DAVID P CREWS

Summary

Affiliation: University of Texas
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Epigenetic synthesis: a need for a new paradigm for evolution in a contaminated world
    David Crews
    Section of Integrative Biology, The University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX 78712 USA Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX 78712 USA
    F1000 Biol Rep 4:18. 2012
  2. pmc Life imprints: living in a contaminated world
    David Crews
    Section of Integrative Biology
    Environ Health Perspect 119:1208-10. 2011
  3. pmc Litter environment affects behavior and brain metabolic activity of adult knockout mice
    David Crews
    Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX, USA
    Front Behav Neurosci 3:12. 2009
  4. pmc Epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of altered stress responses
    David Crews
    Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:9143-8. 2012
  5. pmc Cloning and expression of R-Spondin1 in different vertebrates suggests a conserved role in ovarian development
    Craig A Smith
    The University of Melbourne Department of Paediatrics and Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children s Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, 3052, Australia
    BMC Dev Biol 8:72. 2008
  6. ncbi request reprint Historical contributions of research on reptiles to behavioral neuroendocrinology
    David Crews
    Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Horm Behav 48:384-94. 2005
  7. ncbi request reprint Evolution of neuroendocrine mechanisms that regulate sexual behavior
    David Crews
    Ashbel Smith Professor of Zoology and Psychology, Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Trends Endocrinol Metab 16:354-61. 2005
  8. ncbi request reprint Role of steroidogenic factor 1 and aromatase in temperature-dependent sex determination in the red-eared slider turtle
    D Crews
    Institute of Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
    J Exp Zool 290:597-606. 2001
  9. ncbi request reprint Epigenetics, evolution, endocrine disruption, health, and disease
    David Crews
    Section of Integrative Biology, 2400 Speedway, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
    Endocrinology 147:S4-10. 2006
  10. pmc From gene networks underlying sex determination and gonadal differentiation to the development of neural networks regulating sociosexual behavior
    David Crews
    Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Brain Res 1126:109-21. 2006

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications51

  1. pmc Epigenetic synthesis: a need for a new paradigm for evolution in a contaminated world
    David Crews
    Section of Integrative Biology, The University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX 78712 USA Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX 78712 USA
    F1000 Biol Rep 4:18. 2012
    ..Beyond the study of epigenetic mechanisms at the level of the gene, more investigation of epigenetic outcomes at the level of both the individual organism and the evolution of the population is needed...
  2. pmc Life imprints: living in a contaminated world
    David Crews
    Section of Integrative Biology
    Environ Health Perspect 119:1208-10. 2011
    ..Only then will we begin to understand how ancestral environmental exposures act at both the level of the individual and the level of their descendants to influence all aspects of life history...
  3. pmc Litter environment affects behavior and brain metabolic activity of adult knockout mice
    David Crews
    Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX, USA
    Front Behav Neurosci 3:12. 2009
    ..Principal Components Analysis revealed two components comprised of several amygdalar and hypothalamic nuclei; the VMH showed strong correlations in both clusters, suggesting its pivotal nature in the organization of two neural networks...
  4. pmc Epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of altered stress responses
    David Crews
    Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:9143-8. 2012
    ....
  5. pmc Cloning and expression of R-Spondin1 in different vertebrates suggests a conserved role in ovarian development
    Craig A Smith
    The University of Melbourne Department of Paediatrics and Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children s Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, 3052, Australia
    BMC Dev Biol 8:72. 2008
    ..Evidence is presented that this gene is an ancient component of the vertebrate ovary-determining pathway...
  6. ncbi request reprint Historical contributions of research on reptiles to behavioral neuroendocrinology
    David Crews
    Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Horm Behav 48:384-94. 2005
    ..4) Hormone manipulations as a powerful tool to test hypotheses about the evolution of behavior in free-living animals...
  7. ncbi request reprint Evolution of neuroendocrine mechanisms that regulate sexual behavior
    David Crews
    Ashbel Smith Professor of Zoology and Psychology, Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Trends Endocrinol Metab 16:354-61. 2005
    ....
