P A Conrad

Summary

Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Proteomic analysis of fractionated Toxoplasma oocysts reveals clues to their environmental resistance
    Heather M Fritz
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e29955. 2012
  2. doi request reprint Operationalizing a One Health approach to global health challenges
    Patricia A Conrad
    One Health Institute and Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 36:211-6. 2013
  3. ncbi request reprint Transmission of Toxoplasma: clues from the study of sea otters as sentinels of Toxoplasma gondii flow into the marine environment
    P A Conrad
    Wildlife Health Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Old Davis Road, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Int J Parasitol 35:1155-68. 2005
  4. doi request reprint Evolution of a transdisciplinary "One Medicine-One Health" approach to global health education at the University of California, Davis
    Patricia A Conrad
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, United States
    Prev Vet Med 92:268-74. 2009
  5. ncbi request reprint Description of Babesia duncani n.sp. (Apicomplexa: Babesiidae) from humans and its differentiation from other piroplasms
    Patricia A Conrad
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, 1126 Haring Hall One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 8745, USA
    Int J Parasitol 36:779-89. 2006
  6. doi request reprint Interactive computerized learning program exposes veterinary students to challenging international animal-health problems
    Patricia A Conrad
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Vet Med Educ 34:497-501. 2007
  7. ncbi request reprint Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Clostridium perfringens, and Plesiomonas shigelloides in marine and freshwater invertebrates from coastal California ecosystems
    W A Miller
    School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Microb Ecol 52:198-206. 2006
  8. ncbi request reprint Isolation and characterization of Sarcocystis from brain tissue of a free-living southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) with fatal meningoencephalitis
    M A Miller
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis 95616-8739, USA
    Parasitol Res 87:252-7. 2001
  9. ncbi request reprint New genotypes and factors associated with Cryptosporidium detection in mussels (Mytilus spp.) along the California coast
    W A Miller
    School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Int J Parasitol 35:1103-13. 2005
  10. doi request reprint Endogenous transplacental transmission of Neospora hughesi in naturally infected horses
    N Pusterla
    Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Parasitol 97:281-5. 2011

Detail Information

Publications77

  1. pmc Proteomic analysis of fractionated Toxoplasma oocysts reveals clues to their environmental resistance
    Heather M Fritz
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e29955. 2012
    ..The latter are known from other systems to be key to enabling survival against desiccation...
  2. doi request reprint Operationalizing a One Health approach to global health challenges
    Patricia A Conrad
    One Health Institute and Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 36:211-6. 2013
    ..Collaboration is rarely without complications; however, drawing on these insights may benefit the process of operationalizing the One Health approach to address today's global health challenges...
  3. ncbi request reprint Transmission of Toxoplasma: clues from the study of sea otters as sentinels of Toxoplasma gondii flow into the marine environment
    P A Conrad
    Wildlife Health Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Old Davis Road, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Int J Parasitol 35:1155-68. 2005
    ..Investigation into the processes promoting T. gondii infections in sea otters will provide a better understanding of terrestrial parasite flow and the emergence of disease at the interface between wildlife, domestic animals and humans...
  4. doi request reprint Evolution of a transdisciplinary "One Medicine-One Health" approach to global health education at the University of California, Davis
    Patricia A Conrad
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, United States
    Prev Vet Med 92:268-74. 2009
    ....
  5. ncbi request reprint Description of Babesia duncani n.sp. (Apicomplexa: Babesiidae) from humans and its differentiation from other piroplasms
    Patricia A Conrad
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, 1126 Haring Hall One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 8745, USA
    Int J Parasitol 36:779-89. 2006
    ..duncani n.sp. is a distinct species from other known Babesia spp. for which morphologic and sequence information are available...
  6. doi request reprint Interactive computerized learning program exposes veterinary students to challenging international animal-health problems
    Patricia A Conrad
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Vet Med Educ 34:497-501. 2007
    ..ucdavis.edu/html/International_web/international_menu.html>. A broadband Internet connection is recommended, since the modules make extensive use of embedded video and audio clips. Information on how to obtain the CD is also provided...
