Craig R Cohen

Summary

Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Bacterial vaginosis associated with increased risk of female-to-male HIV-1 transmission: a prospective cohort analysis among African couples
    Craig R Cohen
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, United States of America
    PLoS Med 9:e1001251. 2012
  2. pmc Family model of HIV care and treatment: a retrospective study in Kenya
    Jayne Lewis Kulzer
    Family Aids Care and Education Services, Research Care and Training Program, Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya
    J Int AIDS Soc 15:8. 2012
  3. pmc A phase I randomized placebo controlled trial of the safety of 3% SPL7013 Gel (VivaGel®) in healthy young women administered twice daily for 14 days
    Craig R Cohen
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Science, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e16258. 2011
  4. ncbi request reprint Mycoplasma genitalium infection and persistence in a cohort of female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya
    Craig R Cohen
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, CA, USA
    Sex Transm Dis 34:274-9. 2007
  5. pmc Increased levels of immune activation in the genital tract of healthy young women from sub-Saharan Africa
    Craig R Cohen
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, California 94117, USA
    AIDS 24:2069-74. 2010
  6. pmc Patient satisfaction with integrated HIV and antenatal care services in rural Kenya
    Baotran N Vo
    Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
    AIDS Care 24:1442-7. 2012
  7. doi request reprint Phase 2a study assessing colonization efficiency, safety, and acceptability of Lactobacillus crispatus CTV-05 in women with bacterial vaginosis
    Anke Hemmerling
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA
    Sex Transm Dis 37:745-50. 2010
  8. pmc Association of cervical biopsy with HIV type 1 genital shedding among women on highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Victoria G Woo
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 29:1000-5. 2013
  9. pmc Is there an association between HIV-1 genital shedding and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3 among women on antiretroviral therapy?
    Megan Justine Huchko
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Services, University of California, San Francisco, San Franciso, CA 94105, USA
    J Low Genit Tract Dis 17:354-60. 2013
  10. pmc Measurement of mucosal biomarkers in a phase 1 trial of intravaginal 3% StarPharma LTD 7013 gel (VivaGel) to assess expanded safety
    Anna Barbara Moscicki
    Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 59:134-40. 2012

Detail Information

Publications64

  1. pmc Bacterial vaginosis associated with increased risk of female-to-male HIV-1 transmission: a prospective cohort analysis among African couples
    Craig R Cohen
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, United States of America
    PLoS Med 9:e1001251. 2012
    ..However, whether BV, which is present in up to half of African HIV-1-infected women, is associated with an increase in HIV-1 transmission to male partners has not been assessed in previous studies...
  2. pmc Family model of HIV care and treatment: a retrospective study in Kenya
    Jayne Lewis Kulzer
    Family Aids Care and Education Services, Research Care and Training Program, Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya
    J Int AIDS Soc 15:8. 2012
    ..1%. Only 16% of HIV-infected adults in the country accurately knew their HIV status. Targeted strategies to reach and test individuals are urgently needed to curb the HIV epidemic. The family unit is one important portal...
  3. pmc A phase I randomized placebo controlled trial of the safety of 3% SPL7013 Gel (VivaGel®) in healthy young women administered twice daily for 14 days
    Craig R Cohen
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Science, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e16258. 2011
    ..To assess the safety of VivaGel® used vaginally twice daily for 14 days among healthy, sexually-abstinent women, aged 18-24 years in the USA and Kenya...
  4. ncbi request reprint Mycoplasma genitalium infection and persistence in a cohort of female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya
    Craig R Cohen
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, CA, USA
    Sex Transm Dis 34:274-9. 2007
    ..The objective of this study was to assess the risk factors for and persistence of Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) in a highly exposed female population in Kenya...
  5. pmc Increased levels of immune activation in the genital tract of healthy young women from sub-Saharan Africa
    Craig R Cohen
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, California 94117, USA
    AIDS 24:2069-74. 2010
    ..To determine whether healthy, young women in sub-Saharan Africa have a more activated immune milieu in the genital tract (i.e. activated CD4 T cells) than a similar population in the United States...
