John M Colford

Summary

Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Nucleic acid amplification tests in the diagnosis of tuberculous pleuritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Madhukar Pai
    Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health University of California, Berkeley 140, Warren Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    BMC Infect Dis 4:6. 2004
  2. ncbi request reprint A randomized, controlled trial of in-home drinking water intervention to reduce gastrointestinal illness
    John M Colford
    Centers for Occupational and Environmental Health and Family and Community Health, University of California, Berkeley, School of Public Health, Berkeley, CA, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 161:472-82. 2005
  3. pmc Participant blinding and gastrointestinal illness in a randomized, controlled trial of an in-home drinking water intervention
    John M Colford
    School of Public Health, University of California Berkeley, 140 Warren Hall 7360, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:29-36. 2002
  4. pmc Using rapid indicators for Enterococcus to assess the risk of illness after exposure to urban runoff contaminated marine water
    John M Colford
    University of California Berkeley, School of Public Health, 101 Haviland, MC 7358, Berkeley, CA 94720 7358, USA
    Water Res 46:2176-86. 2012
  5. doi request reprint Colon cancer survival with herbal medicine and vitamins combined with standard therapy in a whole-systems approach: ten-year follow-up data analyzed with marginal structural models and propensity score methods
    Michael McCulloch
    Pine Street Foundation, San Anselmo, CA, USA
    Integr Cancer Ther 10:240-59. 2011
  6. doi request reprint Swimmer illness associated with marine water exposure and water quality indicators: impact of widely used assumptions
    Benjamin F Arnold
    From the aSchool of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA bSouthern California Coastal Water Research Project, Costa Mesa, CA cKaiser Permanente Division of Research, Oakland, CA dUnited States Environmental Protection Agency, National Environmental Health Effects Research Laboratory, Chapel Hill, NC eSurvey Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, CA fOrange County Sanitation District, Orange County, CA and gInstitute of Environment and Sustainability, University of California, Los Angeles, CA
    Epidemiology 24:845-53. 2013
  7. doi request reprint Optimal recall period for caregiver-reported illness in risk factor and intervention studies: a multicountry study
    Benjamin F Arnold
    Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, 101 Haviland Hall, MC7538, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 177:361-70. 2013
  8. pmc The Sonoma water evaluation trial: a randomized drinking water intervention trial to reduce gastrointestinal illness in older adults
    John M Colford
    School of Public Health, University of California, 50 University Hall, MC 7360, Berkeley, CA 94720 7360, USA
    Am J Public Health 99:1988-95. 2009
  9. pmc A stepped wedge, cluster-randomized trial of a household UV-disinfection and safe storage drinking water intervention in rural Baja California Sur, Mexico
    Joshua S Gruber
    University of California, Berkeley, Division of Epidemiology, Berkeley, California 94720 7358, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 89:238-45. 2013
  10. pmc Inferences drawn from a risk assessment compared directly with a randomized trial of a home drinking water intervention
    Joseph N S Eisenberg
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 114:1199-204. 2006

Detail Information

Publications52

  1. pmc Nucleic acid amplification tests in the diagnosis of tuberculous pleuritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Madhukar Pai
    Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health University of California, Berkeley 140, Warren Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    BMC Infect Dis 4:6. 2004
    ..We conducted a systematic review to determine the accuracy of nucleic acid amplification (NAA) tests in the diagnosis of tuberculous pleuritis...
  2. ncbi request reprint A randomized, controlled trial of in-home drinking water intervention to reduce gastrointestinal illness
    John M Colford
    Centers for Occupational and Environmental Health and Family and Community Health, University of California, Berkeley, School of Public Health, Berkeley, CA, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 161:472-82. 2005
    ..active) for the entire trial was 0.98 (95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.10). No reduction in gastrointestinal illness was detected after in-home use of a device designed to be highly effective in removing microorganisms from water...
  3. pmc Participant blinding and gastrointestinal illness in a randomized, controlled trial of an in-home drinking water intervention
    John M Colford
    School of Public Health, University of California Berkeley, 140 Warren Hall 7360, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:29-36. 2002
    ..75, 2.33) and the attributable risk was 0.24 (95% CI -0.33, 0.57). These data confirm that participants can be successfully blinded to treatment group assignment during a randomized trial of an in-home drinking water intervention...