  8. ncbi request reprint Role of steroidogenic factor 1 and aromatase in temperature-dependent sex determination in the red-eared slider turtle
    D Crews
    Institute of Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
    J Exp Zool 290:597-606. 2001
    ..The inhibition of estrogen results in upregulation of SF-1 and male hatchlings. Thus, SF-1 may lie at the center of one molecular crossroad in male versus female differentiation of the red-eared slider...
  9. ncbi request reprint Epigenetics, evolution, endocrine disruption, health, and disease
    David Crews
    Section of Integrative Biology, 2400 Speedway, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
    Endocrinology 147:S4-10. 2006
    ..We suggest a perspective for exploring and ultimately coming to understand diseases that may have environmental or endocrine origins...
  10. pmc From gene networks underlying sex determination and gonadal differentiation to the development of neural networks regulating sociosexual behavior
    David Crews
    Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Brain Res 1126:109-21. 2006
    ....
  11. pmc Epigenetics and its implications for behavioral neuroendocrinology
    David Crews
    Section of Integrative Biology and Center of Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Front Neuroendocrinol 29:344-57. 2008
    ..This work raises the question of how events in generations past can have consequences at both the mechanistic, behavioral, and ultimately evolutionary levels...
  12. ncbi request reprint Epigenetics, brain, behavior, and the environment
    David Crews
    Ashbel Smith Professor of Zoology and Psychology, Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, USA
    Hormones (Athens) 9:41-50. 2010
    ....
  13. pmc Epigenetic modifications of brain and behavior: theory and practice
    David Crews
    Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Horm Behav 59:393-8. 2011
    ..Lastly, it seems intuitive that germline- and context-dependent epigenetic modifications interact, resulting in the individual variation observed in behaviors, but until now this hypothesis has never been tested experimentally...
  14. ncbi request reprint Postnatal environment affects behavior of adult transgenic mice
    David Crews
    Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 229:935-9. 2004
    ..These data suggest that the postnatal environment such as litter composition may influence the development of sociosexual behaviors in ERKO mice...
  15. ncbi request reprint Brain organization in a reptile lacking sex chromosomes: effects of gonadectomy and exogenous testosterone
    D Crews
    Institute of Reproductive Biology, Department of Zoology, University of Texas at Austin 78712, USA
    Horm Behav 30:474-86. 1996
    ..This is the first demonstration in a vertebrate that factors other than steroid hormones can modify the organization and functional activity of sexually differentiated brain areas...
  16. ncbi request reprint Sex determination: where environment and genetics meet
    David Crews
    Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Evol Dev 5:50-5. 2003
    ..That is, sex is merely a means of categorizing individuals or gonads, whereas sexuality serves as a descriptor of concordant traits each of which is typically sexually dimorphic in its expression...
  17. ncbi request reprint Endocrine disruptors: present issues, future directions
    D Crews
    Institute of Reproductive Biology, University of Texas, Austin 78712, USA
    Q Rev Biol 75:243-60. 2000
    ..Rather, adaptive alterations in the genes that encode steroid receptors may occur with chronic exposure to EDCs, allowing the sex hormone receptor to discriminate natural steroids from EDCs...
  18. ncbi request reprint The evolutionary antecedents to love
    D Crews
    Institute of Reproductive Biology, University of Texas at Austin 78712, USA
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 23:751-64. 1998
    ....
  19. ncbi request reprint Developmental effects on intersexual and intrasexual variation in growth and reproduction in a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination
    D Crews
    Department of Zoology, University of Texas at Austin 78712, USA
    Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol 119:229-41. 1998
    ..Thus, the leopard gecko is an excellent model to elucidate the developmental interactions among the environment and the endocrine and nervous systems that control growth and reproduction...
  20. ncbi request reprint Effects of age and sociosexual experience on the morphology and metabolic capacity of brain nuclei in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination
    D Crews
    Institute of Reproductive Biology and Department of Zoology, University of Texas at Austin, 78712, USA
    Brain Res 758:169-79. 1997
    ..These data suggest that the volume and metabolic capacity of specific brain regions change as animals age and gain sociosexual experience, but the nature and degree of change depend upon prenatal events...
