Robert Coombs

Summary

Affiliation: University of Washington
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Association between culturable human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in semen and HIV-1 RNA levels in semen and blood: evidence for compartmentalization of HIV-1 between semen and blood
    R W Coombs
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, School of Medicine, Seattle 98195 7110, USA
    J Infect Dis 177:320-30. 1998
  2. ncbi request reprint Lower genitourinary tract sources of seminal HIV
    Robert W Coombs
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98104 2499, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 41:430-8. 2006
  3. ncbi request reprint Variation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral RNA levels in the female genital tract: implications for applying measurements to individual women
    R W Coombs
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98104 2499, USA
    J Infect Dis 184:1187-91. 2001
  4. pmc Associations between genital tract infections, genital tract inflammation, and cervical cytobrush HIV-1 DNA in US versus Kenyan women
    Caroline Mitchell
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 62:143-8. 2013
  5. pmc Interaction between lactobacilli, bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria, and HIV Type 1 RNA and DNA Genital shedding in U.S. and Kenyan women
    Caroline Mitchell
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 29:13-9. 2013
  6. pmc Compartmentalization of HIV-1 within the female genital tract is due to monotypic and low-diversity variants not distinct viral populations
    Marta Bull
    Seattle Children s Hospital Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, USA
    PLoS ONE 4:e7122. 2009
  7. pmc Detection of hydrogen peroxide-producing Lactobacillus species in the vagina: a comparison of culture and quantitative PCR among HIV-1 seropositive women
    Jennifer E Balkus
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 359909, 325 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
    BMC Infect Dis 12:188. 2012
  8. pmc Cervicovaginal shedding of HIV type 1 is related to genital tract inflammation independent of changes in vaginal microbiota
    Caroline Mitchell
    University of Washington, Seattle, 98104, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 27:35-9. 2011
  9. pmc Effect of acyclovir on HIV-1 set point among herpes simplex virus type 2-seropositive persons during early HIV-1 infection
    H Nina Kim
    Department of Medicine, Schools of Medicine and Public Health, University of Washington, 325 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
    J Infect Dis 202:734-8. 2010
  10. pmc Diminished human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA yield from dried blood spots after storage in a humid incubator at 37 degrees C compared to -20 degrees C
    Caroline Mitchell
    University of Washington, Seattle Children s Hospital Research Institute, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:2945-9. 2008

Research Grants

  1. Oral HIV Pathogenesis and Shedding
    Robert Coombs; Fiscal Year: 2005
  2. Initiating Studies of Genitourinary HIV-1 Shedding among Kenyan Men
    Robert Coombs; Fiscal Year: 2007
  3. HIV-1 SHEDDING FROM FEMALE GENITAL TRACT
    Robert Coombs; Fiscal Year: 2006

