Jose de Leon

Summary

Affiliation: University of Kentucky
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Clobazam therapeutic drug monitoring: a comprehensive review of the literature with proposals to improve future studies
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, Kentucky 40508, USA
    Ther Drug Monit 35:30-47. 2013
  2. pmc Genetics of schizophrenia and smoking: an approach to studying their comorbidity based on epidemiological findings
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, 627 West Fourth St, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Hum Genet 131:877-901. 2012
  3. doi request reprint Interactions between antiepileptics and second-generation antipsychotics
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, 627 West Fourth St, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 8:311-34. 2012
  4. pmc Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence vs heavy smoking index in a general population survey
    M Pérez-Ríos
    Directorate General for Public Health, Galician Regional Health Authority, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
    BMC Public Health 9:493. 2009
  5. ncbi request reprint A study of genetic (CYP2D6 and ABCB1) and environmental (drug inhibitors and inducers) variables that may influence plasma risperidone levels
    J de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, Kentucky
    Pharmacopsychiatry 40:93-102. 2007
  6. ncbi request reprint DNA microarray technology in the clinical environment: the AmpliChip CYP450 test for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotyping
    Jose de Leon
    Mental Health Research Center, Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    CNS Spectr 14:19-34. 2009
  7. ncbi request reprint Variables associated with alcohol, drug, and daily smoking cessation in patients with severe mental illnesses
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, 627 West Fourth Street, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 66:1447-55. 2005
  8. ncbi request reprint Clinical guidelines for psychiatrists for the use of pharmacogenetic testing for CYP450 2D6 and CYP450 2C19
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Psychosomatics 47:75-85. 2006
  9. ncbi request reprint Polymorphic variations in GSTM1, GSTT1, PgP, CYP2D6, CYP3A5, and dopamine D2 and D3 receptors and their association with tardive dyskinesia in severe mental illness
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 25:448-56. 2005
  10. ncbi request reprint The AmpliChip CYP450 genotyping test: Integrating a new clinical tool
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, Kentucky 40508, USA
    Mol Diagn Ther 10:135-51. 2006

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications86

  1. pmc Clobazam therapeutic drug monitoring: a comprehensive review of the literature with proposals to improve future studies
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, Kentucky 40508, USA
    Ther Drug Monit 35:30-47. 2013
    ..Clobazam was recently approved for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in the United States. There is no published review article focused on clobazam therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in English...
  2. pmc Genetics of schizophrenia and smoking: an approach to studying their comorbidity based on epidemiological findings
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, 627 West Fourth St, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Hum Genet 131:877-901. 2012
    ....
  3. doi request reprint Interactions between antiepileptics and second-generation antipsychotics
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, 627 West Fourth St, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 8:311-34. 2012
    ..Some AED and SGAP pharmacodynamic mechanisms are poorly understood. AED-SGAP combinations are used for treating comorbid illnesses or increasing efficacy, particularly in bipolar disorder...
  4. pmc Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence vs heavy smoking index in a general population survey
    M Pérez-Ríos
    Directorate General for Public Health, Galician Regional Health Authority, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
    BMC Public Health 9:493. 2009
    ..A shorter test derived from the FTND used for the general population is the Heavy Smoking Index (HSI) (six questions vs. two). The objective of this study is to compare the validity of the HSI versus the FTND...
  5. ncbi request reprint A study of genetic (CYP2D6 and ABCB1) and environmental (drug inhibitors and inducers) variables that may influence plasma risperidone levels
    J de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, Kentucky
    Pharmacopsychiatry 40:93-102. 2007
    ..CYP inducers and inhibitors appear to be relevant to R dosing. New studies are needed, particularly to further assess the role of the CYP2D6 UM phenotype and ABCB1 variants in R pharmacokinetics...
  6. ncbi request reprint DNA microarray technology in the clinical environment: the AmpliChip CYP450 test for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotyping
    Jose de Leon
    Mental Health Research Center, Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    CNS Spectr 14:19-34. 2009
    ..The objectives of this study were to identify CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 alleles and phenotypes in a psychiatric patient population in Kentucky, and to describe practical issues associated with DNA microarray technology...