  21. ncbi request reprint Sexually dimorphic regulation of estrogen receptor alpha mRNA in the ventromedial hypothalamus of adult whiptail lizards is testosterone dependent
    David Crews
    Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Institute for Neuroscience, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Brain Res 1004:136-41. 2004
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Synergistic responses of steroidal estrogens in vitro (yeast) and in vivo (turtles)
    S F Arnold
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Tulane School of Public Health, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 235:336-42. 1997
    ..Our results suggest that the synergy of some combinations of estrogens, synthetic or steroidal, may play a role in the estrogen-dependent process of sexual development in certain species...
  23. ncbi request reprint The development of phenotypic plasticity: where biology and psychology meet
    David Crews
    Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
    Dev Psychobiol 43:1-10. 2003
  24. ncbi request reprint Developmental sculpting of social phenotype and plasticity
    Jon T Sakata
    Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 28:95-112. 2004
    ..We argue that the leopard gecko is an important model of how the process of sex determination can affect sexual differentiation and of selection forces underlying the evolution of sex ratios...
  25. pmc Preoptic neuronal nitric oxide synthase induction by testosterone is consistent with a role in gating male copulatory behavior
    Nicholas S R Sanderson
    Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 27:183-90. 2008
    ..Results are consistent with transcriptional up-regulation of nNOS by testosterone and a central role for the enzyme in mediating hormonal gating of copulatory behavior...
  26. ncbi request reprint Species differences in the regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase in Cnemidophorus whiptail lizards
    Sarah C Woolley
    Section of Integrative Biology, Patterson 141, 2400 Speedway, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
    J Neurobiol 60:360-8. 2004
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint Evolutionary insights into the regulation of courtship behavior in male amphibians and reptiles
    Sarah C Woolley
    Section for Integrative Biology, Division of Biological Sciences, Patterson Laboratories, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Physiol Behav 83:347-60. 2004
    ....
  28. ncbi request reprint Behavioral correlates of differences in neural metabolic capacity
    Jon T Sakata
    Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 48:1-15. 2005
    ..We propose that knowledge of neurometabolic differences can yield valuable predictions about behavioral phenotype in other systems...
  29. pmc Steroid signaling and temperature-dependent sex determination-Reviewing the evidence for early action of estrogen during ovarian determination in turtles
    Mary Ramsey
    Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas, 2400 Speedway, Austin, TX 78712, United States
    Semin Cell Dev Biol 20:283-92. 2009
    ..Localized estrogen production facilitates ovarian development while inhibiting male-specific gene expression. At male-producing temperatures aromatase is not upregulated, thereby allowing testis development...
  30. ncbi request reprint Effect of incubation temperature and androgens on dopaminergic activity in the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius
    Brian George Dias
    Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA
    Dev Neurobiol 67:630-6. 2007
    ..These data indicate that both the embryonic environment as well as the circulating hormonal milieu can modulate neurochemistry, which might in turn be a basis for individual variation in behavior...
  31. ncbi request reprint Gonadal expression of Sf1 and aromatase during sex determination in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta), a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination
    Mary Ramsey
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA
    Differentiation 75:978-91. 2007
    ..Our data do not lend support to a role for Sf1 in the regulation of aromatase expression during slider turtle sex determination, but do support a critical role for estrogen in ovarian development...
  32. ncbi request reprint Differential effects of testosterone and progesterone on the activation and retention of courtship behavior in sexual and parthenogenetic whiptail lizards
    Jon T Sakata
    Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Horm Behav 43:523-30. 2003
    ..In summary, though both T and P can elicit identical sexual behaviors in both whiptail species, T has a greater and more lasting effect on courtship behavior and possibly on the neural circuits underlying courtship behavior...
  33. ncbi request reprint Expression of Sox9, Mis, and Dmrt1 in the gonad of a species with temperature-dependent sex determination
    Christina Shoemaker
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
    Dev Dyn 236:1055-63. 2007
    ..Furthermore, we extend previous findings that Dmrt1 expression at early stages of sex determination has a dimorphic pattern consistent with a possible upstream role in determining the fate of the bipotential gonad...
