Monica E Calkins

Summary

Affiliation: University of Pennsylvania
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc The Consortium on the Genetics of Endophenotypes in Schizophrenia: model recruitment, assessment, and endophenotyping methods for a multisite collaboration
    Monica E Calkins
    Neuropsychiatry Section, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, 10 Gates, 3400 Spruce St, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Schizophr Bull 33:33-48. 2007
  2. ncbi request reprint Antisaccade performance is impaired in medically and psychiatrically healthy biological relatives of schizophrenia patients
    Monica E Calkins
    Neuropsychiatry Section, Schizophrenia Research Center, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 10 Gates, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Schizophr Res 71:167-78. 2004
  3. ncbi request reprint Face recognition memory deficits and visual object memory performance in patients with schizophrenia and their relatives
    Monica E Calkins
    University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 10 Gates, 3400 Spruce St, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 162:1963-6. 2005
  4. ncbi request reprint Neurocognitive growth charting in psychosis spectrum youths
    Ruben C Gur
    Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
    JAMA Psychiatry 71:366-74. 2014
  5. ncbi request reprint The effect of odor valence on olfactory performance in schizophrenia patients, unaffected relatives and at-risk youth
    Vidyulata Kamath
    Neuropsychiatry Section, Department of Psychiatry, Philadelphia, PA, USA Smell and Taste Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Division of Medical Psychology, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Electronic address
    J Psychiatr Res 47:1636-41. 2013
  6. pmc Abnormal auditory N100 amplitude: a heritable endophenotype in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia probands
    Bruce I Turetsky
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 64:1051-9. 2008
  7. pmc Sex differences in familiality effects on neurocognitive performance in schizophrenia
    Monica E Calkins
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 73:976-84. 2013
  8. pmc Genome-wide linkage analyses of 12 endophenotypes for schizophrenia from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia
    Tiffany A Greenwood
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, Calif, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 170:521-32. 2013
  9. pmc Inhibition of the P50 cerebral evoked response to repeated auditory stimuli: results from the Consortium on Genetics of Schizophrenia
    Ann Olincy
    Department of Psychiatry, Veterans Affairs Denver Medical Center VISN 19 MIRECC, CO 80045, USA
    Schizophr Res 119:175-82. 2010
  10. ncbi request reprint Initial heritability analyses of endophenotypic measures for schizophrenia: the consortium on the genetics of schizophrenia
    Tiffany A Greenwood
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:1242-50. 2007

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications49

  1. pmc The Consortium on the Genetics of Endophenotypes in Schizophrenia: model recruitment, assessment, and endophenotyping methods for a multisite collaboration
    Monica E Calkins
    Neuropsychiatry Section, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, 10 Gates, 3400 Spruce St, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Schizophr Bull 33:33-48. 2007
    ..The purpose of this article is to provide a description of the COGS structure and methods, including participant recruitment and assessment...
  2. ncbi request reprint Antisaccade performance is impaired in medically and psychiatrically healthy biological relatives of schizophrenia patients
    Monica E Calkins
    Neuropsychiatry Section, Schizophrenia Research Center, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 10 Gates, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Schizophr Res 71:167-78. 2004
    ....
  3. ncbi request reprint Face recognition memory deficits and visual object memory performance in patients with schizophrenia and their relatives
    Monica E Calkins
    University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 10 Gates, 3400 Spruce St, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 162:1963-6. 2005
    ..Biological relatives of patients have similar deficits, suggesting genetic susceptibility. Because the impairment may reflect generalized object memory deficits, the authors evaluated both face and visual object recognition...
  4. ncbi request reprint Neurocognitive growth charting in psychosis spectrum youths
    Ruben C Gur
    Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
    JAMA Psychiatry 71:366-74. 2014
    ..We hypothesized that psychosis spectrum youths have delayed neurocognitive age relative to chronological age. We expected larger lags with increased symptom severity and in late adolescence and early adulthood...