  7. ncbi request reprint Variables associated with alcohol, drug, and daily smoking cessation in patients with severe mental illnesses
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, 627 West Fourth Street, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 66:1447-55. 2005
    ..S. public health issue, although the role of tobacco is usually neglected. This study explored variables associated with alcohol, drug, and smoking cessation in a naturalistic setting...
  8. ncbi request reprint Clinical guidelines for psychiatrists for the use of pharmacogenetic testing for CYP450 2D6 and CYP450 2C19
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Psychosomatics 47:75-85. 2006
    ..Practical recommendations for dealing with laboratories offering CYP2D6 and CYP2C29 genotyping are provided...
  9. ncbi request reprint Polymorphic variations in GSTM1, GSTT1, PgP, CYP2D6, CYP3A5, and dopamine D2 and D3 receptors and their association with tardive dyskinesia in severe mental illness
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 25:448-56. 2005
    ..New studies need to replicate whether these or other genes could be used conjointly with clinical variables to identify subjects at risk for TD in clinical settings...
  10. ncbi request reprint The AmpliChip CYP450 genotyping test: Integrating a new clinical tool
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, Kentucky 40508, USA
    Mol Diagn Ther 10:135-51. 2006
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Does clozapine decrease smoking?
    Jose de Leon
    Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, 627 West Fourth St, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 29:757-62. 2005
    ..New prospective longitudinal studies using repeated cotinine and clozapine levels are needed to explore whether clozapine may reduce smoking in some patients...
  12. ncbi request reprint A meta-analysis of worldwide studies demonstrates an association between schizophrenia and tobacco smoking behaviors
    Jose de Leon
    Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, 627 West Fourth St, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Schizophr Res 76:135-57. 2005
    ..Thus, people who are going to develop schizophrenia have risk factors that make them more vulnerable to start smoking...
  13. ncbi request reprint The dosing of atypical antipsychotics
    Jose de Leon
    Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, 627 West Fourth St, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Psychosomatics 46:262-73. 2005
    ..Adding inducers may be associated with a gradual development of lost efficacy...
  14. doi request reprint Practical guidelines for the use of new generation antipsychotic drugs (except clozapine) in adult individuals with intellectual disabilities
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Res Dev Disabil 30:613-69. 2009
    ....
  15. ncbi request reprint AmpliChip CYP450 test: personalized medicine has arrived in psychiatry
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky, Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, 627 West Fourth St, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Expert Rev Mol Diagn 6:277-86. 2006
    ..In this review, the major obstacles to the wide implementation of pharmacogenetic testing in the clinical environment are summarized...
  16. ncbi request reprint Association between smoking and alcohol use in the general population: stable and unstable odds ratios across two years in two different countries
    Jose de Leon
    Uuniversity of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, 627 West Fourth St, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Alcohol Alcohol 42:252-7. 2007
    ..These comparisons may provide a rational basis for exploring the associations between alcohol and cigarette use that are influenced by changes in use prevalences...
  17. ncbi request reprint Planning for the optimal design of studies to personalize antipsychotic prescriptions in the post-CATIE era: the clinical and pharmacoepidemiological data suggest that pursuing the pharmacogenetics of metabolic syndrome complications (hypertension, diabet
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Schizophr Res 96:185-97. 2007
    ..It is hypothesized that it may be easier to design studies focusing on these three aspects than to design pharmacogenetic studies focusing on antipsychotic-induced weight gain or metabolic syndrome, which require long-term follow-up...
  18. ncbi request reprint A clinical study of the association of antipsychotics with hyperlipidemia
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY, USA
    Schizophr Res 92:95-102. 2007
    ..The effect sizes of olanzapine and quetiapine on hyperlipidemia were about 0.40 in this naturalistic study...
  19. ncbi request reprint Paradoxical excitation on diphenhydramine may be associated with being a CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizer: three case reports
    Jose de Leon
    Mental Health Research Center, Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY, USA
    CNS Spectr 13:133-5. 2008
    ..Although these are only three anecdotal cases of paradoxical excitation from three CYP2D6 UMs, the reports illustrate the need for larger, more formal studies of diphenhydramine responses in CYP2D6 UMs and of diphenhydramine metabolism...