  4. pmc Using rapid indicators for Enterococcus to assess the risk of illness after exposure to urban runoff contaminated marine water
    John M Colford
    University of California Berkeley, School of Public Health, 101 Haviland, MC 7358, Berkeley, CA 94720 7358, USA
    Water Res 46:2176-86. 2012
    ..Traditional fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) measurement is too slow (>18 h) for timely swimmer warnings...
  5. doi request reprint Colon cancer survival with herbal medicine and vitamins combined with standard therapy in a whole-systems approach: ten-year follow-up data analyzed with marginal structural models and propensity score methods
    Michael McCulloch
    Pine Street Foundation, San Anselmo, CA, USA
    Integr Cancer Ther 10:240-59. 2011
    ..Combining PAM+V with conventional therapy improved survival, compared with conventional therapy alone, suggesting that prospective trials combining PAM+V with conventional therapy are justified...
  6. doi request reprint Swimmer illness associated with marine water exposure and water quality indicators: impact of widely used assumptions
    Benjamin F Arnold
    From the aSchool of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA bSouthern California Coastal Water Research Project, Costa Mesa, CA cKaiser Permanente Division of Research, Oakland, CA dUnited States Environmental Protection Agency, National Environmental Health Effects Research Laboratory, Chapel Hill, NC eSurvey Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, CA fOrange County Sanitation District, Orange County, CA and gInstitute of Environment and Sustainability, University of California, Los Angeles, CA
    Epidemiology 24:845-53. 2013
    ....
  7. doi request reprint Optimal recall period for caregiver-reported illness in risk factor and intervention studies: a multicountry study
    Benjamin F Arnold
    Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, 101 Haviland Hall, MC7538, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 177:361-70. 2013
    ..In contrast to the current practice of using 2-day recall periods, this work suggests that studies should measure caregiver-reported illness with a 7-day recall period...
  8. pmc The Sonoma water evaluation trial: a randomized drinking water intervention trial to reduce gastrointestinal illness in older adults
    John M Colford
    School of Public Health, University of California, 50 University Hall, MC 7360, Berkeley, CA 94720 7360, USA
    Am J Public Health 99:1988-95. 2009
    ....
  9. pmc A stepped wedge, cluster-randomized trial of a household UV-disinfection and safe storage drinking water intervention in rural Baja California Sur, Mexico
    Joshua S Gruber
    University of California, Berkeley, Division of Epidemiology, Berkeley, California 94720 7358, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 89:238-45. 2013
    ....
  10. pmc Inferences drawn from a risk assessment compared directly with a randomized trial of a home drinking water intervention
    Joseph N S Eisenberg
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 114:1199-204. 2006
    ..Key words: drinking water, gastrointestinal, intervention trial, microbial risk assessment, waterborne pathogens...
  11. ncbi request reprint Water quality indicators and the risk of illness at beaches with nonpoint sources of fecal contamination
    John M Colford
    University of California Berkeley, School of Public Health, Division of Epidemiology, Berkeley, CA 94720 7360, USA
    Epidemiology 18:27-35. 2007
    ..Few studies have addressed the utility of indicator bacteria where nonpoint sources are the dominant fecal input. Extrapolating current water-quality thresholds to such locations is uncertain...
  12. ncbi request reprint The role of disease transmission and conferred immunity in outbreaks: analysis of the 1993 Cryptosporidium outbreak in Milwaukee, Wisconsin
    Joseph N S Eisenberg
    School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 7360, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 161:62-72. 2005
    ..The incidence data were consistent with this hypothesis. Further simulations suggested that increasing the distance between the wastewater effluent and the drinking-water influent may have prevented the outbreak...
  13. pmc Evaluation of a pre-existing, 3-year household water treatment and handwashing intervention in rural Guatemala
    Benjamin Arnold
    Division of Epidemiology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 7360, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 38:1651-61. 2009
    ..Currently, we know little about the health effectiveness of behaviour-based water and hygiene interventions after the conclusion of intervention activities...
