S R Coughlin

Summary

Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Thrombin signalling and protease-activated receptors
    S R Coughlin
    Cardiovascular Research Institute and Department of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, 94143 0130, USA
    Nature 407:258-64. 2000
  2. pmc PARticipation in inflammation
    Shaun R Coughlin
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    J Clin Invest 111:25-7. 2003
  3. ncbi request reprint Protease-activated receptors in vascular biology
    S R Coughlin
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0130, USA
    Thromb Haemost 86:298-307. 2001
  4. ncbi request reprint Protease-activated receptors in hemostasis, thrombosis and vascular biology
    S R Coughlin
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0130, USA
    J Thromb Haemost 3:1800-14. 2005
  5. ncbi request reprint A dual thrombin receptor system for platelet activation
    M L Kahn
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0130, USA
    Nature 394:690-4. 1998
  6. ncbi request reprint A role for thrombin receptor signaling in endothelial cells during embryonic development
    C T Griffin
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California at San Francisco UCSF, San Francisco, California 94143
    Science 293:1666-70. 2001
  7. ncbi request reprint Role of thrombin signalling in platelets in haemostasis and thrombosis
    G R Sambrano
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, California 94143 0130, USA
    Nature 413:74-8. 2001
  8. pmc Protease-activated receptors 1 and 4 mediate activation of human platelets by thrombin
    M L Kahn
    Cardiovascular Research Institute and Daiichi Research Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0130, USA
    J Clin Invest 103:879-87. 1999
  9. ncbi request reprint Protease-activated receptor 3 is a second thrombin receptor in humans
    H Ishihara
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0130, USA
    Nature 386:502-6. 1997
  10. ncbi request reprint Gene and locus structure and chromosomal localization of the protease-activated receptor gene family
    M L Kahn
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0130, USA
    J Biol Chem 273:23290-6. 1998

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications57

  1. ncbi request reprint Thrombin signalling and protease-activated receptors
    S R Coughlin
    Cardiovascular Research Institute and Department of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, 94143 0130, USA
    Nature 407:258-64. 2000
    ..Roles for PARs are beginning to emerge in haemostasis and thrombosis, inflammation, and perhaps even blood vessel development...
  2. pmc PARticipation in inflammation
    Shaun R Coughlin
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    J Clin Invest 111:25-7. 2003
  3. ncbi request reprint Protease-activated receptors in vascular biology
    S R Coughlin
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0130, USA
    Thromb Haemost 86:298-307. 2001
    ..Our current understanding of the role of PARs in platelet and endothelial cell activation and their potential importance in normal and disease states is discussed...
  4. ncbi request reprint Protease-activated receptors in hemostasis, thrombosis and vascular biology
    S R Coughlin
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0130, USA
    J Thromb Haemost 3:1800-14. 2005
    ....
  5. ncbi request reprint A dual thrombin receptor system for platelet activation
    M L Kahn
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0130, USA
    Nature 394:690-4. 1998
    ..The identification of a two-receptor system for platelet activation by thrombin has important implications for the development of antithrombotic therapies...
  6. ncbi request reprint A role for thrombin receptor signaling in endothelial cells during embryonic development
    C T Griffin
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California at San Francisco UCSF, San Francisco, California 94143
    Science 293:1666-70. 2001
    ....
  7. ncbi request reprint Role of thrombin signalling in platelets in haemostasis and thrombosis
    G R Sambrano
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, California 94143 0130, USA
    Nature 413:74-8. 2001
    ..Thus platelet activation by thrombin is necessary for normal haemostasis and may be an important target in the treatment of thrombosis...
  8. pmc Protease-activated receptors 1 and 4 mediate activation of human platelets by thrombin
    M L Kahn
    Cardiovascular Research Institute and Daiichi Research Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0130, USA
    J Clin Invest 103:879-87. 1999
    ..These observations suggest that PAR1 and PAR4 account for most, if not all, thrombin signaling in platelets and that antagonists that block these receptors might be useful antithrombotic agents...