  20. doi request reprint A preliminary attempt to personalize risperidone dosing using drug-drug interactions and genetics: part I
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center, Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Psychosomatics 49:258-70. 2008
    ..Personalized prescription is described even in lay journals, but there has been no attempt to propose personalizing dosing for any specific psychiatric drug...
  21. ncbi request reprint The effect of atypical versus typical antipsychotics on tardive dyskinesia: a naturalistic study
    Jose de Leon
    Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 257:169-72. 2007
    ..The aim was testing whether atypical antipsychotics (versus typicals) were associated with less risk of tardive dyskinesia (TD) in 516 severely mentally ill patients...
  22. doi request reprint A preliminary attempt to personalize risperidone dosing using drug-drug interactions and genetics: part II
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, 627 West 4th St, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Psychosomatics 49:347-61. 2008
  23. doi request reprint Pharmacogenomics: the promise of personalized medicine for CNS disorders
    Jose de Leon
    Mental Health Research Center, Eastern State Hospital, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 34:159-72. 2009
    ....
  24. ncbi request reprint Does smoking reduce akathisia? Testing a narrow version of the self-medication hypothesis
    Jose de Leon
    Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Schizophr Res 86:256-68. 2006
    ..A narrow version of the self-medication hypothesis, heavy smoking reduces akathisia, is explored...
  25. doi request reprint The future (or lack of future) of personalized prescription in psychiatry
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky, Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY 40508, United States
    Pharmacol Res 59:81-9. 2009
    ..Personalized dosing has immediate application if one understands it as the use of our current scientific knowledge of genetic, environmental and personal variables to determine dosing; its sole requirement is well-trained psychiatrists...
  26. ncbi request reprint A brief measure of high nicotine dependence for busy clinicians and large epidemiological surveys
    Francisco J Diaz
    Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Aust N Z J Psychiatry 39:161-8. 2005
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint The CYP2D6 poor metabolizer phenotype may be associated with risperidone adverse drug reactions and discontinuation
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 66:15-27. 2005
    ..CYP2D6 poor metabolizers have no CYP2D6 activity (7% of whites and 1%-2% of other races). This study tested whether the CYP2D6 poor metabolizer phenotype was associated with adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and discontinuation due to ADRs...
  28. ncbi request reprint Serum antimuscarinic activity during clozapine treatment
    Jose de Leon
    Mental Health Research Center, Eastern State Hospital, 627 West Fourth Street, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 23:336-41. 2003
    ..In vitro studies and new clinical studies are needed to verify whether norclozapine may significantly contribute to antimuscarinic activity during clozapine treatment...
  29. ncbi request reprint Glucuronidation enzymes, genes and psychiatry
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 6:57-72. 2003
    ..However, UGTs may be localized in certain brain areas to provide a neuroprotective function. This review illustrates the importance of glucuronidation and the implications for psychiatry...
  30. ncbi request reprint Polydipsia--a study in a long-term psychiatric unit
    Jose de Leon
    Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital and Department of Psychiatry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 253:37-9. 2003
    ..Polydipsic patients should not be switched to other atypical antipsychotics, unless new prospective studies prove that they are as effective as clozapine for polydipsia...
  31. doi request reprint Pharmacogenetic testing in psychiatry: a review of features and clinical realities
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, 627 West Fourth Street, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Clin Lab Med 28:599-617. 2008
    ..Finally, the future of these and other pharmacogenetic tests in psychiatry is discussed...
  32. ncbi request reprint A pilot study of plasma caffeine concentrations in a US sample of smoker and nonsmoker volunteers
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky UK Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, 627 West Fourth Street, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 27:165-71. 2003
    ..Additional studies are needed to replicate the model. This model may help epidemiologists to correct for the effects of smoking on caffeine intake and pharmacologists to screen for the activity of CYP1A2...
  33. ncbi request reprint Weight gain during a double-blind multidosage clozapine study
    Jose de Leon
    Mental Health Research Center, Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 27:22-7. 2007
    ..32, n = 43), but seems to be strongly correlated in nonsmokers. Despite its limitations, this study indicates that baseline BMI, dosing, and, possibly, the African-American race may be major determinants of clozapine-induced weight gain...
