bhavnani
    Institute for Clinical Pharmacodynamics, Ordway Research Institute, 43 British American Blvd, Latham, NY 12110, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:1207-12. 2010
    ..594. These findings demonstrated the impact of individual and multiple factors on clinical response in the context of drug exposure...
  40. pmc Rapid ganciclovir susceptibility assay using flow cytometry for human cytomegalovirus clinical isolates
    J J McSharry
    Albany Medical College, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42:2326-31. 1998
    ..473; P = 0.001), suggesting that the flow cytometry assay could substitute for the more labor-intensive, subjective, and time-consuming plaque reduction assay...
  41. pmc Effective antimicrobial regimens for use in humans for therapy of Bacillus anthracis infections and postexposure prophylaxis
    Mark R Deziel
    Ordway Research Institute, 150 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:5099-106. 2005
    ..g., the release of pathogens as agents of bioterrorism or emerging infectious diseases) where human trials cannot be performed. A treatment regimen effective in rhesus monkeys was identified...
  42. pmc Pharmacokinetics and absolute bioavailability of ribavirin in healthy volunteers as determined by stable-isotope methodology
    S L Preston
    Department of Medicine, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43:2451-6. 1999
    ..The study demonstrated that the mean bioavailability for a 400-mg dose of ribavirin was 52%, which is higher than that previously reported in other investigations...
  43. pmc Pharmacodynamic evaluation of extending the administration time of meropenem using a Monte Carlo simulation
    Ben M Lomaestro
    Albany Medical Center Hospital, 43 New Scotland Ave, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:461-3. 2005
    ..5 g of imipenem-cilastatin (I-C) q6h (1-h infusion). For other pathogens, 500 mg of MEM q8h was equivalent or superior to I-C...
  44. ncbi request reprint Prevention of resistance: a goal for dose selection for antimicrobial agents
    G L Drusano
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Research Institute, Albany Medical College and New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 36:S42-50. 2003
    ..We can do better with our choices of dose, schedule, and combinations of agents. We will need to lower the probability of resistance and maintain the utility of the drugs currently in our therapeutic armamentarium...
  45. pmc Pharmacodynamic evaluation of RWJ-270201, a novel neuraminidase inhibitor, in a lethal murine model of influenza predicts efficacy for once-daily dosing
    G L Drusano
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Research Initiative, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:2115-8. 2001
    ..This indicates that AUC is the linked variable and that the anti-influenza effect of RWJ-270201 is independent of schedule. We conclude that once-daily dosing of RWJ-270201 should be evaluated in clinical trials of influenza therapy...
  46. ncbi request reprint A 48-week duration of therapy with pegylated interferon alpha 2b plus ribavirin may be too short to maximize long-term response among patients infected with genotype-1 hepatitis C virus
    G L Drusano
    Ordway Research Institute, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    J Infect Dis 189:964-70. 2004
    ..For some patients, suboptimal therapy with pegylated IFN plus ribavirin may need to be of longer duration than the currently recommended 48 weeks. This hypothesis requires prospective validation...
  47. pmc Rational dose selection for a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor through use of population pharmacokinetic modeling and Monte Carlo simulation
    G L Drusano
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Research Institute, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:913-6. 2002
    ..This prediction was shown to be correct in a randomized, double-blind trial with 1 week of monotherapy with GW 420867X...
  48. pmc Larger vancomycin doses (at least four grams per day) are associated with an increased incidence of nephrotoxicity
    Thomas P Lodise
    Department of Pharmacy Practice, Albany College of Pharmacy, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:1330-6. 2008
    ..6 ml/min, and intensive care unit residence were independently associated with time to nephrotoxicity. The data suggest that higher-dose vancomycin regimens are associated with a higher likelihood of vancomycin-related nephrotoxicity...
  49. ncbi request reprint Relevance of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in the selection of antibiotics for respiratory tract infections
    G L Drusano
    Department of Medicine, Albany Medical College, New York 12208, USA
    J Chemother 9:38-44. 1997
    ..Knowledge of the pharmacodynamically-linked variables for different antibiotics allows optimization of dosage regimens and direct comparisons across agents for the same variables...
  50. pmc Optimal sampling schedule design for populations of patients
    Vincent H Tam
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Ordway Research Institute, Albany Medical College and New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:2888-91. 2003
    ..This allows the highest probability of delineating a pharmacodynamic relationship...
  51. pmc Levofloxacin penetration into epithelial lining fluid as determined by population pharmacokinetic modeling and monte carlo simulation
    G L Drusano
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Research Institute, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:586-9. 2002
    ..This analysis did not deal with inflammation, as it was performed in volunteers. The influence of lung pathology on penetration needs to be examined...
  52. pmc Susceptibilities of human cytomegalovirus clinical isolates to BAY38-4766, BAY43-9695, and ganciclovir
    J J McSharry
    Center for Immunology and Microbial Diseases, Albany Medical College, 47 New Scotland Ave, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:2925-7. 2001
    ..Using either assay, both BAY compounds at a concentration of approximately 1 microM inhibited the replication of all 36 HCMV clinical isolates, including 11 ganciclovir-resistant clinical isolates, by 50%...