  9. ncbi request reprint Protease-activated receptor 3 is a second thrombin receptor in humans
    H Ishihara
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0130, USA
    Nature 386:502-6. 1997
    ..PAR3 provides a new tool for understanding thrombin signalling and a possible target for therapeutics designed selectively to block thrombotic, inflammatory and proliferative responses to thrombin...
  10. ncbi request reprint Gene and locus structure and chromosomal localization of the protease-activated receptor gene family
    M L Kahn
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0130, USA
    J Biol Chem 273:23290-6. 1998
    ..A comparison of the structures of the PAR amino acid sequences, gene structures, locus organization, and chromosomal locations suggests a working model for PAR gene evolution...
  11. ncbi request reprint Impaired hemostasis and protection against thrombosis in protease-activated receptor 4-deficient mice is due to lack of thrombin signaling in platelets
    J R Hamilton
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    J Thromb Haemost 2:1429-35. 2004
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint PAR3 is a cofactor for PAR4 activation by thrombin
    M Nakanishi-Matsui
    Cardiovascular Research Institute and Daiichi Research Center, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0130, USA
    Nature 404:609-13. 2000
    ..This establishes a paradigm for cofactor-assisted PAR activation and for a G-protein-coupled receptor's acting as an accessory molecule to present ligand to another receptor...
  13. pmc Disparate temporal expression of the prothrombin and thrombin receptor genes during mouse development
    S J Soifer
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco 94143
    Am J Pathol 144:60-9. 1994
    ..The finding of robust thrombin receptor expression before prothrombin mRNA was detected raises the question of whether other proteases or peptide ligands can activate the thrombin receptor...
  14. ncbi request reprint Protease-activated receptors in the cardiovascular system
    S R Coughlin
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine and Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 67:197-208. 2002
  15. ncbi request reprint Identification of cDNAs encoding two G protein-coupled receptors for lysosphingolipids
    S An
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
    FEBS Lett 417:279-82. 1997
    ..H218 and Edg3 expressed in Xenopus oocytes conferred responsiveness to S1P and dihydro-S1P in agonist-triggered 45Ca2+ efflux. Therefore, H218 and Edg3 are functional receptors for S1P and perhaps other closely related lysosphingolipids...
  16. ncbi request reprint Cellular localization of membrane-type serine protease 1 and identification of protease-activated receptor-2 and single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator as substrates
    T Takeuchi
    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Biochemistry and Biophysics, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    J Biol Chem 275:26333-42. 2000
    ..The membrane localization of MT-SP1 and its affinity for these key extracellular substrates suggests a role of the proteolytic activity in regulatory events...
  17. ncbi request reprint Molecular cloning of a functional thrombin receptor reveals a novel proteolytic mechanism of receptor activation
    T K Vu
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0524
    Cell 64:1057-68. 1991
    ..These data reveal a novel signaling mechanism in which thrombin cleaves its receptor's amino-terminal extension to create a new receptor amino terminus that functions as a tethered ligand and activates the receptor...
  18. pmc Conserved structure and adjacent location of the thrombin receptor and protease-activated receptor 2 genes define a protease-activated receptor gene cluster
    M Kahn
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0524, USA
    Mol Med 2:349-57. 1996
    ....
  19. ncbi request reprint The cloned thrombin receptor is necessary and sufficient for activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and mitogenesis in mouse lung fibroblasts. Loss of responses in fibroblasts from receptor knockout mice
    J Trejo
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0524, USA
    J Biol Chem 271:21536-41. 1996
    ..Thus in mouse lung fibroblasts, one thrombin receptor utilizes two pathways for MAP kinase activation: one is protein kinase C- and c-Raf dependent, and a second is Gi-dependent and c-Raf-independent...
  20. ncbi request reprint Cathepsin G activates protease-activated receptor-4 in human platelets
    G R Sambrano
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0130, USA
    J Biol Chem 275:6819-23. 2000
    ..These data show that PAR4 mediates platelet responses to cathepsin G and support the hypothesis that cathepsin G might mediate neutrophil-platelet interactions at sites of vascular injury or inflammation...
