David E Cummings

Summary

Affiliation: University of Washington
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi Elevated plasma ghrelin levels in Prader Willi syndrome
    David E Cummings
    Department of Medicine, VA Puget Sound Health Care System and Harborview Medical Center University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
    Nat Med 8:643-4. 2002
  2. ncbi Physiological regulation of hypothalamic IL-1beta gene expression by leptin and glucocorticoids: implications for energy homeostasis
    Brent E Wisse
    Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center, 325 Ninth Avenue, Box 359757, Seattle, WA 98104 2499, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 287:E1107-13. 2004
  3. ncbi Roles of leptin and ghrelin in the loss of body weight caused by a low fat, high carbohydrate diet
    David S Weigle
    University of Washington School of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, and Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:1577-86. 2003
  4. ncbi Role of the duodenum and macronutrient type in ghrelin regulation
    Joost Overduin
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, 1660 South Columbian Way, S 111 Endo, Seattle, Washington 98108, USA
    Endocrinology 146:845-50. 2005
  5. ncbi Human plasma ghrelin levels increase during a one-year exercise program
    Karen E Foster-Schubert
    Department of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, University of Washington, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington 98108, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:820-5. 2005
  6. pmc Acyl and total ghrelin are suppressed strongly by ingested proteins, weakly by lipids, and biphasically by carbohydrates
    Karen E Foster-Schubert
    University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:1971-9. 2008
  7. ncbi Effect of aging on the response of ghrelin to acute weight loss
    Michi Yukawa
    Department of Medicine, Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 54:648-53. 2006
  8. ncbi Effect of uncontrolled diabetes on plasma ghrelin concentrations and ghrelin-induced feeding
    Richard W Gelling
    Department of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center, 325 Ninth Avenue, Box 359657, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA
    Endocrinology 145:4575-82. 2004
  9. ncbi Hormonal mechanisms of weight loss and diabetes resolution after bariatric surgery
    David E Cummings
    Department of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition, University of Washington, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington 98108, USA
    Surg Obes Relat Dis 1:358-68. 2005
  10. ncbi Regulation of ghrelin in physiologic and pathophysiologic states
    Diana L Williams
    Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine and Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
    J Nutr 135:1320-5. 2005

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications54

  1. ncbi Elevated plasma ghrelin levels in Prader Willi syndrome
    David E Cummings
    Department of Medicine, VA Puget Sound Health Care System and Harborview Medical Center University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
    Nat Med 8:643-4. 2002
  2. ncbi Physiological regulation of hypothalamic IL-1beta gene expression by leptin and glucocorticoids: implications for energy homeostasis
    Brent E Wisse
    Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center, 325 Ninth Avenue, Box 359757, Seattle, WA 98104 2499, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 287:E1107-13. 2004
    ..05 vs. vehicle), an effect similar to that of ADX. These data support a model in which expression of hypothalamic IL-1beta is subject to opposing physiological regulation by corticosterone and leptin...
  3. ncbi Roles of leptin and ghrelin in the loss of body weight caused by a low fat, high carbohydrate diet
    David S Weigle
    University of Washington School of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, and Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:1577-86. 2003
    ..Fat restriction avoids the increase in ghrelin levels caused by dietary energy restriction...
  4. ncbi Role of the duodenum and macronutrient type in ghrelin regulation
    Joost Overduin
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, 1660 South Columbian Way, S 111 Endo, Seattle, Washington 98108, USA
    Endocrinology 146:845-50. 2005
    ..The relatively weak suppression of ghrelin by lipids compared with glucose or amino acids could represent one mechanism promoting high-fat dietary weight gain...
  5. ncbi Human plasma ghrelin levels increase during a one-year exercise program
    Karen E Foster-Schubert
    Department of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, University of Washington, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington 98108, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:820-5. 2005
    ..In summary, ghrelin levels increase with weight loss achieved without reduced food intake, consistent with a role for ghrelin in the adaptive response constraining weight loss and, thus, in long-term body weight regulation...