  5. ncbi request reprint The effect of odor valence on olfactory performance in schizophrenia patients, unaffected relatives and at-risk youth
    Vidyulata Kamath
    Neuropsychiatry Section, Department of Psychiatry, Philadelphia, PA, USA Smell and Taste Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Division of Medical Psychology, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Electronic address
    J Psychiatr Res 47:1636-41. 2013
    ..Further research examining the utility of odor valence measures as markers for psychosis risk is warranted. ..
  6. pmc Abnormal auditory N100 amplitude: a heritable endophenotype in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia probands
    Bruce I Turetsky
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 64:1051-9. 2008
    ..We report initial results from the COGS dataset of auditory N100 amplitude and gating as candidate endophenotypes...
  7. pmc Sex differences in familiality effects on neurocognitive performance in schizophrenia
    Monica E Calkins
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 73:976-84. 2013
    ..In view of these findings, the current investigation tested the hypothesis that neurocognitive performance of schizophrenia probands can predict the neurocognitive performance of their unaffected family members...
  8. pmc Genome-wide linkage analyses of 12 endophenotypes for schizophrenia from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia
    Tiffany A Greenwood
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, Calif, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 170:521-32. 2013
    ..The authors previously demonstrated the heritability of these endophenotypes; in the present study, genetic linkage was evaluated...
  9. pmc Inhibition of the P50 cerebral evoked response to repeated auditory stimuli: results from the Consortium on Genetics of Schizophrenia
    Ann Olincy
    Department of Psychiatry, Veterans Affairs Denver Medical Center VISN 19 MIRECC, CO 80045, USA
    Schizophr Res 119:175-82. 2010
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Initial heritability analyses of endophenotypic measures for schizophrenia: the consortium on the genetics of schizophrenia
    Tiffany A Greenwood
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:1242-50. 2007
    ..Exploration of the genetic architecture of specific endophenotypes may be a powerful strategy for understanding the genetic basis of schizophrenia...
  11. pmc Multi-site studies of acoustic startle and prepulse inhibition in humans: initial experience and methodological considerations based on studies by the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia
    Neal R Swerdlow
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, USA
    Schizophr Res 92:237-51. 2007
    ..Genetic studies now often employ multiple, geographically dispersed test sites to accommodate the need for large and complex study samples. Here, we assessed the feasibility of using PPI in multi-site studies...
  12. ncbi request reprint Project among African-Americans to explore risks for schizophrenia (PAARTNERS): evidence for impairment and heritability of neurocognitive functioning in families of schizophrenia patients
    Monica E Calkins
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 167:459-72. 2010
    ....
  13. pmc The Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia: neurocognitive endophenotypes
    Raquel E Gur
    Neuropsychiatry Section, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, 10 Gates, 3400 Spruce St, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Schizophr Bull 33:49-68. 2007
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Neurocognitive endophenotypes in a multiplex multigenerational family study of schizophrenia
    Raquel E Gur
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia 19104, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 164:813-9. 2007
    ..The purpose of this article was to examine computerized neurocognitive measures as candidate endophenotypic markers of liability for schizophrenia in a genetically informative cohort...
  15. pmc An improved framework for confound regression and filtering for control of motion artifact in the preprocessing of resting-state functional connectivity data
    Theodore D Satterthwaite
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA 19104, USA
    Neuroimage 64:240-56. 2013
    ..These results demonstrate that the effect of motion on rsfc-MRI can be substantially attenuated through improved preprocessing procedures, but not completely removed...
  16. pmc Age group and sex differences in performance on a computerized neurocognitive battery in children age 8-21
    Ruben C Gur
    Brain Behavior Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA19104, USA
    Neuropsychology 26:251-65. 2012
    ..Such information is needed to incorporate behavioral data as neuropsychological "biomarkers" in large-scale genomic studies...