  6. pmc Patient satisfaction with integrated HIV and antenatal care services in rural Kenya
    Baotran N Vo
    Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
    AIDS Care 24:1442-7. 2012
    ..Full integration of HIV care into antenatal clinics can significantly increase overall satisfaction with care for HIV-infected women, with no significant decrease in satisfaction for HIV-uninfected women served in the same clinics...
  7. doi request reprint Phase 2a study assessing colonization efficiency, safety, and acceptability of Lactobacillus crispatus CTV-05 in women with bacterial vaginosis
    Anke Hemmerling
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA
    Sex Transm Dis 37:745-50. 2010
    ..Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal infection caused by a lack of endogenous lactobacilli and overgrowth of pathogens that frequently recurs following antibiotic treatment...
  8. pmc Association of cervical biopsy with HIV type 1 genital shedding among women on highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Victoria G Woo
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 29:1000-5. 2013
    ..These findings help provide safety data regarding cervical cancer screening and diagnosis in HIV-infected women and inform postprocedure counseling...
  9. pmc Is there an association between HIV-1 genital shedding and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3 among women on antiretroviral therapy?
    Megan Justine Huchko
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Services, University of California, San Francisco, San Franciso, CA 94105, USA
    J Low Genit Tract Dis 17:354-60. 2013
    ....
  10. pmc Measurement of mucosal biomarkers in a phase 1 trial of intravaginal 3% StarPharma LTD 7013 gel (VivaGel) to assess expanded safety
    Anna Barbara Moscicki
    Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 59:134-40. 2012
    ..The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the 3% StarPharma LTD 7013 gel (VivaGel) on mucosal immune markers hypothesized to be associated with HIV-1 acquisition...
  11. pmc Predictors of linkage to care following community-based HIV counseling and testing in rural Kenya
    Abigail M Hatcher
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 50 Beale Street, Suite 1200, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA
    AIDS Behav 16:1295-307. 2012
    ..Enrollment rates were significantly higher among participants receiving a PLHA visit, suggesting that a navigator approach may improve linkage from community-based HCT campaigns...
  12. pmc HIV/AIDS stigma and refusal of HIV testing among pregnant women in rural Kenya: results from the MAMAS Study
    Janet M Turan
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences and Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, University of California San Francisco, 50 Beale St, Suite 1200, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA
    AIDS Behav 15:1111-20. 2011
    ....
  13. doi request reprint Cost, cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness of integrated family planning and HIV services
    Starley B Shade
    aCenter for AIDS Prevention Studies, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA bCenter for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya cBixby Center for Global Reproductive Health, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco dIbis Reproductive Health, Oakland, California, USA
    AIDS 27:S87-92. 2013
    ..To evaluate costs, cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness of integration of family planning into HIV services...
  14. pmc Attitudes and beliefs about anti-retroviral therapy are associated with high risk sexual behaviors among the general population of Kisumu, Kenya
    Rachel M Smith
    Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    AIDS Care 23:1668-75. 2011
    ..In high HIV seroprevalence populations with expanding access to ART, prevention programs must ensure their content counteracts misconceptions of ART in order to reduce high risk sexual behaviors, especially among youth...
  15. doi request reprint Integration of family planning services into HIV care and treatment in Kenya: a cluster-randomized trial
    Daniel Grossman
    aIbis Reproductive Health, Oakland, California bBixby Center for Global Reproductive Health, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, USA cKenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya dCenter for AIDS Prevention, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    AIDS 27:S77-85. 2013
    ..To determine whether integrating family planning services into HIV care is associated with increased use of more effective contraceptive methods (sterilization, intrauterine device, implant, injectable or oral contraceptives)...
  16. pmc Direct questioning is more effective than patient-initiated report for the detection of sexually transmitted infections in a primary care HIV clinic in Western Kenya
    Victoria Gah Hay Woo
    Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA
    Sex Transm Dis 40:158-61. 2013
    ..Vaginal examination further increased sensitivity. Including clinician-initiated screening in resource-limited settings would improve management of treatable STIs...
  17. pmc Acceptability and feasibility of integration of HIV care services into antenatal clinics in rural Kenya: a qualitative provider interview study
    Lena E Winestone
    Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA
    Glob Public Health 7:149-63. 2012
    ..However, integration efforts need to take into account potential negative effects on ANC provider workload, disclosure and the quality of care...