  7. ncbi request reprint Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Clostridium perfringens, and Plesiomonas shigelloides in marine and freshwater invertebrates from coastal California ecosystems
    W A Miller
    School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Microb Ecol 52:198-206. 2006
    ....
  8. ncbi request reprint Isolation and characterization of Sarcocystis from brain tissue of a free-living southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) with fatal meningoencephalitis
    M A Miller
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis 95616-8739, USA
    Parasitol Res 87:252-7. 2001
    ..This isolate (SO SN1), was indistinguishable from S. neurona, based on parasite morphology, antigenic reactivity and molecular characterization...
  9. ncbi request reprint New genotypes and factors associated with Cryptosporidium detection in mussels (Mytilus spp.) along the California coast
    W A Miller
    School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Int J Parasitol 35:1103-13. 2005
    ....
  10. doi request reprint Endogenous transplacental transmission of Neospora hughesi in naturally infected horses
    N Pusterla
    Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Parasitol 97:281-5. 2011
    ..hughesi. Only 1 placenta collected in 2007 from the mare with the 2 congenitally infected foals tested PCR positive for N. hughesi. In conclusion, N. hughesi persisted in this population via endogenous transplacental infection...
  11. doi request reprint Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild rodents from central coastal California and a review of T. gondii prevalence in rodents
    Haydee A Dabritz
    School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Vet Med III A, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Parasitol 94:675-83. 2008
    ..30%, respectively). Factors associated with an increased risk for T. gondii seropositivity in rodents were capture location >or=200 m from residential housing and adult age...
  12. doi request reprint Novel and canine genotypes of Giardia duodenalis in harbor seals ( Phoca vitulina richardsi)
    J K Gaydos
    University of California, Davis Wildlife Health Center Orcas Island Office, School of Veterinary Medicine, Eastsound, Washington, USA
    J Parasitol 94:1264-8. 2008
    ..Sequence analysis of the 52 bp small subunit ribosomal DNA products from the 3 canine genotype isolates from seals produced mixed sequences at could not be evaluated...
  13. ncbi request reprint Patterns of mortality in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) from 1998-2001
    C Kreuder
    Wildlife Health Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Wildl Dis 39:495-509. 2003
    ..1% of otters examined. This pattern of mortality, observed predominantly in juvenile and prime-aged adult southern sea otters, has negative implications for the overall health and recovery of this population...
  14. doi request reprint Farm factors associated with reducing Cryptosporidium loading in storm runoff from dairies
    W A Miller
    Dep of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Univ of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Environ Qual 37:1875-82. 2008
    ..These findings are assisting working dairies in their efforts to improve farm and ecosystem health along the California coast...
  15. doi request reprint Radiofrequency-induced thermal inactivation of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in water
    K E Wainwright
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
    Zoonoses Public Health 57:74-81. 2010
    ..The impact of factors such as water heating time, cooling time and the volume of water treated must be considered when evaluating the efficacy of RF power for oocyst inactivation...
  16. ncbi request reprint In vitro characteristics of the microsporidian: Enterocytozoon salmonis
    J Wongtavatchai
    Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, University of California, Davis 95616, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 42:401-5. 1995
    ..salmonis-infected cells that stimulated uninfected target cells in vitro. This observation may explain in part the proliferative disease of hematopoietic tissues which characterizes the disease in infected chinook salmon...
  17. ncbi request reprint Effects of blood contamination of cerebrospinal fluid on results of indirect fluorescent antibody tests for detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi
    Carrie J Finno
    Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Vet Diagn Invest 19:286-9. 2007
    ..The IFAT performed on CSF is reliable for testing horses for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis caused by S. neurona or N. hughesi, even when blood contamination causes the RBC concentration in CSF to be up to 10,000 RBCs/microl...
  18. ncbi request reprint Risk of postnatal exposure to Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi in horses
    Paulo C Duarte
    Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Am J Vet Res 65:1047-52. 2004
    ..To estimate risk of exposure and age at first exposure to Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi and time to maternal antibody decay in foals...