  6. pmc Acyl and total ghrelin are suppressed strongly by ingested proteins, weakly by lipids, and biphasically by carbohydrates
    Karen E Foster-Schubert
    University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:1971-9. 2008
    ..Its circulating levels increase before meals and are suppressed after food ingestion. Understanding the effects of specific types of ingested macronutrients on ghrelin regulation could facilitate the design of weight-reducing diets...
  7. ncbi Effect of aging on the response of ghrelin to acute weight loss
    Michi Yukawa
    Department of Medicine, Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 54:648-53. 2006
    ..To determine whether the failure of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin to increase as it normally does with weight loss contributes to impaired weight recovery in older persons...
  8. ncbi Effect of uncontrolled diabetes on plasma ghrelin concentrations and ghrelin-induced feeding
    Richard W Gelling
    Department of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center, 325 Ninth Avenue, Box 359657, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA
    Endocrinology 145:4575-82. 2004
    ..Although plasma ghrelin levels fall in response to hyperphagic feeding, these findings support the hypothesis that increased ghrelin signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic hyperphagia...
  9. ncbi Hormonal mechanisms of weight loss and diabetes resolution after bariatric surgery
    David E Cummings
    Department of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition, University of Washington, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington 98108, USA
    Surg Obes Relat Dis 1:358-68. 2005
  10. ncbi Regulation of ghrelin in physiologic and pathophysiologic states
    Diana L Williams
    Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine and Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
    J Nutr 135:1320-5. 2005
    ..We also consider potential hormonal and neural mediators of the effects of nutrients and weight change on ghrelin levels...
  11. ncbi Postprandial suppression of plasma ghrelin level is proportional to ingested caloric load but does not predict intermeal interval in humans
    Holly S Callahan
    University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:1319-24. 2004
    ..We conclude that the depth of postprandial ghrelin suppression is proportional to ingested caloric load but that recovery of plasma ghrelin is not a critical determinant of intermeal interval...
  12. ncbi Ghrelin and the short- and long-term regulation of appetite and body weight
    David E Cummings
    Department of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition, University of Washington, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, 1660 South Columbian Way, S 111 Endo, Seattle, WA 98108, USA
    Physiol Behav 89:71-84. 2006
    ..Extant evidence favors roles for ghrelin in both short-term meal initiation and long-term energy homeostasis, making it an attractive target for drugs to treat obesity and/or wasting disorders...
  13. pmc Gastrointestinal regulation of food intake
    David E Cummings
    Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington 98108, USA
    J Clin Invest 117:13-23. 2007
    ..The increasingly nuanced understanding of the mechanisms mediating gut-peptide regulation and action provides promising targets for new strategies to combat obesity and diabetes...
  14. ncbi Ghrelin and energy balance: focus on current controversies
    David E Cummings
    Department of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition, University of Washington, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, 1660 South Columbian Way, Seattle, WA 98108, USA
    Curr Drug Targets 6:153-69. 2005
    ..We suggest that ghrelin is a "saginary" hormone, from the Latin, saginare, which means, "to fatten"...
  15. ncbi Emerging therapeutic strategies for obesity
    Karen E Foster-Schubert
    Department of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition, University of Washington, Veterans Administration Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington 98108, USA
    Endocr Rev 27:779-93. 2006
    ....
  16. ncbi Plasma ghrelin concentrations are decreased in insulin-resistant obese adults relative to equally obese insulin-sensitive controls
    Tracey McLaughlin
    Division of Endocrinology, University of Washington, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington 98108, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:1630-5. 2004
    ..Thus, insulin resistance or related metabolic abnormalities may constitute part of a feedback mechanism by which body weight is regulated in humans...