  18. ncbi request reprint Sexuality, HIV risk and potential acceptability of involving adolescent girls in microbicide research in Kisumu, Kenya
    Michele Montandon
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA
    Sex Health 5:339-46. 2008
    ..We sought to understand the individual, family and community-level factors that may influence the acceptability of microbicide use and research involving adolescent girls...
  19. pmc The association of HIV counseling and testing with HIV risk behaviors in a random population-based survey in Kisumu, Kenya
    Megan J Huchko
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA
    AIDS Behav 15:718-24. 2011
    ..Although rates of HIV testing were higher than seen in previous studies, the majority of HIV-infected people were unaware of their status. Efforts should be made to increase HIV testing among this population...
  20. pmc Building capacity for cervical cancer screening in outpatient HIV clinics in the Nyanza province of western Kenya
    Megan J Huchko
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Bixby Center for Global Reproductive Health, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA
    Int J Gynaecol Obstet 114:106-10. 2011
    ..To evaluate outcomes of cervical cancer screening within HIV care and treatment clinics in Kenya...
  21. pmc Risk factors for cervical precancer detection among previously unscreened HIV-infected women in Western Kenya
    Megan J Huchko
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA
    Int J Cancer 134:740-5. 2014
    ..The association of CIN2+ with hormonal contraception should be explored more in prospective studies designed to better control for confounding factors. ..
  22. pmc Does integrating family planning into HIV care and treatment impact intention to use contraception? Patient perspectives from HIV-infected individuals in Nyanza Province, Kenya
    Sara J Newmann
    Bixby Center for Reproductive Health, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, USA Electronic address
    Int J Gynaecol Obstet 123:e16-23. 2013
    ..To evaluate whether HIV-infected women and men in HIV care and not using highly effective methods of contraception thought they would be more likely to use contraception if it were available at the HIV clinic...
  23. doi request reprint Screening for HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy in resource-limited settings
    Deanna Cettomai
    Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, 1001 Potrero Avenue, 4M62, Box 0870, San Francisco, California, 94110, USA
    Muscle Nerve 48:516-24. 2013
    ..We investigated the utility of screening tools administered by nonphysician healthcare workers (HCW) and quantitative sensory testing (QST) administered by trained individuals for identification of moderate/severe neuropathy...
  24. pmc Fertility intentions among HIV-infected, sero-concordant couples in Nyanza province, Kenya
    Mellissa Withers
    a Department of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
    Cult Health Sex 15:1175-90. 2013
    ..Community-level programmes are needed to reduce stigma and make HIV-infected couples more comfortable in discussing fertility intentions with healthcare providers...
  25. pmc Providers' Perspectives on Provision of Family Planning to HIV-Positive Individuals in HIV Care in Nyanza Province, Kenya
    Sara J Newmann
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco General Hospital, 1001 Potrero Avenue, Ward 6D 14, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    AIDS Res Treat 2013:915923. 2013
    ....
  26. pmc Loop electrosurgical excision procedure: safety and tolerability among human immunodeficiency virus-positive Kenyan women
    Victoria G Woo
    University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 118:554-9. 2011
    ....
  27. pmc Fertility intentions and interest in integrated family planning services among women living with HIV in Nyanza Province, Kenya: a qualitative study
    Elizabeth K Harrington
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94612, USA
    Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2012:809682. 2012
    ..Efforts to empower women living with HIV to prevent unintended pregnancies must expand access to contraceptive methods, provide confidential services, and take into account women's varied reproductive intentions...
  28. pmc Association of attitudes and beliefs towards antiretroviral therapy with HIV-seroprevalence in the general population of Kisumu, Kenya
    Craig R Cohen
    Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 4:e4573. 2009
    ..We hypothesized that a similar phenomenon may be occurring in sub-Saharan Africa concomitant with the scale-up of HIV treatment...
  29. pmc Conceptual framework for understanding the bidirectional links between food insecurity and HIV/AIDS
    Sheri D Weiser
    Division of HIV AIDS, San Francisco General Hospital, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 94:1729S-1739S. 2011
    ..More research on the relative importance of each of these pathways is warranted because effective interventions to reduce food insecurity and HIV depend on a rigorous understanding of these multifaceted relationships...
