L A Cole

Summary

Affiliation: University of New Mexico
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Choriocarcinoma and gestational trophoblastic disease
    Harriet O Smith
    University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2211 Lomas Boulevard NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131 5286, USA
    Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 32:661-84. 2005
  2. doi request reprint Detection of perimenopause or postmenopause human chorionic gonadotropin: an unnecessary source of alarm
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 198:275.e1-7. 2008
  3. doi request reprint WITHDRAWN: Retraction notice to "Minimally-aggressive gestational trophoblastic neoplasms" [Gynecol Oncol 125 (2012) 145-150]
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Albuquerque, NM 87109, USA Electronic address
    Gynecol Oncol 130:254. 2013
  4. doi request reprint The hCG assay or pregnancy test
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Clin Chem Lab Med 50:617-30. 2012
  5. pmc hCG, the wonder of today's science
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Albuquerque NM 87104, USA
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 10:24. 2012
  6. doi request reprint Hyperglycosylated hCG and pregnancy failures
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    J Reprod Immunol 93:119-22. 2012
  7. doi request reprint Familial HCG syndrome
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Albuquerque, NM 87104, USA
    J Reprod Immunol 93:52-7. 2012
  8. doi request reprint The need for a quantitative urine hCG assay
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87104, USA
    Clin Biochem 42:676-83. 2009
  9. ncbi request reprint Gestational trophoblastic diseases: 4. Presentation with persistent low positive human chorionic gonadotropin test results
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, MSC10 5580 1, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 0001, USA
    Gynecol Oncol 102:165-72. 2006
  10. ncbi request reprint Gestational trophoblastic diseases: 2. Hyperglycosylated hCG as a reliable marker of active neoplasia
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Gynecol Oncol 102:151-9. 2006

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications75

  1. ncbi request reprint Choriocarcinoma and gestational trophoblastic disease
    Harriet O Smith
    University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2211 Lomas Boulevard NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131 5286, USA
    Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 32:661-84. 2005
    ..The rates of GTN and choriocarcinoma are decreasing and survival has dramatically improved...
  2. doi request reprint Detection of perimenopause or postmenopause human chorionic gonadotropin: an unnecessary source of alarm
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 198:275.e1-7. 2008
    ..We describe the problem and a concise approach to this management dilemma in menopausal women...
  3. doi request reprint WITHDRAWN: Retraction notice to "Minimally-aggressive gestational trophoblastic neoplasms" [Gynecol Oncol 125 (2012) 145-150]
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Albuquerque, NM 87109, USA Electronic address
    Gynecol Oncol 130:254. 2013
    ..UNM determined and confirmed that there were policy violations by the corresponding author concerning human research subjects and biological samples. We apologize to the readers for any inconvenience...
  4. doi request reprint The hCG assay or pregnancy test
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Clin Chem Lab Med 50:617-30. 2012
    ....
  5. pmc hCG, the wonder of today's science
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Albuquerque NM 87104, USA
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 10:24. 2012
    ..Secondly, hCG exists in 5 common forms. Finally, it has so many functions ranging from control of human pregnancy to human cancer. This review examines these molecules in detail...
  6. doi request reprint Hyperglycosylated hCG and pregnancy failures
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    J Reprod Immunol 93:119-22. 2012
    ..Low hyperglycosylated hCG concentrations are associated with pregnancy failure. Whether this association is a primary cause of pregnancy failure or is simply a marker for an abnormal conceptus requires further investigation...
  7. doi request reprint Familial HCG syndrome
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Albuquerque, NM 87104, USA
    J Reprod Immunol 93:52-7. 2012
    ..In these cases of Familial hCG Syndrome only biologically inactive variants of hCG were detected. It is inferred that in Familial hCG Syndrome, hCG gene expression does not interfere with fertility...
  8. doi request reprint The need for a quantitative urine hCG assay
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87104, USA
    Clin Biochem 42:676-83. 2009
    ..We examine levels of urinary hCG, its usefulness in pregnancy testing, and advantages of urine testing in false positive hCG cases and cancer cases...
