LISA BUTTERFIELD

Summary

Affiliation: University of Pittsburgh
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Human dendritic cells adenovirally-engineered to express three defined tumor antigens promote broad adaptive and innate immunity
    LeeAnn T Blalock
    Department of Medicine University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA USA
    Oncoimmunology 1:287-357. 2012
  2. pmc Dendritic cell-based vaccines positively impact natural killer and regulatory T cells in hepatocellular carcinoma patients
    Sarah M Bray
    Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Clin Dev Immunol 2011:249281. 2011
  3. pmc A novel series of conferences tackling the hurdles confronting the translation of novel cancer immunotherapies
    Adrian Bot
    Kite Pharma Inc, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    J Transl Med 10:218. 2012
  4. pmc Defining the critical hurdles in cancer immunotherapy
    Bernard A Fox
    Earle A, Chiles Research Institute, Robert W, Franz Research Center, Providence Cancer Center, Providence Portland Medical Center, Portland, OR, USA
    J Transl Med 9:214. 2011
  5. pmc SITC/iSBTc Cancer Immunotherapy Biomarkers Resource Document: online resources and useful tools - a compass in the land of biomarker discovery
    Davide Bedognetti
    Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    J Transl Med 9:155. 2011
  6. pmc Immuno-oncology biomarkers 2010 and beyond: perspectives from the iSBTc/SITC biomarker task force
    Lisa H Butterfield
    Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Immunology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Transl Med 8:130. 2010
  7. pmc Zinc in innate and adaptive tumor immunity
    Erica John
    Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Transl Med 8:118. 2010
  8. pmc Emerging concepts in biomarker discovery; the US-Japan Workshop on Immunological Molecular Markers in Oncology
    Hideaki Tahara
    Department of Surgery and Bioengineering, Advanced Clinical Research Center, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    J Transl Med 7:45. 2009
  9. pmc Autologous glioma cell vaccine admixed with interleukin-4 gene transfected fibroblasts in the treatment of patients with malignant gliomas
    Hideho Okada
    Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Transl Med 5:67. 2007
  10. pmc Spontaneous immune responses against glioma-associated antigens in a long term survivor with malignant glioma
    Ryo Ueda
    Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Transl Med 5:68. 2007

Research Grants

  1. AFP-BASED PRIME-BOOST IMMUNOTHERAPY OF HCC
    LISA BUTTERFIELD; Fiscal Year: 2006
  2. Multiple Tumor Antigen-loaded DC Vaccine for Hepatocellular Cancer
    LISA HELENE BUTTERFIELD; Fiscal Year: 2010