  17. pmc Computerized neurocognitive test performance in schizophrenia: a lifespan analysis
    Farzin Irani
    Department of Psychiatry, Neuropsychiatry Section, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 20:41-52. 2012
    ..Favorable construct validity in younger schizophrenia patients has been reported, but not in older patients. New variables afforded by computerized assessments were used to clarify age-associated cognitive impairment across the lifespan...
  18. pmc Analysis of 94 candidate genes and 12 endophenotypes for schizophrenia from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia
    Tiffany A Greenwood
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0804, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 168:930-46. 2011
    ....
  19. pmc Computerized neurocognitive profile in young people with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome compared to youths with schizophrenia and at-risk for psychosis
    Paula C Goldenberg
    Division of Human Genetics, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 159:87-93. 2012
    ..Similar deficits have been described in the 22q11DS population using non-computerized measures, which require increased testing time...
  20. doi request reprint The other-race effect in face processing among African American and Caucasian individuals with schizophrenia
    Amy E Pinkham
    Department of Neuropsychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, 10th Floor, Gates Pavilion, Philadelphia 19104, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 165:639-45. 2008
    ..The authors sought to measure the "other-race effect" in schizophrenia, which could account for previous findings and provide information about sensitivity to such social cues in patients...
  21. pmc A cognitive neuroscience-based computerized battery for efficient measurement of individual differences: standardization and initial construct validation
    Ruben C Gur
    Brain Behavior Laboratory, Section of Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Philadelphia, PA 19104 4283, United States
    J Neurosci Methods 187:254-62. 2010
    ..These results encourage the use of this battery in studies needing an efficient assessment of major neurocognitive domains such as multi-site genetic studies and clinical trials...
  22. ncbi request reprint Self-face recognition and theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia and first-degree relatives
    Farzin Irani
    Department of Psychology, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Schizophr Res 88:151-60. 2006
    ....
  23. ncbi request reprint Facial emotion perception differs in young persons at genetic and clinical high-risk for psychosis
    Christian G Kohler
    University of Pennsylvania, Department of Psychiatry, Philadelphia, PA, United States Electronic address
    Psychiatry Res 216:206-12. 2014
    ..Preliminary results with clinical high-risk participants, when considered along findings in genetic risk relatives, suggest social cognition abilities to reflect pathophysiological processes involved in risk of schizophrenia. ..
  24. ncbi request reprint Paternal age of schizophrenia probands and endophenotypic differences from unaffected siblings
    James Schmeidler
    Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai School, One Gustave L Levy Place, Box 1230, New York, NY, USA
    Psychiatry Res 219:67-71. 2014
    ..A possible explanation is that the identification of heritable endophenotypes was based on samples for which schizophrenia was attributable to inherited rather than de novo/non-inherited causes. ..
  25. pmc Olfactory processing in schizophrenia, non-ill first-degree family members, and young people at-risk for psychosis
    Vidyulata Kamath
    Neuropsychiatry Section, Department of Psychiatry
    World J Biol Psychiatry 15:209-18. 2014
    ..While deficits in odor identification and discrimination have been reported in schizophrenia, few studies have examined the relative specificity of these deficits in patients and at-risk youth...
  26. pmc Evaluation of HLA polymorphisms in relation to schizophrenia risk and infectious exposure
    Mikhil Bamne
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Schizophr Bull 38:1149-54. 2012
    ..3-22.1, the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region, as common risk factors for schizophrenia (SZ). Other studies implicate viral and protozoan exposure. Our study tests chromosome 6p SNPs for effects on SZ risk with and without exposure...
  27. pmc Neurophysiological endophenotypes of schizophrenia: the viability of selected candidate measures
    Bruce I Turetsky
    Department of Psychiatry, 10th Floor, Gates Building, University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Schizophr Bull 33:69-94. 2007
    ..We conclude with a discussion of the few studies thus far that have employed a multivariate approach with these candidates...