  30. ncbi request reprint Immunoepidemiologic profile of Chlamydia trachomatis infection: importance of heat-shock protein 60 and interferon- gamma
    Craig R Cohen
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Science, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94105, USA
    J Infect Dis 192:591-9. 2005
    ..This investigation supports a direct role for C. trachomatis-specific immune responses in altering the risk of infection and suggests immune correlates of protection that are potentially useful in vaccine development...
  31. pmc Overcoming Barriers to Family Planning through Integration: Perspectives of HIV-Positive Men in Nyanza Province, Kenya
    Rachel L Steinfeld
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco UCSF, 50 Beale Street, Suite 1200, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA
    AIDS Res Treat 2013:861983. 2013
    ..Integration needs to be rigorously evaluated in order to measure its impact on unmet need for contraception among HIV-positive women and their partners and assure that it is implemented in a manner that engages both men and women...
  32. pmc Effect of the levonorgestrel intrauterine device on genital HIV-1 RNA shedding among HIV-1-infected women not taking antiretroviral therapy in Nairobi, Kenya
    Jenell S Coleman
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 63:245-8. 2013
    ..42 log10; 95% confidence interval: 0.10 to 0.75). The LNG-IUD did not increase genital HIV-1 RNA shedding after 6 months of use...
  33. pmc Trypan blue staining to determine vaginal exposure in two types of plastic vaginal applicators containing two different microbicide formulations
    Anke Hemmerling
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA
    Sex Transm Dis 39:710-2. 2012
    ..Dye staining of vaginal applicators is an objective low-cost measure suitable for low-resource settings...
  34. pmc How perceptions of HIV-related stigma affect decision-making regarding childbirth in rural Kenya
    José S Medema-Wijnveen
    University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 7:e51492. 2012
    ..We explored relationships between women's perceptions of HIV-related stigma and their attitudes and intentions regarding facility-based childbirth...
  35. pmc Shamba Maisha: a pilot study assessing impacts of a micro-irrigation intervention on the health and economic wellbeing of HIV patients
    Jay A Pandit
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco School of Medicine, USA
    BMC Public Health 10:245. 2010
    ..Thus, we tested the feasibility of providing a micro-irrigation pump to HIV-positive farmers in order to evaluate its impact on health and economic advancement among HIV-positive patients and their families...
  36. ncbi request reprint Infectious correlates of HIV-1 shedding in the female upper and lower genital tracts
    Jenell S Coleman
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA
    AIDS 21:755-9. 2007
    ..To determine the effects of vaginal, cervical, and endometrial infections on shedding of HIV-1 RNA in the female genital tract...
  37. pmc Medical pluralism on Mfangano Island: use of medicinal plants among persons living with HIV/AIDS in Suba District, Kenya
    Jason M Nagata
    Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology, University of Oxford, 51 Banbury Road, Oxford OX6 6PE, UK
    J Ethnopharmacol 135:501-9. 2011
    ..Using a cross-sectional study we sought to document and identify the herbal medicines used by persons living with HIV/AIDS on Mfangano Island, Suba District, Nyanza Province, Kenya...
  38. pmc Predictors of outcome in routine care for Cryptococcal meningitis in Western Kenya: lessons for HIV outpatient care in resource-limited settings
    Caroline Kendi
    Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, Visiting Scientist, Research, Care and Training Program, Center for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Box 614 40100, Kisumu, Kenya
    Postgrad Med J 89:73-7. 2013
    ..We assessed adherence to treatment guidelines and determined predictors of survival...
  39. pmc Diaphragm used with replens gel and risk of bacterial vaginosis: results from a randomized controlled trial
    Craig R Cohen
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 50 Beale Street, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA
    Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2012:921519. 2012
    ..We investigated the effect of providing a latex diaphragm with Replens and condoms compared to condom only on BV prevalence among participants enrolled in an HIV prevention trial...
  40. pmc Effects of HIV/AIDS on maternity care providers in Kenya
    Janet M Turan
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 37:588-95. 2008
    ..To explore the impact of HIV/AIDS on maternity care providers in labor and delivery in a high HIV-prevalence setting in sub-Saharan Africa...