  21. pmc Molecular cloning, expression and potential functions of the human proteinase-activated receptor-2
    S K Bohm
    Department of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, 94143 0660, USA
    Biochem J 314:1009-16. 1996
    ..Thus PAR-2 may serve as a trypsin sensor in the gut. Its expression by cells and tissues not normally exposed to pancreatic trypsin suggests that other proteases could serve as physiological activators...
  22. ncbi request reprint A mammalian homolog of fission yeast Cdc5 regulates G2 progression and mitotic entry
    H S Bernstein
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    J Biol Chem 273:4666-71. 1998
    ..Thus, hCdc5 is the first transcriptional regulator shown to affect G2 progression and mitotic entry in mammalian cells...
  23. pmc How the protease thrombin talks to cells
    S R Coughlin
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0130, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:11023-7. 1999
    ..PAR2 is activated by trypsin and by trypsin-like proteases but not by thrombin. Recent studies with knockout mice, receptor-activating peptides, and blocking antibodies are beginning to define the role of these receptors in vivo...
  24. ncbi request reprint Role of the thrombin receptor's cytoplasmic tail in intracellular trafficking. Distinct determinants for agonist-triggered versus tonic internalization and intracellular localization
    M J Shapiro
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0130, USA
    J Biol Chem 271:32874-80. 1996
    ..They further suggest that maintenance of the intracellular pool of naive thrombin receptors requires tonic receptor internalization...
  25. ncbi request reprint Thrombin receptors on human platelets. Initial localization and subsequent redistribution during platelet activation
    M Molino
    Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Biol Chem 272:6011-7. 1997
    ..This difference underlies the ability of endothelial cells to recover responsiveness to thrombin rapidly while platelets do not, despite the presence on both of the same receptor for thrombin...
  26. pmc Mice lacking the thrombin receptor, PAR1, have normal skin wound healing
    A J Connolly
    Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0130, USA
    Am J Pathol 151:1199-204. 1997
    ..We conclude that PAR1 is not necessary for normal skin wound healing in mice...
  27. ncbi request reprint Glycoprotein V-deficient platelets have undiminished thrombin responsiveness and Do not exhibit a Bernard-Soulier phenotype
    M L Kahn
    Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Blood 94:4112-21. 1999
    ..Whether redundancy accounts for the lack of phenotype of GPV-deficiency or whether GPV serves subtle or as yet unprobed functions in platelets or other cells remains to be determined...
  28. ncbi request reprint Role of the thrombin receptor in development and evidence for a second receptor
    A J Connolly
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, 94143 0524, USA
    Nature 381:516-9. 1996
    ..Moreover, a second platelet thrombin receptor exists, and different thrombin receptors have tissue-specific roles. This may allow development of therapeutics that will selectively block thrombin's different cellular actions...
  29. ncbi request reprint Specificity of the thrombin receptor for agonist peptide is defined by its extracellular surface
    R E Gerszten
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0524
    Nature 368:648-51. 1994
    ..Our results indicate that agonist interaction with extracellular domains is important for thrombin receptor activation...
  30. pmc Thrombin receptor expression in normal and atherosclerotic human arteries
    N A Nelken
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco 94143
    J Clin Invest 90:1614-21. 1992
    ..These results establish thrombin receptor activation as a candidate for contributing to sclerotic and inflammatory processes in the human vasculature, such as those that occur in atherosclerosis and restenosis...
  31. ncbi request reprint Genetic evidence that protease-activated receptors mediate factor Xa signaling in endothelial cells
    Eric Camerer
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:16081-7. 2002
    ..This information is critical for the design and interpretation of knockout mouse studies to probe the possible roles of Xa signaling in vivo...
  32. ncbi request reprint Protection against thrombosis in mice lacking PAR3
    Ethan J Weiss
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143 0130, USA
    Blood 100:3240-4. 2002
    ..They also suggest that PAR inhibition might be explored for the prevention or treatment of thrombosis in human beings...
  33. pmc Identification of a transient subpial neurogenic zone in the developing dentate gyrus and its regulation by Cxcl12 and reelin signaling
    Guangnan Li
    Department of Neurology, UCSF School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Development 136:327-35. 2009
    ..These results demonstrate that the relocation of neural precursors in the dentate gyrus consists of discrete steps regulated by multiple pathways...