Detail Information

Publications50

  1. pmc Human dendritic cells adenovirally-engineered to express three defined tumor antigens promote broad adaptive and innate immunity
    LeeAnn T Blalock
    Department of Medicine University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA USA
    Oncoimmunology 1:287-357. 2012
    ..NK cells are also activated, and show cytotoxic activity. Vaccination with multi-antigen engineered DC may provide for superior adaptive and innate immunity and ultimately, improved antitumor responses...
  2. pmc Dendritic cell-based vaccines positively impact natural killer and regulatory T cells in hepatocellular carcinoma patients
    Sarah M Bray
    Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Clin Dev Immunol 2011:249281. 2011
    ..We also extend these data by testing several forms of DC vaccines in vitro to determine the impact of antigen loading and maturation signals on both NK cells and Treg from healthy donors and HCC patients...
  3. pmc A novel series of conferences tackling the hurdles confronting the translation of novel cancer immunotherapies
    Adrian Bot
    Kite Pharma Inc, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    J Transl Med 10:218. 2012
    ..This Editorial provides highlights of the first event held earlier this year and outlines the focus of the second meeting to be held in 2013 that will be dedicated to stem cells and immunotherapy...
  4. pmc Defining the critical hurdles in cancer immunotherapy
    Bernard A Fox
    Earle A, Chiles Research Institute, Robert W, Franz Research Center, Providence Cancer Center, Providence Portland Medical Center, Portland, OR, USA
    J Transl Med 9:214. 2011
    ..Each of these hurdles can significantly delay clinical translation of promising advances in immunotherapy yet if overcome, have the potential to improve outcomes of patients with cancer...
  5. pmc SITC/iSBTc Cancer Immunotherapy Biomarkers Resource Document: online resources and useful tools - a compass in the land of biomarker discovery
    Davide Bedognetti
    Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    J Transl Med 9:155. 2011
    ..This organized collection of the most useful references, online resources and tools serves as a compass to guide discovery of biomarkers essential to advancing novel cancer immunotherapies...
  6. pmc Immuno-oncology biomarkers 2010 and beyond: perspectives from the iSBTc/SITC biomarker task force
    Lisa H Butterfield
    Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Immunology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Transl Med 8:130. 2010
    ..The presentations are summarized in this report; additional program information and slides are available online at the iSBTc/SITC website...
  7. pmc Zinc in innate and adaptive tumor immunity
    Erica John
    Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Transl Med 8:118. 2010
    ..Based on this novel synthesis, approaches which locally regulate zinc levels to promote survival of immune cells and/or induce tumor apoptosis are in order...
  8. pmc Emerging concepts in biomarker discovery; the US-Japan Workshop on Immunological Molecular Markers in Oncology
    Hideaki Tahara
    Department of Surgery and Bioengineering, Advanced Clinical Research Center, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    J Transl Med 7:45. 2009
    ..The institution of an interactive consortium for high throughput molecular monitoring of clinical trials with voluntary participation might provide cost-effective solutions...
  9. pmc Autologous glioma cell vaccine admixed with interleukin-4 gene transfected fibroblasts in the treatment of patients with malignant gliomas
    Hideho Okada
    Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Transl Med 5:67. 2007
    ..The prognosis for malignant gliomas remains dismal. We addressed the safety, feasibility and preliminary clinical activity of the vaccinations using autologous glioma cells and interleukin (IL)-4 gene transfected fibroblasts...
  10. pmc Spontaneous immune responses against glioma-associated antigens in a long term survivor with malignant glioma
    Ryo Ueda
    Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Transl Med 5:68. 2007
    ..In this report, we characterized GAA-specific CD8+ T cells and innate immune cells in a patient who has survived with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) for over 12 years without recurrence...
  11. pmc New approaches to the development of adenoviral dendritic cell vaccines in melanoma
    Lisa H Butterfield
    University of Pittsburgh, Cancer Institute, and Department of Medicine, Hillman Cancer Center, 5117 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Curr Opin Investig Drugs 11:1399-408. 2010
    ..Interactions between AdVs and DCs, initial clinical trial results, and new developments in DC engineering and in AdV biology are reviewed...
  12. pmc Multiplex serum biomarker assessments: technical and biostatistical issues
    Lisa H Butterfield
    University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Transl Med 9:173. 2011
    ..Many of these studies seek biomarkers among circulating proteins accessed in blood. Many levels of standardization in materials and procedures have been identified which can impact the resulting data...
