George Brooks

Summary

Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Mitochondrial lactate oxidation complex and an adaptive role for lactate production
    Takeshi Hashimoto
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3140, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 40:486-94. 2008
  2. ncbi request reprint Lactic acid accumulation is an advantage/disadvantage during muscle activity
    George A Brooks
    J Appl Physiol 100:2100. 2006
  3. doi request reprint Bioenergetics of exercising humans
    George A Brooks
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA
    Compr Physiol 2:537-62. 2012
  4. doi request reprint Exercise tames the wild side of the Myc network: a hypothesis
    Kishorchandra Gohil
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Dept of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 303:E18-30. 2012
  5. pmc Plasma triglyceride concentrations are rapidly reduced following individual bouts of endurance exercise in women
    Gregory C Henderson
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, 5101 Valley Life Sciences Building, Berkeley, CA 94720 3140, USA
    Eur J Appl Physiol 109:721-30. 2010
  6. ncbi request reprint Genome, proteome, and transcriptomes: the new systems approach to research
    George A Brooks
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3140, USA
    Exerc Sport Sci Rev 35:41-2. 2007
  7. pmc Governor recalled! Now what?
    George A Brooks
    J Physiol 568:355. 2005
  8. ncbi request reprint Lactate: link between glycolytic and oxidative metabolism
    George A Brooks
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 3140, USA
    Sports Med 37:341-3. 2007
  9. pmc Cell-cell and intracellular lactate shuttles
    George A Brooks
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Biology, 5101 Valley Life Sciences Building, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3410, USA
    J Physiol 587:5591-600. 2009
  10. pmc Twelve weeks of endurance training increases FFA mobilization and reesterification in postmenopausal women
    M L Johnson
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 3140, USA
    J Appl Physiol 109:1573-81. 2010

Research Grants

  1. Physiological Signals to MCT Expression
    George Brooks; Fiscal Year: 2007
  2. Exercise Substrate Utilization:The Crossover Concept
    George Brooks; Fiscal Year: 2006
  3. EXERCISE SUBSTRATE UTILIZATION--THE CROSSOVER CONCEPT
    George Brooks; Fiscal Year: 2001