  9. ncbi request reprint Gestational trophoblastic diseases: 4. Presentation with persistent low positive human chorionic gonadotropin test results
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, MSC10 5580 1, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 0001, USA
    Gynecol Oncol 102:165-72. 2006
    ..Such chemotherapy and surgery were ineffective and unwarranted. This study identifies the causes of persistent low level of hCG and provides guidelines for the management of these patients, preventing unnecessary treatment in the future...
  10. ncbi request reprint Gestational trophoblastic diseases: 2. Hyperglycosylated hCG as a reliable marker of active neoplasia
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Gynecol Oncol 102:151-9. 2006
    ....
  11. doi request reprint Hyperglycosylated hCG in the management of quiescent and chemorefractory gestational trophoblastic diseases
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87109, USA
    Gynecol Oncol 116:3-9. 2010
    ..Here we examine the USA hCG Reference Service experience with both diseases...
  12. ncbi request reprint Normal production of human chorionic gonadotropin in perimenopausal and menopausal women and after oophorectomy
    Laurence A Cole
    The USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Int J Gynecol Cancer 19:1556-9. 2009
    ..Last year our group discussed this finding in a correspondence to the editor in the March 15th issue of New England Journal of Medicine, yet the misinterpretation of low-level hCG in these women seems to have increased in magnitude...
  13. ncbi request reprint Sensitivity of over-the-counter pregnancy tests: comparison of utility and marketing messages
    Laurence A Cole
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, MSC10 5580, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque 87131 0001, USA
    J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 45:608-15. 2005
    ..To determine the sensitivity of seven over-the-counter pregnancy tests (OTC-PTs) using urine containing a mixture of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-related molecules as found on the first day of missed menstrual period...
  14. doi request reprint USA hCG reference service, 10-year report
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87109, USA
    Clin Biochem 43:1013-22. 2010
    ..The USA hCG Reference Service has been dealing with cases of persistent low levels of hCG and gestational trophoblastic diseases for 10years. Here we present the complete experience...
  15. ncbi request reprint Inherited human chorionic gonadotropin
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, MSC10 5580, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    J Reprod Med 55:99-102. 2010
    ..To investigate 405 cases of persistent low concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)...
  16. pmc Biological functions of hCG and hCG-related molecules
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 8:102. 2010
    ....
  17. doi request reprint Human chorionic gonadotropin tests
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Expert Rev Mol Diagn 9:721-47. 2009
    ..hCG tests are essential in managing gestational trophoblastic diseases, whether hydatidiform mole, invasive mole or choriocarcinoma, and are very useful in management of testicular malignancies and other germ cell malignancies...
  18. ncbi request reprint Gestational trophoblastic diseases: 1. Pathophysiology of hyperglycosylated hCG
    Laurence A Cole
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, MSC10 5580 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 0001, USA
    Gynecol Oncol 102:145-50. 2006
    ..We investigated the biological function of hCG-H in invasion in vitro and in vivo and the use of hCG-H antibodies in blocking tumorigenesis and cancer growth in vivo...
  19. doi request reprint Background hCG in non-pregnant individuals: need for more sensitive point-of-care and over-the-counter pregnancy tests
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Clin Biochem 42:168-75. 2009
    ..A large clinical trial is needed examining background hCG (hCG levels in absence of pregnancy) and determining whether sensitivities can be improved to avoid false negative detection...
  20. ncbi request reprint Evolution of the human brain, chorionic gonadotropin and hemochorial implantation of the placenta: insights into origins of pregnancy failures, preeclampsia and choriocarcinoma
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service and Division of Women s Health, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque 87131, USA
    J Reprod Med 53:549-57. 2008
    ..It is also of note that human CG-H drives invasion by gestational trophoblastic neoplasms that have been described only in humans...
  21. ncbi request reprint Hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin free beta-subunit: tumor markers and tumor promoters
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, 87131, USA
    J Reprod Med 53:499-512. 2008
    ..It is somewhat irregular for 2 structural variants of a molecule to have independent actions, actions very different to the gonadotropic function of the established hormone hCG...