  14. pmc Household environmental conditions are associated with enteropathy and impaired growth in rural Bangladesh
    Audrie Lin
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 89:130-7. 2013
    ..33 SDs decrease in HAZ (95% CI = -0.62, -0.05). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental contamination causes growth faltering mediated through environmental enteropathy...
  15. pmc H2S as an indicator of water supply vulnerability and health risk in low-resource settings: a prospective cohort study
    Ranjiv S Khush
    The Aquaya Institute, San Francisco, California 94129, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 89:251-9. 2013
    ....
  16. ncbi request reprint A pilot randomized, controlled trial of an in-home drinking water intervention among HIV + persons
    John M Colford
    University of California, Berkeley, School of Public Health, Divisions of Epidemiology and Environmental Health Sciences, 140 Warren Hall 7360, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    J Water Health 3:173-84. 2005
    ..The magnitude of the point estimate of the risk, its consistency with recently published observational data, and its relevance for drinking water choices by immunocompromised individuals support the need for larger trials...
  17. pmc Early prediction of median survival among a large AIDS surveillance cohort
    Wayne T A Enanoria
    Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA
    BMC Public Health 7:127. 2007
    ..In this study, a new approach to predict AIDS median survival is presented and its accuracy tested using AIDS surveillance data...
  18. pmc Causal inference methods to study nonrandomized, preexisting development interventions
    Benjamin F Arnold
    School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 7358, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:22605-10. 2010
    ..Interpreting the impacts as causal, however, requires stronger assumptions than prospective, randomized studies...
  19. doi request reprint Lung cancer survival with herbal medicine and vitamins in a whole-systems approach: ten-year follow-up data analyzed with marginal structural models and propensity score methods
    Michael McCulloch
    Pine Street Foundation, San Anselmo, CA, USA
    Integr Cancer Ther 10:260-79. 2011
    ..PAM+V combined with conventional therapy improved survival in stages IIIA, IIIB, and IV, compared with conventional therapy alone. Prospective trials using PAM+V with conventional therapy for lung cancer patients are justified...
  20. doi request reprint A sea change ahead for recreational water quality criteria
    Alexandria B Boehm
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
    J Water Health 7:9-20. 2009
    ....
  21. pmc Is drinking water a risk factor for endemic cryptosporidiosis? A case-control study in the immunocompetent general population of the San Francisco Bay Area
    Asheena Khalakdina
    Division of Public Health Biology and Epidemiology, Centers for Family and Community Health and Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA
    BMC Public Health 3:11. 2003
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Statistical estimation of parameters in a disease transmission model: analysis of a Cryptosporidium outbreak
    M Alan Brookhart
    Division of Biostatistics, University of California, Berkeley, USA
    Stat Med 21:3627-38. 2002
    ....
  23. pmc Serial testing of health care workers for tuberculosis using interferon-gamma assay
    Madhukar Pai
    Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 174:349-55. 2006
    ..Although interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) assays are promising alternatives to the tuberculin skin test (TST), their serial testing performance is unknown...
  24. ncbi request reprint Analysis of the spatial distribution of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients in San Francisco using density equalizing map projections (DEMP)
    Asheena Khalakdina
    Division of Public Health Biology and Epidemiology, Centers for Family and Community Health and Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA
    Int J Hyg Environ Health 206:553-61. 2003
    ..27, 95% confidence interval 0.15, 10.53). These results do not support an independent effect of spatial distribution on the transmission of cryptosporidiosis among AIDS patients...
  25. pmc In-house nucleic acid amplification tests for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum specimens: meta-analysis and meta-regression
    Laura L Flores
    Divisions of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    BMC Microbiol 5:55. 2005
    ..Here, we used meta-analytical methods, including meta-regression, to identify factors related to study design and assay protocols that affect test accuracy in order to identify those factors associated with high estimates of accuracy...
  26. pmc Simulation methods to estimate design power: an overview for applied research
    Benjamin F Arnold
    Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA
    BMC Med Res Methodol 11:94. 2011
    ..Although this approach is well known among statisticians, in our experience many epidemiologists and social scientists are unfamiliar with the technique. This article aims to address this knowledge gap...