  17. pmc Carbohydrate feeding dissociates the postprandial FGF19 response from circulating bile acid levels in humans
    Gregory J Morton
    Department of Medicine G J M, K E F S, D E C, M W S and Department of Dental Public Health Sciences K J K, School of Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 and Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System K E F S, D E C, Seattle, Washington 98108
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99:E241-5. 2014
    ..Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) improves glycemic control in diabetic animals and is secreted from the gastrointestinal tract after meals in response to bile acid stimulation...
  18. ncbi Development of a porcine Roux-en-Y gastric bypass survival model for the study of post-surgical physiology
    David R Flum
    Department of Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 7183, USA
    Obes Surg 17:1332-9. 2007
    ..The aim of this study was to establish a survival model of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) in swine and to evaluate its potential in studies of physiology...
  19. ncbi Ghrelin and gastric bypass: is there a hormonal contribution to surgical weight loss?
    David E Cummings
    Department of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition, University of Washington, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington 98108, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:2999-3002. 2003
  20. ncbi Deletion of the RIIbeta-subunit of protein kinase A decreases body weight and increases energy expenditure in the obese, leptin-deficient ob/ob mouse
    Kathryn J Newhall
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 19:982-91. 2005
    ..These findings indicate that PKA modifies the phenotype of the leptin-deficient mouse, leading to increases in both thermogenesis and energy expenditure...
  21. ncbi Plasma ghrelin levels after diet-induced weight loss or gastric bypass surgery
    David E Cummings
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington the Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle 98108, USA
    N Engl J Med 346:1623-30. 2002
    ..Because ghrelin is produced primarily by the stomach, weight loss after gastric bypass surgery may be accompanied by impaired ghrelin secretion...
  22. doi Minireview: Hormonal and metabolic mechanisms of diabetes remission after gastrointestinal surgery
    Joshua P Thaler
    Department of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Center of Excellence and Veterans Affairs, Puget Sound Health Care System, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Endocrinology 150:2518-25. 2009
    ..Research aimed at determining the relative importance of these effects and identifying additional mechanisms promises not only to improve surgical design but also to identify novel targets for diabetes medications...
  23. pmc Association of cognitive restraint with ghrelin, leptin, and insulin levels in subjects who are not weight-reduced
    Ellen A Schur
    Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Washington, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
    Physiol Behav 93:706-12. 2008
    ..007). No relationships were found between restraint scores and either leptin (P=0.75) or insulin (P=0.36). These findings show an orexigenic hormonal profile in restrained eaters, independent of changes in body weight...
  24. ncbi Genetics and pathophysiology of human obesity
    David E Cummings
    Department of Medicine, VA Puget Sound Health Care System and Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Annu Rev Med 54:453-71. 2003
    ..This article highlights some of these recent findings and their implications for the future of obesity treatment...
  25. pmc Ghrelin increases the motivation to eat, but does not alter food palatability
    Joost Overduin
    Veterans Administration Puget Sound Health Care System, Office of Research and Development Medical Research Service, Seattle, Washington, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 303:R259-69. 2012
    ..These results indicate that ghrelin increases the motivation to eat via D1 receptor-dependent mechanisms, without affecting perceived food palatability...
  26. ncbi Prospects for an anti-ghrelin vaccine to treat obesity
    Molly J Carlson
    Department of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Nutrition, University of Washington, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA 98108, USA
    Mol Interv 6:249-52. 2006
    ..More broadly, the work of Zorilla et al. supports the feasibility of vaccinations directed against specific autologous targets--immunopharmacotherapy that could potentially be developed to target a wide array of medical conditions...
  27. ncbi Roles for ghrelin in the regulation of appetite and body weight
    David E Cummings
    Department of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Nutrition, University of Washington, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, 1660 S Columbian Way, S 111 Endo, Seattle, WA 98108, USA
    Arch Surg 138:389-96. 2003
  28. ncbi Melanocortin signaling and anorexia in chronic disease states
    Brent E Wisse
    Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 994:275-81. 2003
    ..The data presented in this paper summarize findings that implicate neuronal melanocortin signaling in inflammatory anorexia...