  34. ncbi request reprint Total cotinine in plasma: a stable biomarker for exposure to tobacco smoke
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, 40508, USA
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 22:496-501. 2002
    ..New studies of total cotinine in plasma using more than two blood collections during the day are needed to definitively establish that it is a stable biomarker for epidemiological studies...
  35. ncbi request reprint Polydipsia and schizophrenia in a psychiatric hospital: a replication study
    Jose de Leon
    Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, 627 West Fourth St, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Schizophr Res 57:293-301. 2002
    ..Psychiatric medications do not appear to explain most cases of polydipsia in these patients...
  36. ncbi request reprint Exploring genetic variations that may be associated with the direct effects of some antipsychotics on lipid levels
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky 40508, United States
    Schizophr Res 98:40-6. 2008
    ..These genes may be promising candidates for studies of the direct effects of some antipsychotics on hyperlipidemia...
  37. ncbi request reprint Exploring brief measures of nicotine dependence for epidemiological surveys
    Jose de Leon
    Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, 627 West Fourth Street, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Addict Behav 28:1481-6. 2003
    ..Researchers needing definition of nicotine dependence briefer than FTND may want to only use Items 1 and 4 of FTND with a cutting score > or = 4...
  38. ncbi request reprint Serious respiratory infections can increase clozapine levels and contribute to side effects: a case report
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, 627 West Fourth Street, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 27:1059-63. 2003
    ..If any of these signs appear, the psychiatrist may need to consider cutting the clozapine dose in half until the patient has recovered from the infection...
  39. ncbi request reprint Psychopharmacology: atypical antipsychotic dosing: the effect of co-medication with anticonvulsants
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, Kentucky 40508, USA
    Psychiatr Serv 55:125-8. 2004
  40. ncbi request reprint Paying attention to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms to progress in the area of anticholinergic use in geriatric patients
    J de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center and Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA
    Curr Drug Metab 12:635-46. 2011
    ..If one agrees that antimuscarinic ADRs are probably dose-related, future studies must consider all drugs, administration routes, doses, muscarinic receptor affinity, DDIs, and brain access...
  41. ncbi request reprint Haloperidol half-life after chronic dosing
    Jose de Leon
    Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY, USA
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 24:656-60. 2004
    ..This study suggests that haloperidol half-life following repeated drug administration is substantially more prolonged than what has been observed after acute haloperidol administration...
  42. ncbi request reprint Atypical antipsychotic dosing: the effect of smoking and caffeine
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, 627 West Fourth Street, Lexington, Kentucky 40508, USA
    Psychiatr Serv 55:491-3. 2004
  43. doi request reprint The pharmacokinetics of paliperidone versus risperidone
    Jose de Leon
    Mental Health Research Center, Eastern State Hospital, 627 West Fourth St, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Psychosomatics 51:80-8. 2010
    ..Several new atypical antipsychotics have become available for use, but knowledge about their pharmacology may not be widespread...
  44. ncbi request reprint Possible individual and gender differences in the small increases in plasma prolactin levels seen during clozapine treatment
    Jose de Leon
    Clinical Research Center, Norristown State Hospital, Norristown, PA, USA
    Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 254:318-25. 2004
    ..6) correlation between clozapine and prolactin levels. This study suggests that clozapine has effects on prolactin levels but effects are small and may be more evident in some individuals, particularly females...
  45. ncbi request reprint Lack of replication of the association of low serum cholesterol and attempted suicide in another country raises more questions
    Jose de Leon
    Mental Health Research Center, Eastern State Hospital, 627 West Fourth Street, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Ann Clin Psychiatry 23:163-70. 2011
    ..In 2 Spanish case-control studies, low cholesterol levels in males were consistently associated with suicide attempts...
  46. ncbi request reprint The association between high nicotine dependence and severe mental illness may be consistent across countries
    Jose de Leon
    Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 63:812-6. 2002
    ....