  19. doi request reprint Methods to produce and safely work with large numbers of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts and bradyzoite cysts
    H Fritz
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, 1 Shields Avenue, University of California Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Microbiol Methods 88:47-52. 2012
    ..This procedure proved to completely inactivate oocysts without evidence of significant alteration of the oocyst molecular integrity...
  20. ncbi request reprint Coastal freshwater runoff is a risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis)
    M A Miller
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, 1 Shields Avenue, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Int J Parasitol 32:997-1006. 2002
    ..This study provides evidence implicating land-based surface runoff as a source of T. gondii infection for marine mammals, specifically sea otters, and provides a convincing illustration of pathogen pollution in the marine ecosystem...
  21. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for demonstration of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris)
    M A Miller
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis 95616, USA
    J Parasitol 88:594-9. 2002
    ..lutris nereis) and 38% (8 out of 21) of Washington sea otters (E. lutris kenyoni) were seropositive for T. gondii, compared with 0% (0 out of 65) of Alaskan sea otters (E. lutris kenyoni)...
  22. pmc Risk factors for infection with pathogenic and antimicrobial-resistant fecal bacteria in northern elephant seals in California
    Robyn A Stoddard
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA
    Public Health Rep 123:360-70. 2008
    ..jejuni), Salmonella enterica (Salmonella spp.), and antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) infection in northern elephant seals stranded along the California coastline...
  23. doi request reprint Zoonotic fecal pathogens and antimicrobial resistance in county fair animals
    A Roug
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 36:303-8. 2013
    ....
  24. ncbi request reprint Neosporosis in cattle
    M L Anderson
    California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, 95616, USA
    Anim Reprod Sci 60:417-31. 2000
    ..Suggested control measures focus on programs to reduce the number of congenitally infected animals retained in the herd and to minimize the opportunity for postnatal transmission from the environment...
  25. pmc Climate and on-farm risk factors associated with Giardia duodenalis cysts in storm runoff from California coastal dairies
    Woutrina A Miller
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 73:6972-9. 2007
    ..duodenalis cysts. The study findings suggest that vegetated buffer strips, especially when placed near dairy calf areas, should help reduce the environmental loading of these fecal protozoa discharging from dairy farms...
  26. ncbi request reprint Comparison of a serum indirect fluorescent antibody test with two Western blot tests for the diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis
    Paulo C Duarte
    Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 8737, USA
    J Vet Diagn Invest 15:8-13. 2003
    ..2% (72.6-95.7%), and 69.2% (52.4-83%), respectively. The overall accuracy of the IFAT was shown to be better than that of the WBs and, therefore, the test has potential for use in the diagnosis of EPM caused by Sarcocystis neurona...
  27. ncbi request reprint Isolation and characterization of two parasitic protozoa from a Pacific harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi) with meningoencephalomyelitis
    M A Miller
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, 95616-8739, USA
    J Parasitol 87:816-22. 2001
    ..Based on molecular characterization, parasite morphology, serologic reactivity, histology, and immunohistochemistry, HS1 was indistinguishable from S. neurona, and HS2 was indistinguishable from T. gondii...
  28. pmc Detection of bovine trichomoniasis with a specific DNA probe and PCR amplification system
    M S Ho
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis 95616
    J Clin Microbiol 32:98-104. 1994
    ..6%) of the 52 samples from T. foetus-infected and uninfected bulls. These results indicate that the PCR-based amplification system could be a useful alternative method for the diagnosis of bovine trichomoniasis...
  29. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of two Toxoplasma gondii serologic tests used in a serosurvey of domestic cats in California
    Haydee A Dabritz
    School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Parasitol 93:806-16. 2007
    ..Accounting for Se, Sp, and test covariances, age-adjusted seroprevalence was 45.0%. The odds for T. gondii seropositivity were 12.3-fold higher for cats aged >12 mo compared with cats aged <6 mo...
  30. ncbi request reprint Clams (Corbicula fluminea) as bioindicators of fecal contamination with Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in freshwater ecosystems in California
    Woutrina A Miller
    School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, 95616, USA
    Int J Parasitol 35:673-84. 2005
    ..The presence of C. parvum DNA in clams from riverine ecosystems was confirmed with PCR and DNA sequence analysis...