  41. doi request reprint Prevalence, characteristics, and outcomes of HIV-positive women diagnosed with invasive cancer of the cervix in Kenya
    Chemtai Mungo
    Doris Duke Clinical Research Fellow, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, USA Electronic address
    Int J Gynaecol Obstet 123:231-5. 2013
    ..To determine the prevalence of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and assess access to, and outcomes of, treatment for ICC among HIV-infected women in Kisumu, Kenya...
  42. pmc Evaluating safer conception options for HIV-serodiscordant couples (HIV-infected female/HIV-uninfected male): a closer look at vaginal insemination
    Okeoma Mmeje
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2012:587651. 2012
    ..In serodiscordant partnerships with an HIV-infected female and HIV-uninfected male, vaginal insemination of a partner's semen during the fertile period coupled with 100% condom use may be the safest method of conception...
  43. pmc Phase 1 dose-ranging safety trial of Lactobacillus crispatus CTV-05 for the prevention of bacterial vaginosis
    Anke Hemmerling
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 50 Beale Street, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA
    Sex Transm Dis 36:564-9. 2009
    ..Bacterial vaginosis is a very common vaginal infection. The lack of endogenous lactobacilli and overgrowth of pathogens facilitate numerous gynecological complications...
  44. pmc Socio-demographic and health associations with body mass index at the time of enrollment in HIV care in Nyanza Province, Kenya
    Jason M Nagata
    a School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
    AIDS Care 25:1491-8. 2013
    ..HIV care and treatment programs should consider using socio-demographic and health risk factors associated with low BMI to target and recruit patients with the goal of preventing late enrollment into care. ..
  45. pmc Towards Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV: The Impact of a Rapid Results Initiative in Nyanza Province, Kenya
    Lisa L Dillabaugh
    Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
    AIDS Res Treat 2012:602120. 2012
    ..3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6) post-RRI. Significant improvement in PMTCT services can be achieved through introduction of an RRI, which appears to lead to sustained benefits for pregnant HIV-infected women and their infants...
  46. pmc Trends in the clinical characteristics of HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania between 2002 and 2009
    Elvin H Geng
    Department of Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California at San Francisco, 995 Potrero Avenue, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Int AIDS Soc 14:46. 2011
    ..Regionally representative socio-demographic, laboratory and clinical characteristics of patients accessing ART over time and across sites have not been well described...
  47. ncbi request reprint Sex preparation and diaphragm acceptability in sex work in Nairobi, Kenya
    Anjali Sharma
    Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kenyatta National Hospital, PO Box 19464 00202, Nairobi, Kenya
    Sex Health 3:261-8. 2006
    ..Currently, contraceptive diaphragm users are advised to leave the diaphragm in situ without concomitant use of other intravaginal substances for at least 6 h after intercourse...
  48. pmc Etiology of persistent tubo-ovarian abscess in Nairobi, Kenya
    Craig R Cohen
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 6460, USA
    Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 11:45-51. 2003
    ..To study the microbial etiology of tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA)...
  49. ncbi request reprint Immunogenetic correlates for Chlamydia trachomatis-associated tubal infertility
    Craig R Cohen
    Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 101:438-44. 2003
    ..To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring...
  50. ncbi request reprint mgpB and mgpC sequence diversity in Mycoplasma genitalium is generated by segmental reciprocal recombination with repetitive chromosomal sequences
    Stefanie L Iverson-Cabral
    Department of Pathobiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
    Mol Microbiol 66:55-73. 2007
    ..genitalium by the mutual exchange of sequences makes this organism unique among bacterial pathogens...
  51. ncbi request reprint Sustained changes in sexual behavior by female sex workers after completion of a randomized HIV prevention trial
    Elizabeth N Ngugi
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 45:588-94. 2007
    ..Behavioral interventions in female sex workers (FSWs) are associated with changes in sexual behavior and reduced rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV We examined the sustainability of such interventions...
  52. ncbi request reprint Risk factors for pneumonia in urban-dwelling HIV-infected women: a case-control study in Nairobi, Kenya
    Jeremy Penner
    McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 32:223-8. 2003
    ..5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1) remained at increased risk of pneumonia. If confirmed by prospective investigation, these findings could help identify persons and subpopulations of HIV-infected women with the greatest risk of pneumonia...