  27. ncbi request reprint A review of household drinking water intervention trials and an approach to the estimation of endemic waterborne gastroenteritis in the United States
    John M Colford
    Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, 140 Warren Hall, MC 7360, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    J Water Health 4:71-88. 2006
    ..Using this approach we estimate there to be 4.26-11.69 million cases of AGI annually attributable to public drinking water systems in the United States. We believe this preliminary estimate should be updated as new data become available...
  28. ncbi request reprint Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in health care workers in rural India: comparison of a whole-blood interferon gamma assay with tuberculin skin testing
    Madhukar Pai
    Department of Medicine, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, India
    JAMA 293:2746-55. 2005
    ..Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in health care workers has not been adequately studied in developing countries using newer diagnostic tests...
  29. ncbi request reprint Clinical trials in India sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry: a proposal for reforms
    Madhukar Pai
    Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California at Berkeley, 94720, USA
    Natl Med J India 15:93-6. 2002
  30. ncbi request reprint A dynamic model to assess microbial health risks associated with beneficial uses of biosolids
    Joseph N S Eisenberg
    School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Risk Anal 24:221-36. 2004
    ..Further refinement in methods for determining biosolids exposures under field conditions would certainly increase the utility of these approaches...
  31. ncbi request reprint Nonmalarial acute undifferentiated fever in a rural hospital in central India: diagnostic uncertainty and overtreatment with antimalarial agents
    Rajnish Joshi
    Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 78:393-9. 2008
    ..Despite one or more negative tests for malaria, many patients (39.9%, 95% CI 37.0-43.3) received antimalarial drugs. These results suggest a need for guidelines and training to improve empirical treatment of NMAUF...
  32. ncbi request reprint Bias due to secondary transmission in estimation of attributable risk from intervention trials
    Joseph N S Eisenberg
    School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 7360, USA
    Epidemiology 14:442-50. 2003
    ....
  33. ncbi request reprint Strategies to reduce person-to-person transmission during widespread Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak
    Edmund Y W Seto
    University of California at Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, California, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:860-6. 2007
    ..This analysis supports the use of widespread public health messages during outbreaks of E. coli O157:H7 with specific advice on how to interrupt secondary transmission...
  34. ncbi request reprint Astragalus-based Chinese herbs and platinum-based chemotherapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: meta-analysis of randomized trials
    Michael McCulloch
    University of California, Berkeley School of Public Health, Division of Epidemiology, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    J Clin Oncol 24:419-30. 2006
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint Treating water with chlorine at point-of-use to improve water quality and reduce child diarrhea in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Benjamin F Arnold
    Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 7360, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 76:354-64. 2007
    ..Future studies with multi-year follow-up are required to assess the long-term acceptability and sustainability of health impacts shown by the shorter trials identified in this review...
  36. pmc Disease transmission models for public health decision making: analysis of epidemic and endemic conditions caused by waterborne pathogens
    Joseph N S Eisenberg
    Center for Occupational and Environmental Health and School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 110:783-90. 2002
    ..Two studies--a Giardia risk assessment case study and an analysis of the 1993 Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Cryptosporidium outbreak--illustrate the role that models can play in policy making...
  37. ncbi request reprint Interferon-gamma assays in the immunodiagnosis of tuberculosis: a systematic review
    Madhukar Pai
    Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 4:761-76. 2004
    ..Whether this potential can be realised in practice remains to be confirmed in well designed, long-term studies...
  38. ncbi request reprint Systematic reviews and meta-analyses: an illustrated, step-by-step guide
    Madhukar Pai
    Berkeley Systematic Reviews Group, Division of Epidemiology, University of California at Berkeley, 140 Warren Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Natl Med J India 17:86-95. 2004
    ..We hope that it will enable clinicians to conduct systematic reviews, generate high-quality evidence, and contribute to the evidence-based medicine movement...
  39. ncbi request reprint Diagnostic accuracy of nucleic acid amplification tests for tuberculous meningitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Madhukar Pai
    Division of Epidemiology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 3:633-43. 2003
    ..On current evidence, commercial NAA tests show a potential role in confirming tuberculous meningitis diagnosis, although their overall low sensitivity precludes the use of these tests to rule out tuberculous meningitis with certainty...