  31. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of cardiac lesions and risk factors associated with myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis)
    Christine Kreuder
    Wildlife Heath Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Am J Vet Res 66:289-99. 2005
    ..To describe cardiac lesions and identify risk factors associated with myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in beach-cast southern sea otters...
  32. doi request reprint Individual subject meta-analysis of parameters for Cryptosporidium parvum shedding and diarrhoea in animal experimental models
    A D Adell
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Epidemiol Infect 141:1662-78. 2013
    ..Additionally, detection of possible publication bias highlights the need to publish additional studies that convey statistically non-significant as well as significant results in the future...
  33. ncbi request reprint Cryptosporidium and Giardia in marine-foraging river otters (Lontra canadensis) from the Puget Sound Georgia Basin ecosystem
    J K Gaydos
    Orcas Island Office, University of California Davis Wildlife Health Center, 1016 Deer Harbor Road, Eastsound, Washington 98245, USA
    J Parasitol 93:198-202. 2007
    ..More work is needed to better understand the zoonotic potential of the genotypes they carry as well as their implications for river otter health...
  34. pmc Novel symptomatology and changing epidemiology of domoic acid toxicosis in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): an increasing risk to marine mammal health
    T Goldstein
    The Marine Mammal Center, 1065 Fort Cronkhite, Sausalito, CA 94965, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 275:267-76. 2008
    ..This study indicates that domoic acid causes chronic damage to California sea lions and that these health effects are increasing...
  35. ncbi request reprint Reducing microbial contamination in storm runoff from high use areas on California coastal dairies
    D J Lewis
    University of California Cooperative Extension, 1682 Novato Blvd, Suite 150B, Novato, California 94947 4209, USA
    Water Sci Technol 60:1731-43. 2009
    ..This direction is critical and timely for on-farm management efforts seeking to reduce microbial pollution in runoff and comply with indicator bacteria water quality criteria...
  36. ncbi request reprint Detection of Toxoplasma gondii-like oocysts in cat feces and estimates of the environmental oocyst burden
    Haydee A Dabritz
    Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 231:1676-84. 2007
    ..To estimate the analytic sensitivity of microscopic detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts and the environmental loading of T gondii oocysts on the basis of prevalence of shedding by owned and unowned cats...
  37. doi request reprint Virtual international experiences in veterinary medicine: an evaluation of students' attitudes toward computer-based learning
    Brigitte C French
    Preventive Verterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
    J Vet Med Educ 34:502-9. 2007
    ..However, none of the differences was statistically significant...
  38. pmc Surface properties of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts and surrogate microspheres
    Karen Shapiro
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, One Shields Avenue, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 75:1185-91. 2009
    ..gondii, similar properties shared between each microsphere type and oocysts suggest that their joint application in transport and fate studies could provide a range of transport potentials in which oocysts are likely to behave...
  39. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of Cruzia americana, Turgida turgida, and Didelphostrongylus hayesi infection in the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and risk factors along the California coast
    Amy E Nichelason
    School of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Parasitol 94:1166-8. 2008
    ..turgida eggs, whereas the dry season (May through November) was significantly associated with the presence of C. americana eggs in feces. Adult opossums were more likely to have eggs and larvae from all 3 nematodes in the feces...
  40. doi request reprint Characterization of beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated from southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) stranded along the California coast
    Denise Imai
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Vet Microbiol 136:378-81. 2009
    ..dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (2 of 12; 16.7%). This is the first report of S. phocae in southern sea otters and further evidence of S. phocae expressing cell surface antigens compatible with Lancefield group G typing...
  41. pmc Prey choice and habitat use drive sea otter pathogen exposure in a resource-limited coastal system
    Christine K Johnson
    Wildlife Health Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:2242-7. 2009
    ..High levels of infection with protozoal pathogens may be an adverse consequence of dietary specialization in this threatened species, with both depleted resources and disease working synergistically to limit recovery...
  42. doi request reprint Prevalence and risk factors associated with Sarcocystis neurona infections in opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from central California
    Daniel Rejmanek
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Vet Parasitol 166:8-14. 2009
    ..neurona infections in susceptible hosts, including horses and threatened California sea otters (Enhydra lutris neries)...