  22. ncbi request reprint Blood test for placental site trophoblastic tumor and nontrophoblastic malignancy for evaluating patients with low positive human chorionic gonadotropin results
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque 87131 0001, USA
    J Reprod Med 53:457-64. 2008
    ....
  23. doi request reprint The normal variabilities of the menstrual cycle
    Laurence A Cole
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Fertil Steril 91:522-7. 2009
    ..To address conflicts in the normal variabilities of the menstrual cycle using the newest generation test methods and to establish normal ranges for use in clinical practice...
  24. pmc New discoveries on the biology and detection of human chorionic gonadotropin
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 7:8. 2009
    ..There are very few molecules with such wide and varying functions as regular hCG and its variants, and very few tests with such a wide spectrum of clinical applications as total hCG...
  25. ncbi request reprint Hyperglycosylated hCG
    L A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, MSC10 5580, 1 University of New Mexico, 333 Cedar Street, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Placenta 28:977-86. 2007
    ....
  26. ncbi request reprint Hyperglycosylated hCG in gestational implantation and in choriocarcinoma and testicular germ cell malignancy tumorigenesis
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 0001, USA
    J Reprod Med 51:919-29. 2006
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint Production of human chorionic gonadotropin during the normal menstrual cycle
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    J Reprod Med 54:245-50. 2009
    ....
  28. ncbi request reprint Hyperglycosylated hCG: a variant with separate biological functions to regular hCG
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87104, United States
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 260:228-36. 2007
    ..hCG-H is also an absolute tumor marker for malignant or invasive gestational trophoblastic disease, it can discriminate active and inactive (quiescent) disease, and the need for chemotherapy...
  29. doi request reprint hCG and hyperglycosylated hCG in the establishment and evolution of hemochorial placentation
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service Reference Service, Women s Health Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    J Reprod Immunol 82:112-8. 2009
    ..We propose here that inadequate regular CG and hyperglycosylated CG molecules are the evolutionary causes of these obstetric complications in humans...
  30. ncbi request reprint Gestational trophoblastic diseases: 3. Human chorionic gonadotropin-free beta-subunit, a reliable marker of placental site trophoblastic tumors
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Gynecol Oncol 102:160-4. 2006
    ..Because treatments for these conditions are different, a means of differentiating PSTT from other diagnoses is important. We investigate the usefulness of hCG-free beta-subunit to make this discrimination...
  31. doi request reprint Individual deviations in human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations during pregnancy
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 204:349.e1-7. 2011
    ..Serum and urine human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) vary greatly during the course of pregnancy. We investigated the cause of this variation...
  32. ncbi request reprint Hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin (invasive trophoblast antigen) immunoassay: A new basis for gestational Down syndrome screening
    L A Cole
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Clin Chem 45:2109-19. 1999
    ..It specifically detects a unique oligosaccharide variant of hCG associated with Down syndrome pregnancies. We evaluated this new Down syndrome-directed test in prenatal diagnosis...
  33. ncbi request reprint Utility of commonly used commercial human chorionic gonadotropin immunoassays in the diagnosis and management of trophoblastic diseases
    L A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Clin Chem 47:308-15. 2001
    ..False-positive hCG immunoreactivity has also been detected, leading to needless therapy for trophoblastic diseases. Here we compare seven commonly used hCG assays...
  34. ncbi request reprint The need for an hCG assay that appropriately detects trophoblastic disease and other hCG-producing cancers
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico Health Science Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131, USA
    J Reprod Med 51:793-811. 2006
    ....
  35. doi request reprint Human chorionic gonadotropin and associated molecules
    Laurence A Cole
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque NM 87131, USA
    Expert Rev Mol Diagn 9:51-73. 2009
    ..hCG tests are essential in managing gestational trophoblastic diseases, whether hydatidiform mole, invasive mole or choriocarcinoma, and are very useful in management of testicular malignancies and other germ cell malignancies...
  36. ncbi request reprint HCG tests in the management of gestational trophoblastic diseases
    Laurence A Cole
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico Health Science Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA
    Clin Obstet Gynecol 46:523-40. 2003
  37. ncbi request reprint Hyperglycosylated hCG (invasive trophoblast antigen, ITA) a key antigen for early pregnancy detection
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Clin Biochem 36:647-55. 2003
    ..It is the principal form of hCG produced in the first weeks of gestation. We investigated the importance of hyperglycosylated hCG in pregnancy testing and its detection by current hCG tests...