  28. doi request reprint Eye movement dysfunction in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia: a meta-analytic evaluation of candidate endophenotypes
    Monica E Calkins
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Neuropsychiatry Section, Schizophrenia Research Center and Brain Behavior Laboratory, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Brain Cogn 68:436-61. 2008
    ..Future work should focus on facilitating endophenotype utility through attention to heterogeneity of EMD performance, relationships among forms of EMD, and application in molecular genetics studies...
  29. ncbi request reprint Multiple dimensions of schizotypy in first degree biological relatives of schizophrenia patients
    Monica E Calkins
    University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Neuropsychiatry Section, Schizophrenia Research Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Schizophr Bull 30:317-25. 2004
    ....
  30. ncbi request reprint Within-individual variability in neurocognitive performance: Age- and sex-related differences in children and youths from ages 8 to 21
    David R Roalf
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania
    Neuropsychology 28:506-18. 2014
    ..PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). ..
  31. pmc Meta-analysis of olfactory function in schizophrenia, first-degree family members, and youths at-risk for psychosis
    Paul J Moberg
    To whom correspondence should be addressed 10 Gates, HUP, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, US tel 215 615 3608, fax 215 662 7903, E mail
    Schizophr Bull 40:50-9. 2014
    ..Thus, the current meta-analysis was undertaken to incorporate additional studies, risk cohorts, olfactory test domains, and moderator variable analyses...
  32. pmc An odor-specific threshold deficit implicates abnormal cAMP signaling in youths at clinical risk for psychosis
    Vidyulata Kamath
    Neuropsychiatry Section, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Schizophr Res 138:280-4. 2012
    ..Odor-detection thresholds to two odorants that differ in the degree to which they activate intracellular cAMP were assessed in clinical risk and low-risk participants...
  33. doi request reprint Challenges and opportunities for genomic developmental neuropsychology: examples from the Penn-Drexel collaborative battery
    Ruben C Gur
    Neuropsychiatry Section, Department of Psychiatry, 10th Floor, Gates Building, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Clin Neuropsychol 25:1029-41. 2011
    ..The study illustrates what will hopefully become a major component of the work of clinical and research neuropsychologists as invaluable participants in the dawning age of Big Science neuropsychological genomics...
  34. pmc Being right is its own reward: load and performance related ventral striatum activation to correct responses during a working memory task in youth
    Theodore D Satterthwaite
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Neuroimage 61:723-9. 2012
    ..These findings provide evidence for scalable intrinsic reinforcement signals during standard cognitive tasks, and suggest a novel link between motivation and cognition during adolescent development...
  35. ncbi request reprint A comparison of cognitive structure in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls using confirmatory factor analysis
    Dwight Dickinson
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, BT MIRECC, Baltimore, 21201, USA
    Schizophr Res 85:20-9. 2006
    ..Cognitive ability, as reflected in test performance, appears to be more unitary in schizophrenia than in healthy subjects. This finding may have measurement and treatment implications...
  36. pmc Neuroimaging of the Philadelphia neurodevelopmental cohort
    Theodore D Satterthwaite
    Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA Electronic address
    Neuroimage 86:544-53. 2014
    ..Finally, we describe mechanisms in place for data sharing that will allow the PNC to become a freely available public resource to advance our understanding of normal and pathological brain development. ..
  37. pmc Evaluation and treatment of children and adolescents with psychotic symptoms
    Sibel Algon
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Curr Psychiatry Rep 14:101-10. 2012
    ..For this article, emphasis is placed on the evaluation of symptoms, differential diagnosis, and consideration of potential interventions...
  38. ncbi request reprint Smooth pursuit and antisaccade performance evidence trait stability in schizophrenia patients and their relatives
    Monica E Calkins
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Pennsylvania, USA
    Int J Psychophysiol 49:139-46. 2003
    ..52) and prosaccade reaction time (r=0.43). The results are supportive of the trait-like characteristics of particular forms of EMD in schizophrenia families and of the candidacy of EMD as an endophenotypic marker of schizophrenia...