  43. ncbi request reprint Management of microbial contamination in storm runoff from California coastal dairy pastures
    David J Lewis
    Univ of California Cooperative Extension Marin, 1682 Novato Blvd, Suite 1508B, Novato, CA 94947, USA
    J Environ Qual 39:1782-9. 2010
    ..These results suggest that there are several management and conservation practices for working farms that may result in reduced FCB fluxes from agricultural operations...
  44. pmc Effect of estuarine wetland degradation on transport of Toxoplasma gondii surrogates from land to sea
    Karen Shapiro
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, One Shields Avenue, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:6821-8. 2010
    ..Destruction of wetland habitats along central coastal California may thus facilitate pathogen pollution in coastal waters with detrimental health impacts to wildlife and humans...
  45. doi request reprint Detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts and surrogate microspheres in water using ultrafiltration and capsule filtration
    Karen Shapiro
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Water Res 44:893-903. 2010
    ..gondii from water supplies...
  46. doi request reprint Molecular characterization of Sarcocystis neurona strains from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and intermediate hosts from Central California
    Daniel Rejmanek
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Vet Parasitol 170:20-9. 2010
    ..neurona sporocysts shed by opossums...
  47. ncbi request reprint Immune responses during pregnancy in heifers naturally infected with Neospora caninum with and without immunization
    Aurélie G Andrianarivo
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Parasitol Res 96:24-31. 2005
    ..These results indicate that reactivation of a latent infection occurred in the naturally infected heifers, regardless of their immunization status, and was associated with increased parasite-specific antibodies, mainly IgG(2)...
  48. ncbi request reprint Risk of transplacental transmission of Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi in California horses
    Paulo C Duarte
    Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Parasitol 90:1345-51. 2004
    ..2%. In conclusion, there was no detectable risk of transplacental transmission of S. neurona and N. hughesi. Prevalence of antibodies against both parasites in mares increased with age...
  49. ncbi request reprint Evaluation and comparison of an indirect fluorescent antibody test for detection of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona, using serum and cerebrospinal fluid of naturally and experimentally infected, and vaccinated horses
    Paulo C Duarte
    Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Parasitol 90:379-86. 2004
    ..The S. neurona vaccine could possibly interfere with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis diagnosis...
  50. ncbi request reprint Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in northern elephant seals, California
    Robyn A Stoddard
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:1967-9. 2005
    ..Stranded seals had a higher prevalence of pathogenic bacteria, possibly from terrestrial sources, which were more likely to be resistant...
  51. ncbi request reprint Does human proximity affect antibody prevalence in marine-foraging river otters (Lontra canadensis)?
    Joseph K Gaydos
    University of California, Davis, Wildlife Health Center, Orcas Island Office, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, 1016 Deer Harbor Road, Eastsound, Washington 98245, USA
    J Wildl Dis 43:116-23. 2007
    ....
  52. ncbi request reprint Ectoparasite diversity and exposure to vector-borne disease agents in wild rodents in central coastal California
    Nathan C Nieto
    Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, Center for Vector borne Diseases, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis CA 95616, USA
    J Med Entomol 44:328-35. 2007
    ..Given the moderate climate and diversity of rodents and arthropods in the Morro Bay area, ongoing investigation of this region will be helpful in understanding disease maintenance cycles...
  53. ncbi request reprint Qualitative evaluation of selective tests for detection of Neospora hughesi antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of experimentally infected horses
    Andrea E Packham
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Parasitol 88:1239-46. 2002
    ..Sera from 3 naturally infected horses had titers >1:640. Cerebrospinal fluid in all but I infected horse had very low N. hughesi IFAT titers (<1:160), starting at postinoculation day 30...
  54. ncbi request reprint Congenital transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) after oral oocyst infection
    Daniel Rejmanek
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Parasitol 96:516-20. 2010
    ..Additionally, the detection of frequent congenital transmission suggests that deer mice could help maintain T. gondii in the environment even in the absence of definitive feline hosts...