  34. pmc Serotonergic modulation of male-like pseudocopulatory behavior in the parthenogenetic whiptail lizard, Cnemidophorus uniparens
    Brian George Dias
    Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Horm Behav 50:401-9. 2006
    ....
  35. pmc Hormonal state influences aspects of female mate choice in the TĂșngara Frog (Physalaemus pustulosus)
    Kathleen S Lynch
    Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas, 108 East Dean Keeton, Seay Psychology Building, Austin, 78712, USA
    Horm Behav 49:450-7. 2006
    ..S., Ryan, M.J., Wilczynski, W., 2005. Plasticity in female mate choice associated with changing reproductive states. Anim. Behav. 69, 689-699), suggesting that changes in hormone levels can influence the female's mate choice behavior...
  36. ncbi request reprint Embryonic origin of mate choice in a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination
    Oliver Putz
    Section for Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Dev Psychobiol 48:29-38. 2006
    ..Thus, sexual selection results from a combination of the female's as well as the male's life history. Female attractiveness and male choice therefore are complementary...
  37. ncbi request reprint The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME suppresses androgen-induced male-like pseudocopulatory behavior in whiptail lizards
    Nicholas S R Sanderson
    Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, 78712, USA
    Brain Res 1052:236-9. 2005
    ..The deficit was principally in mounting, suggesting that sexual motivational systems were affected, rather than consummatory mechanisms...
  38. ncbi request reprint The use of norms of reaction to analyze genotypic and environmental influences on behavior in mice and rats
    Trevon Fuller
    Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 29:445-56. 2005
    ..We describe the main features of NoRs, the history of their use in this context, and discuss several applications in behavioral neuroscience. In addition, we give a test for determining whether distinct strains have different NoRs...
  39. pmc Regulation of pseudosexual behavior in the parthenogenetic whiptail lizard, Cnemidophorus uniparens
    Brian George Dias
    Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
    Endocrinology 149:4622-31. 2008
    ..This study illuminates how male- and female-typical sexual behaviors share common neural circuits, and that 5-HT regulates these naturally complementary, and mutually exclusive, behaviors...
  40. ncbi request reprint Repeated interactions with females elevate metabolic capacity in the limbic system of male rats
    Jon T Sakata
    Institute for Neuroscience, Patterson Hall, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Brain Res 936:27-37. 2002
    ..We speculate that these changes in brain metabolic capacity could be related to immediate early gene expression during copulation and could underlie the long-term behavioral changes accompanying heterosexual social experience...
  41. ncbi request reprint Heterosexual housing increases the retention of courtship behavior following castration and elevates metabolic capacity in limbic brain nuclei in male whiptail lizards, Cnemidophorus inornatus
    Jon T Sakata
    Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, Texas 78712, USA
    Horm Behav 42:263-73. 2002
    ..Altogether, this demonstrates that elevations in metabolic capacity correlate with experience-dependent increases in robustness to castration...
  42. ncbi request reprint Adrenal-kidney-gonad complex measurements may not predict gonad-specific changes in gene expression patterns during temperature-dependent sex determination in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans)
    Mary Ramsey
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
    J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol 307:463-70. 2007
    ..Inclusion of the AK compartment masked important changes in gonadal gene expression. In addition, AK and gonad expression patterns are not additive, and gonadal gene expression cannot be predicted from intact AKG measurements...
  43. ncbi request reprint Response of candidate sex-determining genes to changes in temperature reveals their involvement in the molecular network underlying temperature-dependent sex determination
    Christina M Shoemaker
    Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 21:2750-63. 2007
    ..By examining the role of these genes in TSD, we can begin to elucidate elements of conservation and divergence between sex-determining mechanisms...
  44. pmc Steroidogenic enzyme gene expression in the brain of the parthenogenetic whiptail lizard, Cnemidophorus uniparens
    Brian George Dias
    Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Brain Res 1253:129-38. 2009
    ..This study also supports the idea that non-gonadal sources of steroid hormones locally produced in behaviorally relevant brain loci are central to the mediation of behavioral output...