  47. ncbi request reprint Variables associated with high olanzapine dosing in a state hospital
    Sheila Botts
    Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 65:1138-43. 2004
    ..Many institutions target high-dose olanzapine prescribers in an effort to reduce unnecessary drug costs. However, factors such as smoking or gender may necessitate increased doses...
  48. ncbi request reprint Obesity and associated complications in patients with severe mental illnesses: a cross-sectional survey
    Margaret T Susce
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 66:167-73. 2005
    ....
  49. doi request reprint Estimating the effects of co-medications on plasma olanzapine concentrations by using a mixed model
    Sheila Botts
    College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Mental Health Research Center, Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY 40508, United States
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 32:1453-8. 2008
    ..Other limitations were the small sample size of some drug sub-samples and the lack of testing for plasma olanzapine metabolites...
  50. ncbi request reprint Schizophrenia and tobacco smoking: a replication study in another US psychiatric hospital
    Jose de Leon
    Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, 627 West Fourth Street, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Schizophr Res 56:55-65. 2002
    ..In summary, these two studies suggest that schizophrenia is strongly associated with smoking. Neither substance use, antipsychotics, nor institutionalism can explain this relationship...
  51. ncbi request reprint A poor metabolizer for cytochromes P450 2D6 and 2C19: a case report on antidepressant treatment
    Maria Johnson
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center, Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    CNS Spectr 11:757-60. 2006
    ..As genotyping reaches clinical practice, it will be interesting to prospectively establish whether mirtazapine is a reasonable choice as an antidepressant for these patients, as the data and this case suggest...
  52. ncbi request reprint Excessive antipsychotic dosing in 2 U.S. State hospitals
    Francisco J Diaz
    Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 63:998-1003. 2002
    ....
  53. doi request reprint Nicotine exposure can be detected in cerebrospinal fluid of active and passive smokers
    Ahmad H Malkawi
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 49:129-32. 2009
    ..6-81.1 ng/ml). The concentrations of cotinine in CSF samples suggests that nicotine easily passes into the CSF, which makes it an excellent CSF marker for tobacco-smoke exposure...
  54. ncbi request reprint Initiation of daily smoking and nicotine dependence in schizophrenia and mood disorders
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, 627 West Fourth St, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Schizophr Res 56:47-54. 2002
    ..Schizophrenia was associated with a greater probability of ever daily smoking than mood disorders and with higher rates of initiation of daily smoking after 20 years old...
  55. ncbi request reprint Fewer but heavier caffeine consumers in schizophrenia: a case-control study
    Manuel Gurpegui
    Department of Psychiatry and Institute of Neurosciences, University of Granada Medical School, Av Madrid 11, Granada, Spain
    Schizophr Res 86:276-83. 2006
    ..In future studies, the measurement of plasma caffeine levels will help both to better define heavy caffeine intake and to control for smoking pharmacokinetic effects...
  56. ncbi request reprint Respiratory infections rather than antibiotics may increase clozapine levels: a critical review of the literature
    Jose de Leon
    J Clin Psychiatry 65:1144-5. 2004
  57. ncbi request reprint Smoking is associated with schizophrenia, but not with mood disorders, within a population with low smoking rates: a matched case-control study in Bucaramanga, Colombia
    Adalberto Campo-Arias
    Neuropsychiatry Research Group, Universidad Autonoma de Bucaramanga, Colombia
    Schizophr Res 83:269-76. 2006
    ....
  58. ncbi request reprint High vulnerability to acute dystonic reactions: a case of antipsychotic exposure and uncontrolled seizure activity
    Gara L Coffey
    University of Kentucky UK, College of Pharmacy, Lexington, KY, USA
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 29:770-4. 2005
    ..None of the gene variations tested (CYP2D6 phenotype, two dopamine D2 receptor variants and one D3 receptor variant) appeared to explain the patient's vulnerability to acute dystonic reactions...
  59. ncbi request reprint Incorporating pharmacogenetics into clinical practice: reality of a new tool in psychiatry. Current issues in clinical implementation
    Jose de Leon
    CNS Spectr 11:8-12. 2006
  60. ncbi request reprint Comparison of two CYP2D6 genotyping methods and assessment of genotype-phenotype relationships
    Wen Hwei Chou
    Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky and UK Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington 40536, USA
    Clin Chem 49:542-51. 2003
    ..There have been no published reports comparing the CYP450 GeneChip microarray assay with more standard methods of genetic testing...