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications52

  1. doi request reprint Mitochondrial lactate oxidation complex and an adaptive role for lactate production
    Takeshi Hashimoto
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3140, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 40:486-94. 2008
    ....
  2. ncbi request reprint Lactic acid accumulation is an advantage/disadvantage during muscle activity
    George A Brooks
    J Appl Physiol 100:2100. 2006
  3. doi request reprint Bioenergetics of exercising humans
    George A Brooks
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA
    Compr Physiol 2:537-62. 2012
    ..In contemporary society, the stresses of regular physical exercise serve to minimize morbidities and mortality associated with physical inactivity, overnutrition, and aging...
  4. doi request reprint Exercise tames the wild side of the Myc network: a hypothesis
    Kishorchandra Gohil
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Dept of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 303:E18-30. 2012
    ....
  5. pmc Plasma triglyceride concentrations are rapidly reduced following individual bouts of endurance exercise in women
    Gregory C Henderson
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, 5101 Valley Life Sciences Building, Berkeley, CA 94720 3140, USA
    Eur J Appl Physiol 109:721-30. 2010
    ..These results demonstrate an important mechanism by which each individual exercise session may incrementally reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women...
  6. ncbi request reprint Genome, proteome, and transcriptomes: the new systems approach to research
    George A Brooks
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3140, USA
    Exerc Sport Sci Rev 35:41-2. 2007
  7. pmc Governor recalled! Now what?
    George A Brooks
    J Physiol 568:355. 2005
  8. ncbi request reprint Lactate: link between glycolytic and oxidative metabolism
    George A Brooks
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 3140, USA
    Sports Med 37:341-3. 2007
    ..Marathon running is a power activity requiring high glycolytic and oxidative fluxes; such activities require lactate shuttling. Knowledge of the lactate shuttle is yet to be imparted to the sport...
  9. pmc Cell-cell and intracellular lactate shuttles
    George A Brooks
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Biology, 5101 Valley Life Sciences Building, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3410, USA
    J Physiol 587:5591-600. 2009
    ....
  10. pmc Twelve weeks of endurance training increases FFA mobilization and reesterification in postmenopausal women
    M L Johnson
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 3140, USA
    J Appl Physiol 109:1573-81. 2010
    ..However, after menopause, total lipid oxidation capacity remains low, with reesterification accounting for most of FFA R(d)...
  11. pmc Transpulmonary lactate shuttle
    Matthew L Johnson
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, 94720 3140, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 302:R143-9. 2012
    ..We conclude that pulmonary arterial-vein concentration difference measurements across the lungs provide an incomplete, and perhaps misleading picture of parenchymal lactate metabolism, especially during epinephrine stimulation...
  12. ncbi request reprint Body-mind learning: a lesson for the mind from muscle
    George A Brooks
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3140, USA
    Exerc Sport Sci Rev 35:163-5. 2007
  13. ncbi request reprint Colocalization of MCT1, CD147, and LDH in mitochondrial inner membrane of L6 muscle cells: evidence of a mitochondrial lactate oxidation complex
    Takeshi Hashimoto
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Dept of Integrative Biology, 5101 Valley Life Sciences Bldg, Univ of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3140, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 290:E1237-44. 2006
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Changes in MCT 1, MCT 4, and LDH expression are tissue specific in rats after long-term hypobaric hypoxia
    Grant B McClelland
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 3140, USA
    J Appl Physiol 92:1573-84. 2002
    ..We conclude that chronic hypoxia had a tissue-specific effect on MCTs and LDH (that form the lactate shuttle) but did not produce a consistent increase in these components in all tissues...
  15. pmc Evidence for the mitochondrial lactate oxidation complex in rat neurons: demonstration of an essential component of brain lactate shuttles
    Takeshi Hashimoto
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 3:e2915. 2008
    ..These findings can be interpreted to mean that, as in skeletal muscle, neurons contain a mitochondrial lactate oxidation complex (mLOC) that has the potential to facilitate both intracellular and cell-cell lactate shuttles in brain...
  16. ncbi request reprint Chronicle of the Institute of Medicine physical activity recommendation: how a physical activity recommendation came to be among dietary recommendations
    George A Brooks
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Biology, 5101 Valley Life Sciences Building, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 3140, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 79:921S-930S. 2004
    ..In conclusion, dietary and physical activity recommendations for healthful living are inextricably intertwined. Adequate physical activity provides protection against chronic diseases and helps to balance energy expenditure and intake...
  17. pmc Training improves the response in glucose flux to exercise in postmenopausal women
    Zinta A Zarins
    Dept of Integrative Biology, 3060 VLSB, Univ of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3140, USA
    J Appl Physiol 107:90-7. 2009
    ..We conclude that despite changes in the hormonal milieu that occur at menopause, endurance training results in a similar magnitude in training-induced alterations of glucose flux as seen previously in younger women...
  18. pmc Lactate shuttle -- between but not within cells?
    George A Brooks
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Biology, 5101 Valley Life Sciences Building, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3140, USA
    J Physiol 541:333-4. 2002
  19. ncbi request reprint Pyruvate shuttling during rest and exercise before and after endurance training in men
    Gregory C Henderson