  29. ncbi Direct stimulation of ghrelin secretion by sympathetic nerves
    Thomas O Mundinger
    Deparyment of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington 98108, USA
    Endocrinology 147:2893-901. 2006
    ..Epinephrine failed to stimulate ghrelin secretion (Delta = +4 +/- 35%). We conclude that the neural, but not the neurohumoral, branch of the sympathetic nervous system can directly stimulate ghrelin secretion...
  30. ncbi Gastric bypass for obesity: mechanisms of weight loss and diabetes resolution
    David E Cummings
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:2608-15. 2004
  31. pmc Hyperosmolarity in the small intestine contributes to postprandial ghrelin suppression
    Joost Overduin
    University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington and Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System Seattle, Washington
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 306:G1108-16. 2014
    ....
  32. pmc CCK-58 elicits both satiety and satiation in rats while CCK-8 elicits only satiation
    Joost Overduin
    Weill Medical College, Cornell University, White Plains, NY 10605, USA Veterans Administration Puget Sound Health Care System, Office of Research and Development Medical Research Service, Seattle, WA 98108, USA Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Peptides 54:71-80. 2014
    ..Given the physiological prominence of CCK-58, these results suggest that CCK's role in food intake regulation may require re-examination. ..
  33. doi Metabolic surgery for type 2 diabetes
    David E Cummings
    University of Washington, Seattle, USA
    Nat Med 18:656-8. 2012
    ..The concept of 'metabolic surgery' to treat diabetes has taken a big step forward...
  34. ncbi Growth hormone therapy in adults
    David E Cummings
    Department of Medicine, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98108, USA
    Annu Rev Med 54:513-33. 2003
    ..In critical illness, high-dose GH therapy has proven clearly harmful, and the balance of risks and benefits of GH administration in most adult contexts other than AGHD has not been defined...
  35. ncbi Vagotomy dissociates short- and long-term controls of circulating ghrelin
    Diana L Williams
    Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, 1660 South Columbian Way, Mail Stop 111 ENDO, Seattle, Washington 98108, USA
    Endocrinology 144:5184-7. 2003
    ..The dissociation between nutrient load- and deprivation-related ghrelin responses indicates that the regulation of circulating ghrelin levels involves separate mechanisms operating through anatomically distinct pathways...
  36. ncbi Ghrelin is suppressed by glucagon and does not mediate glucagon-related growth hormone release
    Denton Hirsh
    Endocrinology and Diabetes Unit, British Columbia s Children s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Horm Res 63:111-8. 2005
    ..Because glucagon stimulates the promoter of the ghrelin gene in vitro as well as ghrelin secretion by the perfused rat stomach, we sought to determine whether ghrelin mediates glucagon-induced GH secretion...
  37. ncbi Ghrelin levels in young children with Prader-Willi syndrome
    Christine R Erdie-Lalena
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Madigan Army Medical Center, Fort Lewis, USA
    J Pediatr 149:199-204. 2006
    ....
  38. ncbi Circulating ghrelin levels are suppressed by meals and octreotide therapy in children with Prader-Willi syndrome
    Andrea M Haqq
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97201, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:3573-6. 2003
    ..Further investigation is warranted to determine whether long-term octreotide treatment causes sustained ghrelin suppression, changes eating behavior, and induces weight loss in this population...
  39. ncbi Ghrelin: a link between energy homeostasis and drug abuse?
    David E Cummings
    Addict Biol 12:1-5. 2007
  40. pmc Role of the bypassed proximal intestine in the anti-diabetic effects of bariatric surgery
    David E Cummings
    Surg Obes Relat Dis 3:109-15. 2007
  41. pmc Relationship of body mass index with demographic and clinical characteristics in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS)
    Steven H Belle
    Surg Obes Relat Dis 4:474-80. 2008
    ..BMI is often used to characterize patient risk in bariatric surgery. However, its relationship with other risk factors has not been well characterized...