  61. ncbi request reprint Subjective effects and the main reason for smoking in outpatients with schizophrenia: a case-control study
    Manuel Gurpegui
    Department of Psychiatry and Institute of Neurosciences, University of Granada Medical School, Av Madrid 11, E 18071 Granada, Spain
    Compr Psychiatry 48:186-91. 2007
    ..These survey data call for confirmation through experimental studies and may help in the design of more focused smoking cessation programs for these patients...
  62. ncbi request reprint Plasma clozapine concentration coefficients of variation in a long-term study
    Francisco J Diaz
    Department of Statistics, Universidad Nacional, Medellin, Colombia
    Schizophr Res 72:131-5. 2005
    ..Clozapine CVs may be important in order to understand the importance of variations around the therapeutic range and to interpret drug interactions above the usual noise of measuring plasma concentrations...
  63. ncbi request reprint Caffeine intake in outpatients with schizophrenia
    Manuel Gurpegui
    Department of Psychiatry and Institute of Neurosciences, University of Granada, Spain
    Schizophr Bull 30:935-45. 2004
    ..Among caffeine consumers, smoking was associated with the amount of caffeine intake. Cross-sectional schizophrenia symptomatology was not associated with caffeine intake...
  64. ncbi request reprint Using data mining to explore complex clinical decisions: A study of hospitalization after a suicide attempt
    Enrique Baca-Garcia
    Department of Psychiatry, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    J Clin Psychiatry 67:1124-32. 2006
    ..A new set of statistical techniques called data mining (or machine learning) is being used by different industries to explore complex databases and can be used to explore large clinical databases...
  65. ncbi request reprint Metabolic drug interactions with newer antipsychotics: a comparative review
    Edoardo Spina
    Section of Pharmacology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Messina and IRCCS Neurological Center Bonino Pulejo, Messina, Italy, and Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY, USA
    Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 100:4-22. 2007
    ....
  66. ncbi request reprint A gender-specific association between the serotonin transporter gene and suicide attempts
    Enrique Baca-Garcia
    Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Universidad de Alcala Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    Neuropsychopharmacology 26:692-5. 2002
    ..Further studies are needed to replicate that the serotonin genotype polymorphism may influence suicide attempts only in females...
  67. ncbi request reprint A pilot study on differences in aggression in New York City and Madrid, Spain, and their possible impact on suicidal behavior
    Enrique Baca-Garcia
    Department of Psychiatry, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid, Spain
    J Clin Psychiatry 67:375-80. 2006
    ..The study goals were (1) to compare aggression scores in attempters and healthy volunteers between the 2 cities and (2) to determine whether higher aggression scores are associated with greater medical lethality of suicide attempts...
  68. ncbi request reprint Association between the T102C polymorphism of the serotonin-2A receptor gene and schizophrenia
    Concepcion Vaquero Lorenzo
    Department of Genetics, Autonoma University of Madrid, Edificio de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Calle Darwin, 2 28049, Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 30:1136-8. 2006
    ..The C allele was more frequent in schizophrenia patients than in healthy controls. The Cochrane-Armitage test for trend indicated a significant dosage effect for schizophrenia of the risk allele (C)...
  69. ncbi request reprint The crucial role of the therapeutic window in understanding the clinical relevance of the poor versus the ultrarapid metabolizer phenotypes in subjects taking drugs metabolized by CYP2D6 or CYP2C19
    Jose de Leon
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 27:241-5. 2007
  70. doi request reprint Beyond the "hype" on the association between metabolic syndrome and atypical antipsychotics: the confounding effects of cohort, typical antipsychotics, severe mental illness, comedications, and comorbid substance use
    Jose de Leon
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 28:125-31. 2008
  71. ncbi request reprint Smoking in bipolar and schizophrenic patients
    Jose de Leon
    J Clin Psychiatry 63:368-9; author reply 369. 2002
  72. ncbi request reprint Cytochrome P450 2D6 and antidepressant toxicity and response: what is the evidence?