  39. pmc Unaffected family members and schizophrenia patients share brain structure patterns: a high-dimensional pattern classification study
    Yong Fan
    Section of Biomedical Image Analysis, Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 63:118-24. 2008
    ..This study investigates whether such endophenotypic patterns are found in FM via similar image analysis approaches...
  40. doi request reprint Is prevention a realistic goal for schizophrenia?
    Christian Kohler
    Schizophrenia Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 10 Gates, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA
    Curr Psychiatry Rep 16:439. 2014
    ..The article places these recent studies within the context of prior research and the concept of potential measures to prevent or ameliorate the onset of psychosis. ..
  41. ncbi request reprint Contribution of congenital heart disease to neuropsychiatric outcome in school-age children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome
    James J Yi
    Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 165:137-47. 2014
    ..These findings suggest that the 22q11.2 deletion status itself may confer significant neuropsychiatric vulnerability in this population...
  42. ncbi request reprint Assessment of adolescents at risk for psychosis
    Karin Borgmann-Winter
    Schizophrenia Research Center and Brain Behavior Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 10 Gates Building, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Curr Psychiatry Rep 8:313-21. 2006
    ..This battery may assist in unraveling the complex presentation of prodromal symptoms during the adolescent developmental period...
  43. pmc Verbal working memory impairments in individuals with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives: findings from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia
    William P Horan
    Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 6968, USA
    Schizophr Res 103:218-28. 2008
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Successful multi-site measurement of antisaccade performance deficits in schizophrenia
    Allen D Radant
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States
    Schizophr Res 89:320-9. 2007
    ..These results confirm previous findings of antisaccade deficits in schizophrenia subjects and support the use of the antisaccade task as a potential schizophrenia endophenotype in multi-site genetic studies...
  45. pmc A genome screen for quantitative trait loci influencing schizophrenia and neurocognitive phenotypes
    Laura Almasy
    Department of Genetics, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, P O Box 760549, San Antonio, TX 78249 0549, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 165:1185-92. 2008
    ..The authors conducted a multiplex, multigenerational family study using a genome-wide screen for schizophrenia and related neurocognitive phenotypes...
  46. ncbi request reprint Project among African-Americans to explore risks for schizophrenia (PAARTNERS): recruitment and assessment methods
    Muktar H Aliyu
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 2041, and Duke University Medical Center John Umstead Hospital, Butner, NC, United States
    Schizophr Res 87:32-44. 2006
    ..This novel integration of diagnostic, neurocognitive and genetic data will also generate valuable information for future phenotypic and genetic studies of schizophrenia...
  47. ncbi request reprint Working memory functioning in schizophrenia patients and their first-degree relatives: cognitive functioning shedding light on etiology
    Heather M Conklin
    Department of Neuropsychology, Kennedy Krieger Institute, 1750 East Fairmount Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA
    Neuropsychologia 43:930-42. 2005
    ..This pattern of WM performance may further implicate DLPFC dysfunction in the liability for schizophrenia and has implications for future cognitive, genetic, and neurodevelopmental research...
  48. ncbi request reprint A description of the process of recruitment for research studies investigating the genetics of psychotic illness
    Kimberly K Mathos
    Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, 3811 O Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Curr Psychiatry Rep 8:307-12. 2006
    ..This preliminary study has broad implications as a potential model for collaboration among patient support groups, family groups, clinicians, and researchers...
  49. ncbi request reprint Recognition memory for faces in schizophrenia patients and their first-degree relatives
    Heather M Conklin
    Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, 75 East River Road, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Neuropsychologia 40:2314-24. 2002
    ..These findings may have important implications for reducing etiological heterogeneity among schizophrenia populations, identifying disorder susceptibility among their relatives and furthering understanding of disorder etiology...

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