  45. ncbi request reprint Genetic network underlying temperature-dependent sex determination is endogenously regulated by temperature in isolated cultured Trachemys scripta gonads
    Christina M Shoemaker-Daly
    Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA
    Dev Dyn 239:1061-75. 2010
    ..Finally, mosaic misexpression of a fusion Sox9 construct demonstrates the ability to functionally manipulate the gonad at the molecular level...
  46. ncbi request reprint Genotype differences in behavior and tyrosine hydroxylase expression between wild-type and progesterone receptor knockout mice
    Sarah C Woolley
    Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, TX, USA
    Behav Brain Res 167:197-204. 2006
    ....
  47. ncbi request reprint Constraints on temperature-dependent sex determination in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius): response to Kratochvil et al
    Victoria Huang
    Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Naturwissenschaften 95:1137-42. 2008
    ..These results suggest that maternal influences on sex determination are secondary relative to incubation temperature effects...
  48. ncbi request reprint Learning effects on sperm competition and reproductive fitness
    R Nicolle Matthews
    University of Texas at Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Psychol Sci 18:758-62. 2007
    ..These findings demonstrate that Pavlovian conditioning contributes to reproductive fitness and suggest that individual past experience can bias genetic transmission and the evolutionary changes that result from sexual competition...
  49. ncbi request reprint Neural substrates for sexual and thermoregulatory behavior in the male leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius
    Nora Edwards
    Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, United States
    Brain Res 1029:77-83. 2004
    ..Together, these findings identify the POAH as an important neural locus regulating sexual behavior but not thermoregulation and suggest that the SCN acts as a pacemaker controlling daily behavioral temperature regulation in this species...
  50. ncbi request reprint Changes in androgen receptor mRNA expression in the forebrain and oviduct during the reproductive cycle of female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius
    Turk Rhen
    Section of Integrative Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Gen Comp Endocrinol 132:133-41. 2003
    ..Although the function of AR in the female leopard gecko is not yet clear, our results are in accord with growing evidence that androgens regulate numerous aspects of female physiology and behavior in vertebrates...
  51. pmc Transgenerational epigenetic imprints on mate preference
    David Crews
    Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:5942-6. 2007
    ..Our observations provide direct experimental evidence for a role of epigenetics as a determinant factor in evolution...

Research Grants17

  1. EVOLUTION OF BRAIN-BEHAVIOR CONTROLLING MECHANISMS
    David Crews; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. EVOLUTION OF BRAIN-BEHAVIOR CONTROLLING MECHANISMS
    David Crews; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  3. Epigenetic Influences on Brain and Behavior
    David Crews; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Specific Aim III. To establish if the different behavioral profiles exhibited in such animals in adulthood are reflected in different patterns of activity in a network of interconnected limbic nuclei. ..
  4. EVOLUTION OF BRAIN/BEHAVIOR CONTROLLING MECHANISMS
    David Crews; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ....
  5. EVOLUTION OF BRAIN/BEHAVIOR CONTROLLING MECHANISMS
    David Crews; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  6. EVOLUTION OF BRAIN-BEHAVIOR CONTROLLING MECHANISMS
    David Crews; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  7. EVOLUTION OF BRAIN/BEHAVIOR CONTROLLING MECHANISMS
    David Crews; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  8. TRAINING PROGRAM IN NEUROBIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR
    David Crews; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..All of the laboratories comply with NIH requirements. ..
  9. ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON BRAIN PLASTICITY
    David Crews; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The final category of experiments is particularly important as it will discern whether the incubation temperature effects are direct or indirect. ..
  10. EVOLUTION OF BRAIN/BEHAVIOR CONTROLLING MECHANISMS
    David Crews; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  11. ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON BRAIN PLASTICITY
    David Crews; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The final category of experiments is particularly important as it will discern whether the incubation temperature effects are direct or indirect. ..
  12. ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON BRAIN PLASTICITY
    David Crews; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The final category of experiments is particularly important as it will discern whether the incubation temperature effects are direct or indirect. ..
  13. ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON BRAIN PLASTICITY
    David Crews; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The final category of experiments is particularly important as it will discern whether the incubation temperature effects are direct or indirect. ..