  13. ncbi The Immunotherapeutics & Vaccine Summit--CHI's fourth annual meeting. Preclinical/clinical development of immunotherapies and vaccines. 17-19 August 2009, Providence, RI, USA
    Lisa H Butterfield
    University of Pittsburgh, Hillman Cancer Center, 5117 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    IDrugs 12:633-5. 2009
    ..Investigational vaccines discussed include a fusion protein adjuvant vaccine (Research by Discovery), a novel intradermal particle delivery device (Université de Sherbrooke) and a Hsp-based vaccine for meningitis (ImmunoBiology Ltd)...
  14. pmc Adenovirus MART-1-engineered autologous dendritic cell vaccine for metastatic melanoma
    Lisa H Butterfield
    Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Immunother 31:294-309. 2008
    ..Responses in CD8+ and CD4+ T cells to additional antigens were noted in 2 patients. The AdVMART1-transduced DC vaccine was safe and immunogenic in patients with metastatic melanoma...
  15. pmc A systematic approach to biomarker discovery; preamble to "the iSBTc-FDA taskforce on immunotherapy biomarkers"
    Lisa H Butterfield
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 15213, USA
    J Transl Med 6:81. 2008
    ..This foreword provides an overview of the task force and invites feedback from readers that might be incorporated in the discussions and in the final document...
  16. ncbi Recent advances in immunotherapy for hepatocellular cancer
    Lisa H Butterfield
    Department of Medicine, Universtiy of Pittsburgh, Medical School, Pittsburgh, USA
    Swiss Med Wkly 137:83-90. 2007
    ..These trials, testing novel immune-based interventions in HCC subjects, have resulted in immunological responses and some have impacted recurrence and survival of HCC subjects...
  17. ncbi T-cell responses to HLA-A*0201 immunodominant peptides derived from alpha-fetoprotein in patients with hepatocellular cancer
    Lisa H Butterfield
    Division of Surgical Oncology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 9:5902-8. 2003
    ..We wished to test the hypothesis that AFP peptide-reactive T cells could be expanded in vivo in HCC patients immunized with these four AFP peptides...
  18. ncbi Immunotherapeutic strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma
    Lisa H Butterfield
    Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Immunology, University of Pittsburgh, Hillman Cancer Center, Research Pavilion, Room 1 19, 5117 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Gastroenterology 127:S232-41. 2004
    ..These trials, testing novel immune-based interventions in HCC subjects, have resulted in immunologic responses and have impacted recurrence and survival in HCC subjects...
  19. ncbi Role of dendritic cell phenotype, determinant spreading, and negative costimulatory blockade in dendritic cell-based melanoma immunotherapy
    Antoni Ribas
    Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA
    J Immunother 27:354-67. 2004
    ..Sequential CTLA4 blockade may enhance the immune activity of DC-based immunotherapy...
  20. ncbi Surveillance of the eye and vision in a clinical trial of MART1-transformed dendritic cells for metastatic melanoma
    Lynn K Gordon
    Department of Ophthalmology, and the Jules Stein Eye Institute, and the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California at Los Angeles, 100 Stein Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 7000, USA
    Control Clin Trials 25:400-7. 2004
    ..To report the protocol for surveillance of the eye and vision in a clinical trial of MART1-transduced dendritic cells for metastatic melanoma...
  21. pmc Hierarchy of alpha fetoprotein (AFP)-specific T cell responses in subjects with AFP-positive hepatocellular cancer
    Yang Liu
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Immunol 177:712-21. 2006
    ..These subdominant epitope-specific T cells can also recognize tumor cells and may be important therapeutically...
  22. ncbi Human dendritic cell maturation by adenovirus transduction enhances tumor antigen-specific T-cell responses
    Lana Schumacher
    Division of Surgical Oncology, UCLA Medical Center, University of California Los Angeles, USA
    J Immunother 27:191-200. 2004
    ..This study has important implications for the design of DC-based clinical trials...
  23. pmc Antigen presentation by MART-1 adenovirus-transduced interleukin-10-polarized human monocyte-derived dendritic cells
    Shikhar Mehrotra
    Department of Medicine, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT, USA
    Immunology 113:472-81. 2004
    ..These data suggest that although DCs generated in the presence of IL-10 tend to be non-immunogenic, they are capable of processing and presenting an antigen when the antigen is synthesized within the DC...
  24. ncbi Determinant spreading associated with clinical response in dendritic cell-based immunotherapy for malignant melanoma
    Lisa H Butterfield
    Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California at Los Angeles, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1782, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 9:998-1008. 2003
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the toxicity and immunological effects of three different doses and two routes of administration of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with the MART-1(27-35) immunodominant epitope...