  34. ncbi request reprint Regulated shedding of PAR1 N-terminal exodomain from endothelial cells
    Matthew J Ludeman
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0130, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:18592-9. 2004
    ..Nonetheless, regulated shedding of G protein-coupled receptors represents a new mechanism by which signaling by this important class of receptors might be modulated...
  35. ncbi request reprint Pombe Cdc5-related protein. A putative human transcription factor implicated in mitogen-activated signaling
    H S Bernstein
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    J Biol Chem 272:5833-7. 1997
    ..This movement correlated temporally with an increase in PCDC5RP phosphorylation. Thus, PCDC5RP is a presumed transcription factor that appears to transduce cytoplasmic signals to the nucleus upon serum stimulation...
  36. ncbi request reprint Platelets, protease-activated receptors, and fibrinogen in hematogenous metastasis
    Eric Camerer
    University of California, San Francisco, HSE 1300, 513 Parnassus Ave, San Francisco, CA 94143 0130, USA
    Blood 104:397-401. 2004
    ..Importantly, PAR4 heterozygosity conferred some protection against metastasis in this model. Thus even partial attenuation of platelet function may be sufficient to provide benefit...
  37. ncbi request reprint Protease-activated receptors 1 and 4 mediate thrombin signaling in endothelial cells
    Hiroshi Kataoka
    Cardiovascular Research Institute and Department of Medicine and Celluar and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, 94143, USA
    Blood 102:3224-31. 2003
    ..These receptors serve at least partially redundant roles in endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo and together are necessary for the thrombin responses measured...
  38. ncbi request reprint Protease-activated receptor-2 activation induces acute lung inflammation by neuropeptide-dependent mechanisms
    Xiao Su
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    J Immunol 175:2598-605. 2005
    ..These effects were either partly or completely neuropeptide dependent, suggesting that PAR2 can cause lung inflammation by a neurogenic mechanism...
  39. pmc Roles of protease-activated receptors in a mouse model of endotoxemia
    Eric Camerer
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California San Francisco, HSE 1307, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143 0130, USA
    Blood 107:3912-21. 2006
    ..These results raise the possibility that decreases in platelet count in the setting of sepsis may not be caused by disseminated intravascular coagulation but instead report on a sometimes parallel but independent process...
  40. ncbi request reprint PAR1 cleavage and signaling in response to activated protein C and thrombin
    Matthew J Ludeman
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0130, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:13122-8. 2005
    ..Although consistent with reports that sufficiently high concentrations of APC can cleave and activate PAR1 in culture, our data suggest that a significant physiological role for PAR1 activation by APC is unlikely...
  41. pmc Characterization of a functional thrombin receptor. Issues and opportunities
    S R Coughlin
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco 94143
    J Clin Invest 89:351-5. 1992
  42. ncbi request reprint A common PDGF receptor is activated by homodimeric A and B forms of PDGF
    J A Escobedo
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco
    Science 240:1532-4. 1988
    ....
  43. pmc Roles and interactions among protease-activated receptors and P2ry12 in hemostasis and thrombosis
    Ivo Cornelissen
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:18605-10. 2010
    ..These results make predictions being tested by ongoing human trials and suggest hypotheses for new antithrombotic strategies...
  44. ncbi request reprint Combined deficiency of protease-activated receptor-4 and fibrinogen recapitulates the hemostatic defect but not the embryonic lethality of prothrombin deficiency
    Eric Camerer
    Carddiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0130, USA
    Blood 103:152-4. 2004
    ..At face value, these results suggest that platelet activation and fibrin formation are together sufficient to account for the importance of thrombin for hemostasis but not for its importance for embryonic development...
  45. pmc Local protease signaling contributes to neural tube closure in the mouse embryo
    Eric Camerer
    Cardiovasular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Dev Cell 18:25-38. 2010
    ..Together, our results suggest a role for protease-activated receptor signaling in neural tube closure and identify a local protease network that may trigger Par2 signaling and monitor and regulate epithelial integrity in this context...