    Peter J Wedlund
    College of Pharmacy and Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 403536, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 75:373-5. 2004
  73. ncbi request reprint Smoking cessation in patients with psychiatric disorders
    Alan J Gelenberg
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Arizona, Tucson, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 68:1404-10. 2007
  74. ncbi request reprint Guidelines for the use of clozapine in individuals with developmental disabilities
    Mohamed Sabaawi
    Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, 40509, USA
    Res Dev Disabil 27:309-36. 2006
    ..We also include requirements regarding informed consent, dosage and special laboratory and clinical monitoring...
  75. ncbi request reprint An HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of neurotoxic dipyridyl isomers in human plasma
    Ahmad H Malkawi
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 45:120-4. 2007
    ....
  76. ncbi request reprint Response to hydrocodone, codeine and oxycodone in a CYP2D6 poor metabolizer
    Margaret T Susce
    University of Kentucky, Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 30:1356-8. 2006
    ..Large case-control naturalistic studies followed by randomized trials in patients taking opioid analgesics may be needed to definitively establish that CYP2D6 genotyping has clinical relevance in the use of several opioid analgesics...
  77. ncbi request reprint Plasma cotinine, 3'-hydroxycotinine, and their glucuronides in white and black smokers
    Jose de Leon
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 23:209-11. 2003
  78. ncbi request reprint Probable association between ziprasidone and worsening hypertension
    Noemi Villanueva
    Johnson and Johnson, Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    Pharmacotherapy 26:1352-7. 2006
    ..If this occurs, replacement of ziprasidone with a different antipsychotic should be considered...
  79. ncbi request reprint Hypertriglyceridemia associated with direct effects of olanzapine rather than with weight gain: a case report
    Courtney Markham-Abedi
    J Clin Psychiatry 67:1473-4. 2006
  80. ncbi request reprint An investigation of the alpha1A-adrenergic receptor gene and antipsychotic-induced side-effects
    Pilar A Saiz
    Clinical Neuropharmacology, Institute of Psychiatry King s College, London, UK
    Hum Psychopharmacol 23:107-14. 2008
    ..These results do not support a major role of alpha(1A)-adrenergic genetic variants in obesity and other side-effects observed after prolonged treatment with antipsychotic medications...
  81. ncbi request reprint Low plasma cholesterol levels in suicidal males: a gender- and body mass index-matched case-control study of suicide attempters and nonattempters
    Carmen Diaz-Sastre
    Centro de Salud Mental de Hortaleza, Avenida de Mar Caspio, Madrid 28050, Spain
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 31:901-5. 2007
    ..Serum cholesterol levels were significantly lower in suicide attempters than in controls. After gender stratification, the difference remained significant in men, but not in women...
  82. ncbi request reprint A case report with ziprasidone-induced catatonic symptoms
    Courtney Markham-Abedi
    J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 19:476-7. 2007
  83. ncbi request reprint Datapoints: Smoking and smoking cessation among persons with severe mental illnesses
    Francisco J Diaz
    Department of Statistics, Universidad Nacional, Medellin, Colombia
    Psychiatr Serv 57:462. 2006
  84. ncbi request reprint Two case reports of oral ulcers with lamotrigine several weeks after oxcarbazepine withdrawal
    Jose de Leon
    University of Kentucky, Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital and the Department of Psychiatry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    Bipolar Disord 9:310-3. 2007
    ..To report two cases of mouth ulcers in lamotrigine patients after oxcarbazepine withdrawal...
  85. doi request reprint Lack of association between testosterone and suicide attempts
    M Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez
    Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
    Neuropsychobiology 63:125-30. 2011
    ....
  86. ncbi request reprint Toxicity of dipyridyl compounds and related compounds
    Shenggang Li
    University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, Kentucky 40508, USA
    Crit Rev Toxicol 34:447-60. 2004
    ..These results are consistent with earlier studies in Sherman rats using high 2,2'- and 4,4'-dipyridyl doses. New studies are needed to further explore the toxicological properties of dipyridyls and their potential public health impact...