  25. ncbi Enhanced tumor responses to dendritic cells in the absence of CD8-positive cells
    Antoni Ribas
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    J Immunol 172:4762-9. 2004
    ..Elucidation of the signaling events that activate these effective cytotoxic cells and the putative suppressive mechanisms in a wild-type environment may provide means to enhance the clinical activity of DC-based approaches...
  26. pmc AFP-specific CD4+ helper T-cell responses in healthy donors and HCC patients
    Viktoria N Evdokimova
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Immunother 30:425-37. 2007
    ..Importantly, CD4 T-cell cytokine expression profiles were skewed towards interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma production when activated by adenovirally engineered DC, which has therapeutic implications for vaccination efforts...
  27. ncbi Development of a potency assay for human dendritic cells: IL-12p70 production
    Lisa H Butterfield
    Department of Medicine, Surgery and Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Immunother 31:89-100. 2008
    ..It defines the stability of DC vaccines. It's application to DC assessments in several on-going early-phase clinical trials is expected to provide data defining the assay value in predicting in vivo efficacy of DC-based vaccines...
  28. ncbi Melanoma cancer vaccines and anti-tumor T cell responses
    Lazar Vujanovic
    Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Cell Biochem 102:301-10. 2007
    ....
  29. ncbi Cancer immunotherapy using gene-modified dendritic cells
    Antoni Ribas
    Departments of Surgery, Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, 11 934 Factor Bldg UCLA Medical Center, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1782, USA
    Curr Gene Ther 2:57-78. 2002
    ..These data may help in the translation of this promising approach to the clinic...
  30. ncbi Immunosuppressive effects of interleukin-12 coexpression in melanoma antigen gene-modified dendritic cell vaccines
    Antoni Ribas
    Department of Surgery, University of California at Los Angeles, 90095 1782, USA
    Cancer Gene Ther 9:875-83. 2002
    ..In conclusion, in this animal model, IL-12 production by gene-modified DC leads to a cytokine-induced dose-dependent inhibition of antigen-specific antitumor protection...
  31. pmc Regulation of antigen presentation machinery in human dendritic cells by recombinant adenovirus
    Lazar Vujanovic
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 58:121-33. 2009
    ..These data identify molecular changes in AdV-transduced DC (AdV/DC) that could influence T cell priming and should be considered in design of cancer vaccines...
  32. ncbi Ionizing radiation affects human MART-1 melanoma antigen processing and presentation by dendritic cells
    Yu Pei Liao
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Surgical Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    J Immunol 173:2462-9. 2004
    ..1/K(b) transgenic mice. Taken together, these results suggest that radiation modulates MHC class I-mediated antitumor immunity by functionally affecting DC Ag presentation pathways...
  33. ncbi Natural killer cells play a critical role in the immune response following immunization with melanoma-antigen-engineered dendritic cells
    Jennifer A Wargo
    Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Cancer Gene Ther 12:516-27. 2005
    ..In conclusion, protective immunity after tumor antigen gene-modified DC immunization requires collaboration between CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and NK cells...
  34. ncbi Current developments in cancer vaccines and cellular immunotherapy
    Antoni Ribas
    Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, 90095 1782, USA
    J Clin Oncol 21:2415-32. 2003
    ....
  35. ncbi Determinant spreading and tumor responses after peptide-based cancer immunotherapy
    Antoni Ribas
    Department of Medicine, 54 140 CHS, UCLA Medical Center, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1782, USA
    Trends Immunol 24:58-61. 2003
    ....
  36. pmc Induction of CD8+ T-cell responses against novel glioma-associated antigen peptides and clinical activity by vaccinations with {alpha}-type 1 polarized dendritic cells and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid stabilized by lysine and carboxymethylcellulose in
    Hideho Okada
    G12 a Research Pavilion at the Hillman Cancer Center, 5117 Centre Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 1863, USA
    J Clin Oncol 29:330-6. 2011
    ..GAAs for these peptides are EphA2, interleukin (IL)-13 receptor-α2, YKL-40, and gp100...
  37. pmc Cancer-related symptom clusters, eosinophils, and survival in hepatobiliary cancer: an exploratory study
    Jennifer L Steel
    Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Pain Symptom Manage 39:859-71. 2010
    ..The study of symptom clusters is gaining increased attention in the field of oncology in an attempt to improve the quality of life of patients diagnosed with cancer...
  38. ncbi Spontaneous and vaccine induced AFP-specific T cell phenotypes in subjects with AFP-positive hepatocellular cancer
    Lisa H Butterfield