  38. ncbi request reprint Accuracy of home pregnancy tests at the time of missed menses
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 190:100-5. 2004
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of home pregnancy tests (HPTs) around the time of the missed menses...
  39. doi request reprint Hyperglycosylated hCG, hCGβ and Hyperglycosylated hCGβ: interchangeable cancer promoters
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Health Sciences Center MSC10 5580, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87104, USA
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 349:232-8. 2012
    ..The question therefore arises, are Hyperglycosylated hCG, hCGβ and Hyperglycosylated hCGβ interrelated or interchangable promoters of cancer?..
  40. ncbi request reprint Between-method variation in human chorionic gonadotropin test results
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Clin Chem 50:874-82. 2004
    ..4- to 2.3-fold among commercial human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) assays. The relative contributions of calibrators, standards, hCG charge isoforms, and major structural variants to this variation have not been quantified...
  41. doi request reprint hCG, five independent molecules
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service Reference Service, Division of Women s Health Research, Albuquerque, NM 87104, United States
    Clin Chim Acta 413:48-65. 2012
    ..This review examines all the molecules and multiple proven functions, ranging from evolution to cancer promotion to hormone action...
  42. ncbi request reprint Easy fix for clinical laboratories for the false-positive defect with the Abbott AxSym total beta-hCG test
    Laurence A Cole
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, USA hCG Reference Service, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Clin Biochem 37:344-9. 2004
    ..We investigated the source of this abundance of cases and a simple fix that may be used by clinical laboratories...
  43. doi request reprint Hyperglycosylated hCG, a review
    L A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Health Sciences Center, MSC10 5580, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Placenta 31:653-64. 2010
    ..It also can be used to differentiate pregnancies that will miscarry and pregnancies that will go to term...
  44. ncbi request reprint Combining beta-core fragment and total oestriol measurements to test for Down syndrome pregnancies
    L A Cole
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Prenat Diagn 17:1125-33. 1997
    ..A test measuring the ratio of the two urine determinants may be a significant improvement over current serum methods for detecting Down syndrome...
  45. ncbi request reprint Urinary screening tests for fetal Down syndrome: II. Hyperglycosylated hCG
    L A Cole
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Prenat Diagn 19:351-9. 1999
    ..Evaluation is needed by other centres in order to bring hyperglycosylated hCG into clinical practice...
  46. pmc Early detection of ovarian cancer: preliminary results of the Yale Early Detection Program
    P E Schwartz
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510
    Yale J Biol Med 64:573-82. 1991
    ..It is necessary for cancer centers to develop expertise in ovarian cancer detection techniques to advise physicians in their geographic areas appropriately about the significance of the abnormal screening test...
  47. ncbi request reprint Hyperglycosylated hCG, a potential alternative to hCG in Down syndrome screening
    L A Cole
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Prenat Diagn 18:926-33. 1998
    ..This is a preliminary report consisting of only 152 samples. Further studies are needed now to verify the Down syndrome screening utility of this potentially valuable new marker...
  48. ncbi request reprint Screening for Down syndrome using urine hCG free beta-subunit in the second trimester of pregnancy
    L A Cole
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Prenat Diagn 17:1107-11. 1997
    ..9 MOM. Seven of 13 Down syndrome pregnancies (54 per cent) had free beta-subunit levels at or above the 95th centile of unaffected pregnancies. Urine free beta-subunit may potentially be useful as a screening test for Down syndrome...
  49. ncbi request reprint Comparison of 12 assays for detecting hCG and related molecules in urine samples from Down syndrome pregnancies
    L A Cole
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Prenat Diagn 17:607-14. 1997
    ..We infer that the assays that only detect beta-core fragment, or beta-core fragment with minor free beta-subunit cross-reactivity (types a and b), are the better urine-based tests for Down syndrome screening...