Detail Information

Publications39

  1. ncbi request reprint Association between culturable human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in semen and HIV-1 RNA levels in semen and blood: evidence for compartmentalization of HIV-1 between semen and blood
    R W Coombs
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, School of Medicine, Seattle 98195 7110, USA
    J Infect Dis 177:320-30. 1998
    ....
  2. ncbi request reprint Lower genitourinary tract sources of seminal HIV
    Robert W Coombs
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98104 2499, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 41:430-8. 2006
    ..To investigate genital tract sources of HIV-1, we conducted extensive genitourinary sampling of 23 seropositive men without urethritis who shed HIV in their seminal plasma...
  3. ncbi request reprint Variation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral RNA levels in the female genital tract: implications for applying measurements to individual women
    R W Coombs
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98104 2499, USA
    J Infect Dis 184:1187-91. 2001
    ..001) or with concomitant genital tract infection (P=.003). Endocervical canal wicks should be considered as an adjunct to cervicovaginal lavage, to improve the sensitivity and precision of HIV-1 RNA detection...
  4. pmc Associations between genital tract infections, genital tract inflammation, and cervical cytobrush HIV-1 DNA in US versus Kenyan women
    Caroline Mitchell
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 62:143-8. 2013
    ..01). HIV-1 DNA shedding was associated with increased concentrations of IL-1β and IL-6 and lower secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor among US women but not Kenyan women...
  5. pmc Interaction between lactobacilli, bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria, and HIV Type 1 RNA and DNA Genital shedding in U.S. and Kenyan women
    Caroline Mitchell
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 29:13-9. 2013
    ..6; 0.40, 0.91). Vaginal Lactobacillus species were associated with lower risk of genital HIV-1 shedding, while the presence of certain BV-associated species may increase that risk...
  6. pmc Compartmentalization of HIV-1 within the female genital tract is due to monotypic and low-diversity variants not distinct viral populations
    Marta Bull
    Seattle Children s Hospital Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, USA
    PLoS ONE 4:e7122. 2009
    ....
  7. pmc Detection of hydrogen peroxide-producing Lactobacillus species in the vagina: a comparison of culture and quantitative PCR among HIV-1 seropositive women
    Jennifer E Balkus
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 359909, 325 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
    BMC Infect Dis 12:188. 2012
    ..We assessed the concordance of H(2)O(2)-producing Lactobacillus detected by culture with quantitative PCR (qPCR) detection of Lactobacillus species commonly assumed to be H(2)O(2)-producers...
  8. pmc Cervicovaginal shedding of HIV type 1 is related to genital tract inflammation independent of changes in vaginal microbiota
    Caroline Mitchell
    University of Washington, Seattle, 98104, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 27:35-9. 2011
    ..This association suggests that there may be additional, noninfectious causes of inflammation that increase cervicovaginal HIV-1 shedding...
  9. pmc Effect of acyclovir on HIV-1 set point among herpes simplex virus type 2-seropositive persons during early HIV-1 infection
    H Nina Kim
    Department of Medicine, Schools of Medicine and Public Health, University of Washington, 325 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
    J Infect Dis 202:734-8. 2010
    ..In conclusion, acyclovir suppression during HIV-1 seroconversion and the subsequent 6 months does not affect HIV-1 set point...
  10. pmc Diminished human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA yield from dried blood spots after storage in a humid incubator at 37 degrees C compared to -20 degrees C
    Caroline Mitchell
    University of Washington, Seattle Children s Hospital Research Institute, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:2945-9. 2008
    ..29). We conclude that exposure of DBS to 37 degrees C and high humidity impaired the recovery of HIV-1 DNA from DBS, whereas DNA recovery was preserved when DBS were stored frozen...
  11. pmc Laser cutting eliminates nucleic acid cross-contamination in dried-blood-spot processing
    Sean C Murphy
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 50:4128-30. 2012
    ..We therefore developed a contact-free laser cutting system that effectively eliminated cross-contamination during DBS processing...
  12. ncbi request reprint Safety, pharmacokinetics, and antiviral activity of AMD3100, a selective CXCR4 receptor inhibitor, in HIV-1 infection
    Craig W Hendrix
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 37:1253-62. 2004
    ..Overall, however, the average change in viral load across all patients was +0.03 log10 HIV RNA. Given these results, AMD3100 is not being further developed for ARV therapy, but development continues for stem cell mobilization...
  13. doi request reprint Male genital tract compartmentalization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV)
    Kurt Diem
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 24:561-71. 2008
    ..As such, our study findings are important for understanding the long-term response to antiretroviral therapy, the design of vaccines, and the sexual transmission of HIV...
  14. doi request reprint Bacterial vaginosis, not HIV, is primarily responsible for increased vaginal concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines
    Caroline M Mitchell
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 24:667-71. 2008
    ..005). Neither HIV nor BV was associated with changes in IL-6 or IL-8. HIV does not have a major impact on vaginal concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines when controlling for the presence of bacterial vaginosis...
  15. pmc Detection of nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 after discontinuation of virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy
    C Bradley Hare
    Dept of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 47:421-4. 2008
    ..Mutations remained detectable for at least 48 weeks in some subjects...
  16. ncbi request reprint Factors associated with oropharyngeal human immunodeficiency virus shedding
    Richard A Zuckerman
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA
    J Infect Dis 188:142-5. 2003
    ..In multivariate analysis, receipt of antiretroviral therapy, higher CD4 cell count, and history of tonsillectomy were predictors of lower pharyngeal HIV RNA levels...
  17. pmc HIV dynamics in seminal plasma during primary HIV infection
    Joanne Stekler
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 24:1269-74. 2008
    ..Incorporating seminal plasma HIV levels into future mathematical models may increase the accuracy of these models...
  18. ncbi request reprint A study of the immunology, virology, and safety of prednisone in HIV-1-infected subjects with CD4 cell counts of 200 to 700 mm(-3)
    Robert S Wallis
    The University Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey New Jersey Medical School, Newark, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 32:281-6. 2003
    ..The potential role of corticosteroids as tools to examine this question will be limited by concerns regarding their toxicity; however, further studies of other agents to limit cellular activation in AIDS are warranted...
  19. ncbi request reprint Recent observations on HIV type-1 infection in the genital tract of men and women
    Robert W Coombs
    Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
    AIDS 17:455-80. 2003
  20. ncbi request reprint The menstrual cycle does not affect human immunodeficiency virus type 1 levels in vaginal secretions
    Patricia S Reichelderfer
    J Infect Dis 186:726-8; author reply 728-9. 2002
  21. pmc Detection of replication-competent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in cultures from patients with levels of HIV-1 RNA in plasma suppressed to less than 500 or 50 copies per milliliter
    Lisa M Demeter
    University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York 14642, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 40:2089-94. 2002
    ..The delay in the time required for HIV cultures to turn positive should be considered when attempting to obtain an HIV isolate from patients with suppression of plasma viral load...
  22. ncbi request reprint Placebo-controlled trial of cyclosporin-A in HIV-1 disease: implications for solid organ transplantation
    Leonard H Calabrese
    Department of Rheumatic and Immunologic Diseases, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 29:356-62. 2002
    ..We report here the results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and immunologic activity of CsA administration in early HIV disease...
  23. ncbi request reprint T69D/N pol mutation, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA levels, and syncytium-inducing phenotype are associated with CD4 cell depletion during didanosine therapy
    Willscott E Naugler
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
    J Infect Dis 185:448-55. 2002
    ..The selection of the T69D/N mutation in children with HIV-1 disease progression during ddI therapy suggests that this mutation confers a fitness advantage to the virus that may include resistance to ddI...
  24. doi request reprint Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on viral burden in the lungs of HIV-infected subjects
    Homer L Twigg Iii
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and the AIDS Clinical Trials Unit, Indiana University Medical Center, Indianapolis, USA
    J Infect Dis 197:109-16. 2008
    ..The AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 723 Team evaluated the effect of HAART on lung viral load and cellular constituents...
  25. ncbi request reprint Herpes simplex virus (HSV) suppression with valacyclovir reduces rectal and blood plasma HIV-1 levels in HIV-1/HSV-2-seropositive men: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial
    Richard A Zuckerman
    Section of Infectious Disease and International Health, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH, USA
    J Infect Dis 196:1500-8. 2007
    ..We studied HIV-1 levels during HSV suppression in coinfected persons in a placebo-controlled crossover trial...
  26. ncbi request reprint Transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance: are we seeing just the tip of an epidemiological iceberg?
    Joanne Stekler
    J Infect Dis 196:336-8. 2007
  27. ncbi request reprint Overview on source of the virus, viral measurement and variability
    Robert W Coombs
    University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 38:S31-2. 2005
  28. pmc Detection and quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 p24 antigen in dried whole blood and plasma on filter paper stored under various conditions
    Chung Chen Li
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:3901-5. 2005
    ..These results suggest that transport and storage of plasma on filter paper and quantification of HD p24 Ag may be a reliable method for HIV-1 load monitoring...
