Affiliation: University of Cincinnati
Country: USA


  1. Deepe G, Gibbons R, Ward S. Discordance between T-cell receptor expression and effector function in mice infected with Histoplasma capsulatum. Infect Immun. 2002;70:1648-52 pubmed
    ..Elimination of V beta 10(+) and V beta 14(+) cells from naive mice did not alter the course of infection over a period of 21 days. Thus, overexpression of V beta families does not necessarily signify a key role in host defense. ..
  2. Bueter C, Deepe G. Aeroallergens Exacerbate Histoplasma capsulatum Infection. J Immunol. 2018;201:3352-3361 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, an in vivo skewing toward Th2 by allergens exacerbates fungal infection, even though there is a concurrent and unimpaired Th1 response to H. capsulatum. ..
  3. Deepe G, Buesing W, Ostroff G, Abraham A, Specht C, Huang H, et al. Vaccination with an alkaline extract of Histoplasma capsulatum packaged in glucan particles confers protective immunity in mice. Vaccine. 2018;36:3359-3367 pubmed publisher
    ..Discovery of a single protein or a few proteins in this admixture that mediate protective immunity would represent significant progress in efforts to prevent histoplasmosis. ..
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    Deepe G, Romani L, Calich V, Huffnagle G, Arruda C, Molinari Madlum E, et al. Knockout mice as experimental models of virulence. Med Mycol. 2000;38 Suppl 1:87-98 pubmed
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    Deepe G. Preventative and therapeutic vaccines for fungal infections: from concept to implementation. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2004;3:701-9 pubmed
    ..The fungi under discussion in this review include Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Coccidioides spp., Histoplasma capsulatum, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Pneumocystis jirovecii. ..
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    Deepe G. Modulation of infection with Histoplasma capsulatum by inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha activity. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41 Suppl 3:S204-7 pubmed
    ..Recent reports indicate that, in humans, treatment with inhibitors of TNF-alpha is associated with disseminated histoplasmosis. Here, I review the mechanisms by which inhibition of TNF-alpha may exacerbate infection with H. capsulatum. ..
  7. Tweedle J, Deepe G. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Antagonism Reveals a Gut/Lung Axis That Amplifies Regulatory T Cells in a Pulmonary Fungal Infection. Infect Immun. 2018;86: pubmed publisher
    ..capsulatum-infected mice. Therefore, TNF neutralization promotes susceptibility to pulmonary H. capsulatum infection by promoting a gut/lung migration of DCs that enhances Tregs. ..
  8. Deepe G, Gibbons R. Cellular and molecular regulation of vaccination with heat shock protein 60 from Histoplasma capsulatum. Infect Immun. 2002;70:3759-67 pubmed
    ..These results delineate the complexity of the regulatory elements necessary for vaccination against this fungus. ..
  9. Deepe G, Buesing W. Deciphering the pathways of death of Histoplasma capsulatum-infected macrophages: implications for the immunopathogenesis of early infection. J Immunol. 2012;188:334-44 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. George M, Subramanian Vignesh K, Landero Figueroa J, Caruso J, Deepe G. Zinc Induces Dendritic Cell Tolerogenic Phenotype and Skews Regulatory T Cell-Th17 Balance. J Immunol. 2016;197:1864-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Zn shapes the tolerogenic potential of DCs in vitro and in vivo and promotes Tregs during fungal infection. ..
  2. Fecher R, Horwath M, Friedrich D, Rupp J, Deepe G. Inverse Correlation between IL-10 and HIF-1? in Macrophages Infected with Histoplasma capsulatum. J Immunol. 2016;197:565-79 pubmed publisher
    ..We established that transcriptional regulation of IL-10 by HIF-1? and CREB is critical for activation of M?s by IFN-? and effective handling of H. capsulatum. ..
  3. Deepe G, Gibbons R. Interleukins 17 and 23 influence the host response to Histoplasma capsulatum. J Infect Dis. 2009;200:142-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Generation of functional IL-17(+) cells is dependent on IL-6 and IL-10. Our findings also establish the existence a regulatory IL-17/IL-23 axis in histoplasmosis...
  4. Deepe G, Gibbons R, Smulian A. Histoplasma capsulatum manifests preferential invasion of phagocytic subpopulations in murine lungs. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;84:669-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal the complex nature of intracellular residence of this fungus. Moreover, the findings demonstrate that there is a skewing in the subpopulations of cells that are infected, especially DC...
  5. Subramanian Vignesh K, Deepe G. Immunological orchestration of zinc homeostasis: The battle between host mechanisms and pathogen defenses. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2016;611:66-78 pubmed publisher
  6. Deepe G, Gibbons R. TNF-alpha antagonism generates a population of antigen-specific CD4+CD25+ T cells that inhibit protective immunity in murine histoplasmosis. J Immunol. 2008;180:1088-97 pubmed
    ..Thus, neutralization of TNF-alpha is associated with the induction of a population of regulatory T cells that alter protective immunity in an Ag-specific manner to Histoplasma capsulatum...
  7. Xiong Y, Lingrel J, Wuthrich M, Klein B, Vasudevan N, Jain M, et al. Transcription Factor KLF2 in Dendritic Cells Downregulates Th2 Programming via the HIF-1?/Jagged2/Notch Axis. MBio. 2016;7: pubmed publisher
    ..Strategies to tune KLF2 may be useful for future therapeutic approaches to particular diseases of mankind. ..
  8. Deepe G, McGuinness M. Interleukin-1 and host control of pulmonary histoplasmosis. J Infect Dis. 2006;194:855-64 pubmed
    ..Conversely, interferon- gamma levels were decreased. Thus, IL-1 contributes to host resistance to infection with H. capsulatum. ..
  9. Subramanian Vignesh K, Landero Figueroa J, Porollo A, Divanovic S, Caruso J, Deepe G. IL-4 Induces Metallothionein 3- and SLC30A4-Dependent Increase in Intracellular Zn(2+) that Promotes Pathogen Persistence in Macrophages. Cell Rep. 2016;16:3232-3246 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, MT3 and SLC30A4 dictate the size of the labile Zn(2+) pool and promote the survival of a prototypical intracellular pathogen in M2 macrophages. ..
  10. Subramanian Vignesh K, Deepe G. Metallothioneins: Emerging Modulators in Immunity and Infection. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the mechanisms of MT induction and signaling in immune cells and explore the therapeutic potential of the MT-Zn axis in bolstering immune defenses against pathogens. ..
  11. Deepe G, Gibbons R. T cells require tumor necrosis factor-alpha to provide protective immunity in mice infected with Histoplasma capsulatum. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:322-30 pubmed
    ..T cells from infected, TNF-alpha-neutralized mice failed to protect T cell-deficient mice. The absence of TNF-alpha induces a defect in T cell-mediated protection. ..
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    Deepe G, Wuthrich M, Klein B. Progress in vaccination for histoplasmosis and blastomycosis: coping with cellular immunity. Med Mycol. 2005;43:381-9 pubmed
    ..More importantly, the studies summarized herein demonstrate that understanding the host response to a protein or mutant fungus is critical to creating a vaccine that may be useful for the immunocompromised patient...
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    Deepe G, Gibbons R. Protective and memory immunity to Histoplasma capsulatum in the absence of IL-10. J Immunol. 2003;171:5353-62 pubmed
    ..Memory cell generation was transiently increased in IL-10(-/-) mice, but the protective function conferred by cells from these mice following immunization is strikingly more vigorous than that of wild-type. ..