  50. ncbi request reprint Urinary screening tests for fetal Down syndrome: I. Fresh beta-core fragment
    L A Cole
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Prenat Diagn 19:340-50. 1999
    ..004). We infer that aggregation of beta-core fragment upon storage interferes with beta-core fragment measurements. This may be the cause of the poor beta-core fragment screening performance reported using sto..
  51. ncbi request reprint Detection of hCG in trophoblastic disease. The USA hCG reference service experience
    Laurence A Cole
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, 2211 Lomas Boulevard Northeast, ACC 4th Floor, Albuquerque, NM 87131 5286, USA
    J Reprod Med 47:433-44. 2002
    ..hCG tests are identified that give a disproportionate number of false positive results. Finally, guidelines are presented for selecting an hCG test...
  52. ncbi request reprint A single serum test for measuring early pregnancy outcome with high predictive value
    Jaime M Sutton-Riley
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, NM 87131, USA
    Clin Biochem 39:682-7. 2006
    ..Diagnosing a failing pregnancy is often done in emergency departments where simplified and accelerated testing methods are needed. Here, we investigated hyperglycosylated hCG (hCG-H) for predicting pregnancy failure...
  53. ncbi request reprint Hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin and the source of pregnancy failures
    Yasushi Sasaki
    USA hCG Reference Service, Division of Women s Health Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131, USA
    Fertil Steril 89:1781-6. 2008
    ..To investigate the proportion of hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG-H) produced at the time of implantation as a predictor of pregnancy success...
  54. pmc Urinary gonadotropin fragment (UGF) measurements in the diagnosis and management of ovarian cancer
    L A Cole
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510
    Yale J Biol Med 62:367-78. 1989
    ..UGF and CA125 should be used together in the detection and management of ovarian cancers...
  55. ncbi request reprint Detection of early pregnancy forms of human chorionic gonadotropin by home pregnancy test devices
    S A Butler
    USA hCG Reference Service, Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Clin Chem 47:2131-6. 2001
    ..We suggest that manufacturers calibrate devices for both hCG and H-hCG and determine the detection rates for pregnancy rather than the proportion of positive results at arbitrary hCG concentrations...
  56. ncbi request reprint Immunoassay of human chorionic gonadotropin, its free subunits, and metabolites
    L A Cole
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Clin Chem 43:2233-43. 1997
    ..It examines the stability and degradation of hCG, and recognition of hCG-related molecules by different types of immunoassay. Also reviewed are new assays for specifically detecting these other hCG-related molecules...
  57. pmc The biological and clinical significance of nicks in human chorionic gonadotropin and its free beta-subunit
    L A Cole
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510
    Yale J Biol Med 64:627-37. 1991
    ....
  58. ncbi request reprint Inappropriate management of women with persistent low hCG results
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque 87131, USA
    J Reprod Med 49:423-32. 2004
    ..The continued needless treatment of patients with quiescent GTD, even after multiple publications, is entirely avoidable. Unfortunately, the number of needlessly treated cases referred to the Reference Service is increasing...
  59. ncbi request reprint Selecting an appropriate hCG test for managing gestational trophoblastic disease and cancer
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico Health Science Center, Albuquerque, NM 871331, USA
    J Reprod Med 49:545-53. 2004
    ..K. RIA; none are false positive with the DPC Immulite test. Results clearly show that the DPC Immulite/Immulite 2000 is the only appropriate assay for monitoring patients with gestational trophoblastic disease or cancer...
  60. ncbi request reprint Selecting human chorionic gonadotropin immunoassays: consideration of cross-reacting molecules in first-trimester pregnancy serum and urine
    L A Cole
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 168:1580-6. 1993
    ..Individual variations in levels of nicked human chorionic gonadotropin, free beta and beta core, and differences in their recognition by immunoassays causes discordant results...
  61. ncbi request reprint Management of gestational trophoblastic disease and other cases with low serum levels of human chorionic gonadotropin
    Sarah A Khanlian
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque 87131 0001, USA
    J Reprod Med 51:812-8. 2006
    ..The hCG free beta assay is an invaluable test in discriminating PSTT from other GTDs, thereby aiding the determination of appropriate treatment options...