  40. pmc Chinese herbal medicine and interferon in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials
    Michael McCulloch
    Pine Street Clinic, San Anselmo, CA, USA
    Am J Public Health 92:1619-28. 2002
    ..This meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine (either alone or with interferon alfa) in treating chronic hepatitis B...
  41. ncbi request reprint Did a severe flood in the Midwest cause an increase in the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms?
    Timothy J Wade
    Human Studies Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch, Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 159:398-405. 2004
    ..These findings suggest that severe climatic events can result in an increase in the endemic incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms in the United States...
  42. pmc Do U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water quality guidelines for recreational waters prevent gastrointestinal illness? A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Timothy J Wade
    Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 111:1102-9. 2003
    ..Future studies should focus on the ability of new, more rapid and specific microbial methods to predict health effects, and estimating the risks of recreational water exposure among susceptible persons...
  43. ncbi request reprint The natural history of antibody responses to Cryptosporidium parasites in men at high risk of HIV infection
    Sukhminder K Sandhu
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    J Infect Dis 194:1428-37. 2006
    ..Although the clinical severity of cryptosporidiosis is altered by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related immunosuppression, little is known about how risk for Cryptosporidium infection is altered by HIV...
  44. ncbi request reprint Comparison of a whole blood interferon-gamma assay with tuberculin skin testing for the detection of tuberculosis infection in hospitalized children in rural India
    Sandeep Dogra
    Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram 442102, India
    J Infect 54:267-76. 2007
    ..Because few studies have been done in high incidence countries, and because paediatric data are limited, we compared a whole-blood IFN-gamma assay with TST among hospitalized Indian children...
  45. ncbi request reprint Accuracy and reliability of physical signs in the diagnosis of pleural effusion
    Shriprakash Kalantri
    Department of Medicine, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram 442101, India
    Respir Med 101:431-8. 2007
    ..23-38.70). For the final multivariate model, the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) was 0.88. In conclusion, our data suggest that physical signs may be helpful to rule out but not rule in pleural effusion...
  46. ncbi request reprint Changes in beliefs identify unblinding in randomized controlled trials: a method to meet CONSORT guidelines
    Judy R Rees
    Department of Community and Family Medicine, Center for Environmental Health Sciences, and Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA
    Contemp Clin Trials 26:25-37. 2005
    ....
  47. ncbi request reprint Meta-analysis of the impact of HIV on the infectiousness of tuberculosis: methodological concerns
    Madhukar Pai
    Clin Infect Dis 34:1285-7. 2002
  48. ncbi request reprint The role of hypothermia in the management of severe brain injury: a meta-analysis
    Odette A Harris
    Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Dr, Edwards Bldg, Second Floor, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Arch Neurol 59:1077-83. 2002
    ..Hypothermia is utilized in the management of severe traumatic brain injury despite the lack of unequivocal evidence supporting its use. Because of its widespread use, the effects of hypothermia are a concern...
  49. ncbi request reprint Systematic reviews of diagnostic test evaluations: What's behind the scenes?
    Madhukar Pai
    ACP J Club 141:A11-3. 2004
  50. ncbi request reprint Rapid point-of-care HIV testing in pregnant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Nitika Pant Pai
    McGill University Health Centre, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunodeficiency Service, Montreal Chest Institute, QC Canada
    Trop Med Int Health 12:162-73. 2007
    ..To improve diagnostic accuracy and to reduce false-positive results, it may be necessary to use two rapid tests during labour and delivery...
  51. ncbi request reprint Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions to reduce diarrhoea in less developed countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Lorna Fewtrell
    Centre for Research into Environment and Health, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 5:42-52. 2005
    ..There is some evidence of publication bias in the findings from the hygiene and water treatment interventions...
  52. ncbi request reprint Comparison of cemented and uncemented fixation in total hip replacement: a meta-analysis
    Saam Morshed
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Acta Orthop 78:315-26. 2007
    ..The choice of optimal implant fixation in total hip replacement (THR)--fixation with or without cement--has been the subject of much debate...