  29. pmc Depletion of latent HIV-1 infection in vivo: a proof-of-concept study
    Ginger Lehrman
    University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 753901, USA
    Lancet 366:549-55. 2005
    ..Since the chromatin remodeling enzyme histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) maintains latency of integrated HIV, we tested the ability of the HDAC inhibitor valproic acid to deplete persistent, latent infection in resting CD4+ T cells...
  30. ncbi request reprint Higher concentration of HIV RNA in rectal mucosa secretions than in blood and seminal plasma, among men who have sex with men, independent of antiretroviral therapy
    Richard A Zuckerman
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle 98104, USA
    J Infect Dis 190:156-61. 2004
    ..Thus, controlling for plasma HIV RNA, ART had an independent effect on seminal, but not rectal, HIV levels...
  31. ncbi request reprint Evidence that intermittent structured treatment interruption, but not immunization with ALVAC-HIV vCP1452, promotes host control of HIV replication: the results of AIDS Clinical Trials Group 5068
    Jeffrey M Jacobson
    Beth Israel Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY 10003, USA
    J Infect Dis 194:623-32. 2006
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint Regimen simplification to atazanavir-ritonavir alone as maintenance antiretroviral therapy after sustained virologic suppression
    Susan Swindells
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 5400, USA
    JAMA 296:806-14. 2006
    ..Maintenance therapy with ritonavir-boosted atazanavir alone is a possible option because of low pill burden, once-daily dosing, safety, and unique resistance profile...
  33. ncbi request reprint The impact of sex and contraceptive therapy on the plasma and intracellular pharmacokinetics of zidovudine
    Francesca T Aweeka
    Drug Research Unit, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0622, USA
    AIDS 20:1833-41. 2006
    ..This study evaluated the impact of female sex and contraceptive therapy on zidovudine plasma and intracellular pharmacokinetics and the impact of contraceptive therapy on HIV viral load...
  34. ncbi request reprint Maternal viral load and rate of disease progression among vertically HIV-1-infected children: an international meta-analysis
    John P A Ioannidis
    Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Ioannina School of Medicine, Ioannina, Greece
    AIDS 18:99-108. 2004
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint Screening for acute HIV infection: lessons learned
    Joanne Stekler
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 44:459-61. 2007
    ..We present cases to illustrate unusual instances of acute HIV screening, which include "window period" testing and the discovery of low-level HIV RNA...
  36. ncbi request reprint HIV type 1 zidovudine (ZDV) resistance in blood and uterine cervical secretions of pregnant women
    Lisa M Frenkel
    University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98109, Children s Hospital and Medical Center of Seattle, Seattle, Washington 98105, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 22:870-3. 2006
    ..However, in only 1 (1.8%) of 57 pregnancies evaluated was resistant virus limited to the cervical secretions. ZDV-resistant virus is rarely limited to the female genital tract...
  37. pmc Generation of HIV-1-specific CD8+ cell responses following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation
    Ann E Woolfrey
    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA
    Blood 112:3484-7. 2008
    ..We conclude that allogeneic HCT offers the unique ability to characterize de novo HIV-1-specific immune responses. This clinical trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT00112593)...
  38. pmc Hepatitis C virus replication in transfected and serum-infected cultured human fetal hepatocytes
    Catherine A Lazaro
    Department of Pathology, University of Washington School of Medicine, K078 Health Sciences Building, Box 357705, Seattle, WA 98195 7705, USA
    Am J Pathol 170:478-89. 2007
    ..This culture system may be used to study the responses of nontransformed human hepatocytes to HCV infection, to analyze serum infectivity, and to clone novel HCVs from infected patients...
  39. ncbi request reprint Interruption of antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected patients with preserved immune function is associated with a low rate of clinical progression: a prospective study by AIDS Clinical Trials Group 5170
    Daniel J Skiest
    Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, MA 01106, USA
    J Infect Dis 195:1426-36. 2007
    ..We sought to determine the safety of treatment interruption (TI) and to identify parameters that would define patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for whom TI is safer...

Research Grants6

  1. Oral HIV Pathogenesis and Shedding
    Robert Coombs; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. Initiating Studies of Genitourinary HIV-1 Shedding among Kenyan Men
    Robert Coombs; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Because genital samples are difficult to collect from men, we will evaluate the validity, feasibility, and acceptability two different collection methods in heterosexual men and men who have sex with men in Kenya. ..
  3. HIV-1 SHEDDING FROM FEMALE GENITAL TRACT
    Robert Coombs; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Taken together, these studies will provide important comparative data to the male genital tract shedding of HIV-1 and may have implications for both the vertical and horizontal transmission of HIV-1. ..