  55. ncbi request reprint Immune responses in pregnant cattle and bovine fetuses following experimental infection with Neospora caninum
    A G Andrianarivo
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis 95616, USA
    Parasitol Res 87:817-25. 2001
    ..However, CMI responses were highly variable between fetuses. These data indicate the complexity of the immune mechanisms associated with Neospora infection in both the dams and their fetuses...
  56. ncbi request reprint Chemical inactivation of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in water
    Katlyn E Wainwright
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, 1 Shields Avenue, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Parasitol 93:925-31. 2007
    ..Results of the chemical exposure experiments indicate that neither sodium hypochlorite nor ozone effectively inactivate T. gondii oocysts, even when used at high concentrations...
  57. ncbi request reprint Description and epidemiology of Theileria youngi n. sp. from a northern Californian dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma Fuscipes) population
    A M Kjemtrup
    University of California, School of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pathology Microbiology and Immunology, Davis 95616, USA
    J Parasitol 87:373-8. 2001
    ..Dermacentor occidentalis, Ixodes woodi, and Ixodes pacificus. Mostly larval or nymphal stages were recovered, suggesting transstadial transmission is possible. This is the first piroplasm fully characterized from a dusky-footed woodrat...
  58. ncbi request reprint Cytokine gene signatures in neural tissue of horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis or equine herpes type 1 myeloencephalopathy
    N Pusterla
    Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Vet Rec 159:341-6. 2006
    ..In the horses with ehv-1 the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 was commonly expressed, but IL-10 and IFN-gamma were not, and TNF-alpha was rare. Tissue from the control horses expressed only the gene GAPDH...
  59. ncbi request reprint Investigation of transfusion transmission of a WA1-type babesial parasite to a premature infant in California
    Anne M Kjemtrup
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis 95616 8745, USA
    Transfusion 42:1482-7. 2002
    ..The infant had received two blood transfusions, one from the father and one from an anonymous donor (Donor A). This study describes the follow-up required to identify the source and species of Babesia that infected the infant...
  60. pmc Presence of Bacteroidales as a predictor of pathogens in surface waters of the central California coast
    Alexander Schriewer
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:5802-14. 2010
    ..This predictive ability, in addition to the Bacteroidales assays providing information on contributing host fecal sources, supports using Bacteroidales assays in water quality monitoring programs...
  61. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of methods for improved detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in mussels (Mytilus californianus)
    Woutrina A Miller
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, 95616, USA
    J Microbiol Methods 65:367-79. 2006
    ..TaqMan PCR was comparable to conventional PCR for detection of C. parvum oocysts in mussels and additionally allowed for automated testing, high throughput, and semi-quantitative results...
  62. pmc Physical inactivation of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in water
    Katlyn E Wainwright
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, 1 Shields Avenue, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 73:5663-6. 2007
    ..Inactivation of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts occurred with exposure to pulsed and continuous UV radiation, as evidenced by mouse bioassay. Even at doses of >or=500 mJ/cm2, some oocysts retained their viability...
  63. ncbi request reprint Effect of the microsporidian Enterocytozoon salmonis on the immune response of chinook salmon
    J Wongtavatchai
    Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis 95616, USA
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 48:367-74. 1995
    ..These results suggest that infection with E. salmonis may cause suppression of host cell immune functions, thus increasing the susceptibly of infected fish to other pathogens...
  64. ncbi request reprint Characterization of Neospora caninum protease, NcSUB1 (NC-P65), with rabbit anti-N54
    Kitland Louie
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Parasitol 88:1113-9. 2002
    ..Thus, rabbit anti-N54 is the first antibody developed for N. caninum that binds to themicroneme proteins and recognizes a major secreted enzyme...
  65. ncbi request reprint Outdoor fecal deposition by free-roaming cats and attitudes of cat owners and nonowners toward stray pets, wildlife, and water pollution
    Haydee A Dabritz
    Wildlife Health Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 229:74-81. 2006
    ..To estimate cat population size, management, and outside fecal deposition and evaluate attitudes of cat owners and nonowners to stray animal control, water pollution, and wildlife protection...