  62. ncbi request reprint Sialic acid-deficient invasive trophoblast antigen (sd-ITA): a new urinary variant for gestational Down syndrome screening
    Jaime M Sutton
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque 87131 0001, USA
    Prenat Diagn 24:194-7. 2004
    ..With the objective of developing an improved Down syndrome screening test, we examined the charge, or sialic acid variants, of ITA...
  63. ncbi request reprint Gestation trophoblastic diseases: management of cases with persistent low human chorionic gonadotropin results
    Laurence A Cole
    Division of Women s Health Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, 2211 Lomas Boulevard NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131 5286, USA
    Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 32:615-26. 2005
    ..Three distinct sources are discussed for persistent low hCG results: quiescence gestational trophoblastic disease, false-positive hCG results, and pituitary hCG...
  64. pmc Early detection of ovarian cancer: background, rationale, and structure of the Yale Early Detection Program
    P E Schwartz
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510
    Yale J Biol Med 64:557-71. 1991
    ....
  65. ncbi request reprint HCG urinary metabolites in breast milk
    J M Sutton
    Division of Women s Health Research, Dept Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA
    Horm Metab Res 36:75-7. 2004
  66. ncbi request reprint Urine beta-core fragment, a potential screening test for ectopic pregnancy and spontaneous abortion
    L A Cole
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn 06477, USA
    Fetal Diagn Ther 12:336-9. 1997
    ..Major fetal defects that cause spontaneous abort pregnancies may also be recognized by transvaginal ultrasound. In such cases, chorionic villous sampling or possibly termination may be considered...
  67. ncbi request reprint Positive pregnancy tests in a nongravid, premenopausal woman due to hCG beta-chain production by multiple myeloma
    Stephen P Slone
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, USA
    Am J Clin Pathol 124:108-12. 2005
    ..Immunohistochemical stains revealed that myeloma cells expressed immunoreactive hCG. Hence, multiple myeloma caused positive pregnancy test results in a nongravid woman...
  68. ncbi request reprint Persistent low levels of human chorionic gonadotropin: A premalignant gestational trophoblastic disease
    Sarah A Khanlian
    USA hCG Reference Service, Division of Women s Health Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, 2211 Lomas Boulevard NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 188:1254-9. 2003
    ..This study was undertaken to evaluate the significance of persistent low-level human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) titers (usually <50 IU/L) in the absence of clinical evidence of pregnancy or gestational trophoblastic disease...
  69. ncbi request reprint Human chorionic gonadotropin testing for early pregnancy viability and complications
    Suzy Davies
    The United States Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, 2211 Lomas Boulevard Northeast, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Clin Lab Med 23:257-64, vii. 2003
    ..The use of hCG measurement and hCG doubling rates, progesterone measurements, and transvaginal ultrasound in identifying ectopic pregnancies and failing pregnancies also is reviewed...
  70. doi request reprint The quagmire of hCG and hCG testing in gynecologic oncology
    Carolyn Y Muller
    USA hCG Reference Service 1, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Gynecol Oncol 112:663-72. 2009
    ..The series of hCG molecules as tumor markers will be reviewed to help the clinician best diagnose these often difficult clinical problems...
  71. ncbi request reprint Selecting an appropriate hCG test for managing gestational trophoblastic disease and cancer
    Laurence A Cole
    J Reprod Med 51:217. 2006
  72. ncbi request reprint Second-trimester maternal serum invasive trophoblast antigen: a marker for Down syndrome screening
    Raj Pandian
    Quest Diagnostics Nichols Institute, San Juan Capistrano, CA 92690, USA
    Clin Chem 50:1433-5. 2004
  73. ncbi request reprint Falsely elevated human chorionic gonadotropin leading to unnecessary therapy
    Stephen A Butler
    Obstet Gynecol 99:516-7. 2002
  74. ncbi request reprint "Background" human chorionic gonadotropin in healthy, nonpregnant women
    Laurence A Cole
    Clin Chem 51:1765-6. 2005
  75. ncbi request reprint Normal production of human chorionic gonadotropin in menopause
    Laurence A Cole
    N Engl J Med 356:1184-6. 2007