  42. doi Gastrointestinal surgery as a treatment for diabetes
    David E Cummings
    JAMA 299:341-3. 2008
  43. pmc Role of metabolically active hormones in the insulin resistance associated with short-term glucocorticoid treatment
    Jeetesh V Patel
    Haemostasis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology Unit, University Department of Medicine and Sandwell Medical Research Unit, Sandwell and West Birmingham Hospitals NHS Trust, West Midlands, UK
    J Negat Results Biomed 5:14. 2006
    ..Little is known about the effects of short-term glucocorticoid treatment on levels of these hormones...
  44. ncbi Abnormalities of leptin and ghrelin regulation in obesity-prone juvenile rats
    Barry E Levin
    Neurology Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 127C VA Medical Center, 385 Tremont Ave, E Orange, NJ 07018 1095, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 285:E949-57. 2003
    ..These data suggest that increased ghrelin signaling is not a proximate cause of DIO, whereas reduced leptin sensitivity might play a causal role...
  45. ncbi Hyperphagic effects of brainstem ghrelin administration
    Lucy F Faulconbridge
    Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Diabetes 52:2260-5. 2003
    ..Taken together, the results affirm a caudal brainstem site of action and recommend further investigation into multisite interactions underlying the modulation of ingestive behavior by ghrelin...
  46. ncbi Ghrelin levels correlate with insulin levels, insulin resistance, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but not with gender, menopausal status, or cortisol levels in humans
    Jonathan Q Purnell
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Clinical Nutrition, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97201, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:5747-52. 2003
    ..Our data are consistent with the hypotheses that insulin may negatively regulate ghrelin and that high-density lipoprotein may be a carrier particle for circulating ghrelin...
  47. ncbi Helicobacter pylori and ghrelin: Interrelated players in body-weight regulation?
    David E Cummings
    Am J Med 117:436-9. 2004
  48. ncbi Ghrelin-leptin tango in body-weight regulation
    David E Cummings
    Gastroenterology 124:1532-5. 2003
  49. ncbi Gastric bypass and nesidioblastosis--too much of a good thing for islets?
    David E Cummings
    N Engl J Med 353:300-2. 2005
  50. ncbi Neuroendocrine profiles associated with energy intake, sleep, and stress in the night eating syndrome
    Kelly C Allison
    University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Weight and Eating Disorders Program, 3535 Market Street, Suite 3021, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:6214-7. 2005
    ..Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by evening hyperphagia and frequent awakenings with ingestion of food. It is associated with obesity and depressed mood. Greater understanding of hormonal influences on NES is desirable...
  51. ncbi Ghrelin induces feeding in the mesolimbic reward pathway between the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens
    Amy M Naleid
    Graduate Program in Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55415, USA
    Peptides 26:2274-9. 2005
    ..These results suggest interaction of a metabolic factor with the reward system in feeding behavior, indicating that hedonic responses can be modulated by homeostatic factors...
  52. ncbi Administration of Lispro insulin with meals improves glycemic control, increases circulating leptin, and suppresses ghrelin, compared with regular/NPH insulin in female patients with type 1 diabetes
    Steven C Griffen
    Medical Center, Patient Support and Services Building Suite G 400, University of California Davis, 4150 V Street, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:485-91. 2006
    ..Exogenous insulin administration often poorly reproduces normal insulin patterns and may less effectively regulate leptin and ghrelin, two hormones involved in the control of appetite and adiposity...
  53. ncbi Ghrelin plasma levels during psychopharmacological treatment
    Hubertus Himmerich
    Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany
    Neuropsychobiology 52:11-6. 2005
    ..Psychotropic drugs with different propensities to induce body weight gain are associated with similar concentrations of plasma ghrelin in psychiatric patients after a short period of treatment...
  54. ncbi Meal-related ghrelin suppression requires postgastric feedback
    Diana L Williams
    Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, 3815 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Endocrinology 144:2765-7. 2003
    ..We conclude that the meal-related suppression of plasma ghrelin requires postgastric (pre- or postabsorptive) stimulation...