  53. ncbi request reprint Chronic diarrhoea in HIV-1-infected adults in Nairobi, Kenya: evaluation of risk factors and the WHO treatment algorithm
    Christina W Mwachari
    AIDS 17:2124-6. 2003
  54. ncbi request reprint Association of hormonal contraception and HIV-seroprevalence in Nairobi, Kenya
    Amy Criniti
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, USA
    AIDS 17:2667-9. 2003
    ..5, 95% confidence interval 0.3-0.7) than women using DMPA. This association was most pronounced among POCP users of lower parity...
  55. ncbi request reprint Mortality and burden of disease in a cohort of HIV-seropositive adults in Nairobi, Kenya
    Christina W Mwachari
    Centre for Respiratory Disease Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, PO Box 54840, Nairobi, Kenya
    Int J STD AIDS 15:120-6. 2004
    ..0, 95% confidence interval 1.7-5.1). These findings may help to target high-risk populations and guide OI prevention and treatment strategies including decisions regarding initiation of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa...
  56. ncbi request reprint Detection of novel organisms associated with salpingitis, by use of 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction
    Jennifer K Hebb
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA
    J Infect Dis 190:2109-20. 2004
    ..The finding of novel phylotypes associated with salpingitis has important implications for the etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of this important reproductive-tract disease syndrome...
  57. doi request reprint Probiotics: potential to prevent HIV and sexually transmitted infections in women
    Michael Bolton
    Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Sex Transm Dis 35:214-25. 2008
    ..If results from such a trial demonstrate efficacy, future studies should be designed to determine whether a probiotic can significantly lower the risk for HIV and STIs in at-risk female populations...
  58. ncbi request reprint Bacterial vaginosis: risk factors among Kenyan women and their male partners
    Elizabeth A Bukusi
    Kenya Medical Research Institute, Center for Microbiology Research, Nairobi, Kenya
    Sex Transm Dis 33:361-7. 2006
    ..To simultaneously examine associations of bacterial vaginosis (BV) with potential risk factors in both the female and her male partner...
  59. pmc Intrastrain heterogeneity of the mgpB gene in Mycoplasma genitalium is extensive in vitro and in vivo and suggests that variation is generated via recombination with repetitive chromosomal sequences
    Stefanie L Iverson-Cabral
    Department of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center, R and T Building, 325 9th Avenue, Box 359779, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
    Infect Immun 74:3715-26. 2006
    ..These observations support the hypothesis that recombination occurs between the mgpB gene and MgPar sequences and that the resulting antigenically distinct MgPa variants may contribute to immune evasion and persistence of infection...
  60. doi request reprint Sexual identity and risk of HIV/STI among men who have sex with men in Nairobi
    Anjali Sharma
    Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
    Sex Transm Dis 35:352-4. 2008
  61. ncbi request reprint Independent association of hygiene, socioeconomic status, and circumcision with reduced risk of HIV infection among Kenyan men
    Amalia S Meier
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Center for AIDS and STD, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 43:117-8. 2006
    ..1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-19.1) and inversely associated with being circumcised (OR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.02-0.91), but also independently associated with a combined measure of hygiene (OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.19-0.90)...
  62. ncbi request reprint The ABCs of HIV prevention in men: associations with HIV risk and protective behaviors
    Matthew S Steele
    Program for Appropriate Technology in Health PATH, Seattle, WA, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 43:571-6. 2006
    ..To elucidate associations between beliefs in abstinence, fidelity, and condom use (the "ABCs" of preventing HIV and other sexually transmitted infections) and associated self-reported risk behaviors among Kenyan men...
  63. ncbi request reprint Safety, acceptability, and tolerability of 3 topical microbicides among heterosexual Kenyan men
    Elizabeth A Bukusi
    Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 44:423-8. 2007
    ..To compare the acceptability, tolerability, and safety of 3 topical microbicide formulations (62% ethyl alcohol in emollient gel and 0.1% and 0.4% benzalkonium chloride on a sanitary wipe) for use on male genitalia...
  64. ncbi request reprint Association between Mycoplasma genitalium and acute endometritis
    Craig R Cohen
    Lancet 359:765-6. 2002
    ..02). Our results suggest that infection with M genitalium is strongly associated with acute endometritis in this population...