  66. ncbi request reprint Comparative analysis of cytokine gene expression in cerebrospinal fluid of horses without neurologic signs or with selected neurologic disorders
    Nicola Pusterla
    Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, 95616, USA
    Am J Vet Res 67:1433-7. 2006
    ....
  67. doi request reprint The effect of rehabilitation of northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) on antimicrobial resistance of commensal Escherichia coli
    Robyn A Stoddard
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Vet Microbiol 133:264-71. 2009
    ....
  68. ncbi request reprint Neospora caninum associated with septic peritonitis in an adult dog
    Tara A Holmberg
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, CA, USA
    Vet Clin Pathol 35:235-8. 2006
    ..It remains unclear how the tachyzoites gained access to the peritoneal cavity. To the authors' knowledge, there are no reports of free N caninum in abdominal fluid of any species...
  69. pmc Campylobacter insulaenigrae isolates from northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) in California
    Robyn A Stoddard
    Department of Veterinary Sciences, The Marine Mammal Center, Marin Headlands, 1065 Fort Cronkhite, Sausalito, CA 94965, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 73:1729-35. 2007
    ....
  70. ncbi request reprint Babesia gibsoni infection among dogs in the southeastern United States
    Douglass K Macintire
    Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, AL 36849, USA
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 220:325-9. 2002
    ..To identify subclinical Babesia gibsoni infection in American Pit Bull Terriers from the southeastern United States and to determine the genetic sequence of parasite DNA isolated from these dogs...
  71. ncbi request reprint Sea otters in a dirty ocean
    David A Jessup
    California Department of Fish and Game, 1451 Shaffer Rd, Santa Cruz, CA 95060, USA
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 231:1648-52. 2007
    ..An example of the interconnectedness of human, animal, and ecosystem health is provided by the situation facing southern sea otters off the US Pacific coast...
  72. pmc Sensitive and specific identification of Neospora caninum infection of cattle based on detection of serum antibodies to recombinant Ncp29
    Daniel K Howe
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 9:611-5. 2002
    ..5 at 1:500). Additionally, sera from animals that were infected with T. gondii or S. cruzi were negative. The rNcp29 ELISA developed here provides a specific and sensitive assay for detecting neosporosis in cattle...
  73. ncbi request reprint Indirect fluorescent antibody testing of cerebrospinal fluid for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis
    Paulo C Duarte
    Animal Population Health Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 1681, USA
    Am J Vet Res 67:869-76. 2006
    ..To assess the use of CSF testing with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) caused by Sarcocystis neurona...
  74. ncbi request reprint Immune responses to Neospora caninum and prospects for vaccination
    Elisabeth A Innes
    Dept of Parasitology, Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Edinburgh, UK
    Trends Parasitol 18:497-504. 2002
    ..So, is vaccination a feasible option to control the disease? This article discusses some of these issues and reports on the progress towards a vaccine for neosporosis...
  75. ncbi request reprint A review of the small canine piroplasms from California: Babesia conradae in the literature
    Anne M Kjemtrup
    California Department of Health Services, Vector Borne Disease Section, 1616 Capital Avenue, MS 7307, Sacramento, CA 95899 7413, USA
    Vet Parasitol 138:112-7. 2006
    ..conradae is most closely related to piroplasms recovered from humans and animals in the western United States...
  76. ncbi request reprint Molecular and bioassay-based detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocyst uptake by mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis)
    Kristen D Arkush
    Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California Davis, PO Box 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923, USA
    Int J Parasitol 33:1087-97. 2003
    ..The TaqMan PCR assay described here is now being tested in field sampling of free-living invertebrate prey species from high-risk coastal locations where T. gondii infections are prevalent in southern sea otters...
  77. ncbi request reprint The conceptual basis for a new classification of the coccidia
    Astrid M Tenter
    Institut für Parasitologie, Tierarztliche Hochschule Hannover, Bunteweg 17, D 30559, Hannover, Germany
    Int J Parasitol 32:595-616. 2002
    ..e. a proposal for a revised, and widely accepted, classification of the eimeriid coccidia, may be achieved...