  46. pmc Sphingosine-1-phosphate in the plasma compartment regulates basal and inflammation-induced vascular leak in mice
    Eric Camerer
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, UCSF, San Francisco, California 94158 2517, USA
    J Clin Invest 119:1871-9. 2009
    ..Our results suggest that the blood communicates with blood vessels via plasma S1P to maintain vascular integrity and regulate vascular leak. This pathway prevents lethal responses to leak-inducing mediators in mouse models...
  47. pmc Essential role for Galpha13 in endothelial cells during embryonic development
    Kathleen M Ruppel
    Cardiovascular Research Institute and Departments of Pediatrics, Medicine, and Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:8281-6. 2005
    ....
  48. pmc Protease-activated receptor 2, dipeptidyl peptidase I, and proteases mediate Clostridium difficile toxin A enteritis
    Graeme S Cottrell
    Center for the Neurobiology of Digestive Disease, Department of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0660, USA
    Gastroenterology 132:2422-37. 2007
    ..We studied the role of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR(2)) and its activating enzymes, trypsins and tryptase, in Clostridium difficile toxin A (TxA)-induced enteritis...
  49. ncbi request reprint The Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor Lsc homo-oligomerizes and is negatively regulated through domains in its carboxyl terminus that are absent in novel splenic isoforms
    Thomas M Eisenhaure
    Department of Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:30975-84. 2003
    ..First, Lsc homo-oligomerizes and is negatively regulated through domains in its C terminus; and second, functionally distinct isoforms of Lsc lacking these domains are present in the spleen...
  50. ncbi request reprint Promotion of lymphocyte egress into blood and lymph by distinct sources of sphingosine-1-phosphate
    Rajita Pappu
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, 600 16th Street S472D, San Francisco, CA 94143 2240, USA
    Science 316:295-8. 2007
    ..Disruption of compartmentalized S1P signaling is a plausible mechanism by which S1P-receptor-1 agonists function as immunosuppressives...
  51. pmc Lymphatic endothelial cell sphingosine kinase activity is required for lymphocyte egress and lymphatic patterning
    Trung H M Pham
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    J Exp Med 207:17-27. 2010
    ..Our data provide evidence that lymphatic endothelial cells are an in vivo source of S1P required for lymphocyte egress from LNs and Peyer's patches, and suggest a role for S1P in lymphatic vessel maturation...
  52. pmc Probing cell type-specific functions of Gi in vivo identifies GPCR regulators of insulin secretion
    Jean B Regard
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, Diabetes Center, Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, UCSF School of Medicine, San Francisco, California 94143 2240, USA
    J Clin Invest 117:4034-43. 2007
    ....
  53. pmc A critical role for extracellular protein disulfide isomerase during thrombus formation in mice
    Jaehyung Cho
    Division of Hemostasis and Thrombosis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Clin Invest 118:1123-31. 2008
    ..These results indicate that PDI is required in vivo in mice for both fibrin generation and platelet thrombus formation...
  54. pmc Maternal Par4 and platelets contribute to defective placenta formation in mouse embryos lacking thrombomodulin
    Rashmi Sood
    Blood Research Institute, Blood Center of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA
    Blood 112:585-91. 2008
    ..Our findings demonstrate that fetal prothrombotic mutations can cause localized activation of maternal platelets at the feto-maternal interface in a mother with normal hemostatic function...
  55. pmc Par4 is required for platelet thrombus propagation but not fibrin generation in a mouse model of thrombosis
    Erik R Vandendries
    Division of Hemostasis and Thrombosis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:288-92. 2007
    ....
  56. pmc Fetal gene defects precipitate platelet-mediated pregnancy failure in factor V Leiden mothers
    Rashmi Sood
    Blood Research Institute, Blood Center of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    J Exp Med 204:1049-56. 2007
    ..e., thrombosis or pregnancy loss), depending on the vascular bed in which this interaction occurs...
  57. ncbi request reprint Overview of the Alliance for Cellular Signaling
    Alfred G Gilman
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
    Nature 420:703-6. 2002
    ..One goal is to catalyse complementary research in individual laboratories; to facilitate this, all alliance data are freely available for use by the entire research community...