    Department of Medicine, Surgery and Immunology University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 56:1931-43. 2007
    ....
  39. ncbi Alpha-fetoprotein and other tumour-associated antigens for immunotherapy of hepatocellular cancer
    Viktoria N Evdokimova
    University of Pittsburgh, Hillman Cancer Center, Department of Medicine, Hematology Oncology, Research Pavilion, Room 1 32, 5117 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Expert Opin Biol Ther 8:325-36. 2008
    ..Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer death, with few treatment options for advanced disease...
  40. doi Next generation of immunotherapy for melanoma
    John M Kirkwood
    Hillman Cancer Center, Research Pavilion, Suite 1 32, 5117 Centre Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 2584, USA
    J Clin Oncol 26:3445-55. 2008
    ..Immunotherapy has a long history with striking but limited success in patients with melanoma. To date, interleukin-2 and interferon-alfa2b are the only approved immunotherapeutic agents for melanoma in the United States...
  41. pmc Immunogenicity and antitumor effects of vaccination with peptide vaccine+/-granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor and/or IFN-alpha2b in advanced metastatic melanoma: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Phase II Trial E1696
    John M Kirkwood
    Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 2584, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 15:1443-51. 2009
    ....
  42. ncbi A phase I/II trial testing immunization of hepatocellular carcinoma patients with dendritic cells pulsed with four alpha-fetoprotein peptides
    Lisa H Butterfield
    Department of Medicine, Surgery and Immunology, Hillman Cancer Center, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 12:2817-25. 2006
    ..We conclude that the human T cell repertoire is capable of responding to the AFP self antigen after the administration of AFP peptide-pulsed DC even in an environment of high circulating levels of this oncofetal antigen...
  43. ncbi Immunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma
    Lisa H Butterfield
    Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Expert Opin Biol Ther 2:123-33. 2002
    ..The most recent data supporting the use of immunotherapy for hepatocellular cancer is reviewed in detail...
  44. ncbi Regulation of melanoma epitope-specific cytolytic T lymphocyte response by immature and activated dendritic cells, in vitro
    Shikhar Mehrotra
    Department of Medicine, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, Connecticut 06030, USA
    Cancer Res 63:5607-14. 2003
    ..These observations, therefore, have implications on the DC-based cancer vaccine designs and are relevant in the inquiry into the role of DCs on tolerance induction...
  45. pmc Ectopic T-bet expression licenses dendritic cells for IL-12-independent priming of type 1 T cells in vitro
    Michael W Lipscomb
    Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Immunol 183:7250-8. 2009
    ..Tbets promote improved type 1 functional polarization from naive T cell responders. Given their superior type 1 polarizing capacity, DC.Tbet may be suitable for use in vaccines designed to prevent/treat cancer or infectious disease...
  46. ncbi Rational design of peptide-based tumor vaccines
    Wilson S Meng
    Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Duquesne University, Mylan School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15282, USA
    Pharm Res 19:926-32. 2002
    ..This review will discuss the basic and clinical aspects of modifying native TAA peptides as tumor vaccines...
  47. ncbi Activation of antigen-presenting cells by DNA delivery vectors
    Wilson S Meng
    Duquesne University, Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 600 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15282, USA
    Expert Opin Biol Ther 5:1019-28. 2005
    ..This paper will summarise recent reports of adjuvant properties of viral and non-viral delivery systems...
  48. pmc Virally infected and matured human dendritic cells activate natural killer cells via cooperative activity of plasma membrane-bound TNF and IL-15
    Lazar Vujanovic
    Department of Pathology and Immunology, University of Pittsburgh, Hillman Cancer Center, 5117 Centre Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Blood 116:575-83. 2010
    ..These findings demonstrate that both Ad.DCs and mDCs can efficiently promote innate immune functions by activation of NK cells through the cooperative activities of tmTNF and trans-IL-15 mediated by cell-to-cell contact...

Research Grants4

  1. AFP-BASED PRIME-BOOST IMMUNOTHERAPY OF HCC
    LISA BUTTERFIELD; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These proposed studies will permit us to determine the immunological impact of a plasmid prime-adenoviral boost directed towards a self tumor antigen and to define mechanisms of antigen presentation. ..
  2. Multiple Tumor Antigen-loaded DC Vaccine for Hepatocellular Cancer
    LISA HELENE BUTTERFIELD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Most therapies are only palliative due to lack of early detection. Therefore, the incidence of HCC continues to rise, and will become an even greater health problem for the next half century. ..