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3140, USA
    J Appl Physiol 97:317-25. 2004
    ..working muscle also releases alanine, but alanine release is an order of magnitude smaller than lactate or pyruvate release. These results portray the complexity of metabolic integration among diverse tissue beds in vivo...
  20. pmc Lactate and glucose interactions during rest and exercise in men: effect of exogenous lactate infusion
    Benjamin F Miller
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720, USA
    J Physiol 544:963-75. 2002
    ..Further, exogenous lactate infusion did not affect rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise. These results demonstrate that lactate is a useful carbohydrate in times of increased energy demand...
  21. pmc Effects of endurance training on cardiorespiratory fitness and substrate partitioning in postmenopausal women
    Zinta A Zarins
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Metabolism 58:1338-46. 2009
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Lactate sensitive transcription factor network in L6 cells: activation of MCT1 and mitochondrial biogenesis
    Takeshi Hashimoto
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3140 USA
    FASEB J 21:2602-12. 2007
    ..We conclude that the lactate signaling cascade involves ROS production and converges on transcription factors affecting mitochondrial biogenesis...
  23. ncbi request reprint Retention of intravenously infused [13C]bicarbonate is transiently increased during recovery from hard exercise
    Gregory C Henderson
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Dept of Integrative Biology, 5101 Valley Life Sciences Bldg, Univ of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 3140, USA
    J Appl Physiol 103:1604-12. 2007
    ..We conclude that bicarbonate/CO(2) retention is transiently increased in men and women for the first hour of postexercise recovery following endurance exercise bouts of hard but not moderate intensity...
  24. ncbi request reprint Effects of oral contraceptives on glucose flux and substrate oxidation rates during rest and exercise
    Sang Hoon Suh
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, 94720 3140, USA
    J Appl Physiol 94:285-94. 2003
    ....
  25. ncbi request reprint Peroxisomal membrane monocarboxylate transporters: evidence for a redox shuttle system?
    Grant B McClelland
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3140, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 304:130-5. 2003
    ..Together these data provide compelling that the Peroxisome Lactate Shuttle helps maintain organelle redox and the proper functioning of peroxisomal beta-oxidation...
  26. ncbi request reprint MCT1 confirmed in rat striated muscle mitochondria
    C Eric Butz
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 3140, USA
    J Appl Physiol 97:1059-66. 2004
    ..Probing with cytochrome oxidase showed mitochondrial localization of MCT1. Comparison of these results to the findings of others indicates that the most likely source of discrepancy is the cell fractionation procedure utilized...
  27. ncbi request reprint Luteal and follicular glucose fluxes during rest and exercise in 3-h postabsorptive women
    Sang Hoon Suh
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720 3140, USA
    J Appl Physiol 93:42-50. 2002
    ....
  28. ncbi request reprint Contributions of working muscle to whole body lipid metabolism are altered by exercise intensity and training
    Anne L Friedlander
    Dept of Integrative Biology, 3060 Valley Life Science Bldg, Univ of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 3140, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 292:E107-16. 2007
    ....
  29. ncbi request reprint Measurement of gluconeogenesis in exercising men by mass isotopomer distribution analysis
    Jeff K Trimmer
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720, USA
    J Appl Physiol 93:233-41. 2002
    ....
  30. ncbi request reprint Metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses to "the lactate clamp"
    Benjamin F Miller
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 283:E889-98. 2002
    ....
  31. ncbi request reprint Fatty acid reesterification but not oxidation is increased by oral contraceptive use in women
    Kevin A Jacobs
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    J Appl Physiol 98:1720-31. 2005
    ..Synthetic ovarian hormones contained in oral contraceptives increase lipolytic rate, but fatty acid oxidation during exercise is determined by exercise intensity and its metabolic and endocrine consequences...
  32. ncbi request reprint Catecholamine response is attenuated during moderate-intensity exercise in response to the "lactate clamp"
    Jill A Fattor
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3140, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 288:E143-7. 2005
    ..2 +/- 23 pg/ml, P < 0.05). In conclusion, lactate attenuates the catecholamine response during moderate-intensity exercise, likely by feedback inhibition...
  33. ncbi request reprint Substantial working muscle glycerol turnover during two-legged cycle ergometry
    Gareth A Wallis
    Exercise Biochemistry Laboratory, Dept of Integrative Biology, 3060 Valley Life Science Bldg, Univ of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 3140, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 293:E950-7. 2007
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint Glucoregulation is more precise in women than in men during postexercise recovery
    Gregory C Henderson
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3140, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 87:1686-94. 2008
    ..The regulation of glycemia is challenged in healthy men and women after exercise bouts of substantial energy expenditure...
  35. pmc Lipolysis and fatty acid metabolism in men and women during the postexercise recovery period
    Gregory C Henderson
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3140, USA
    J Physiol 584:963-81. 2007
    ..We conclude that the impact of exercise upon lipid metabolism persists into recovery, but that women depend more on lipid during exercise whereas, during recovery, lipid metabolism is accentuated to a greater extent in men...
  36. ncbi request reprint Effects of oral contraceptives on peak exercise capacity
    Gretchen A Casazza
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    J Appl Physiol 93:1698-702. 2002
    ..53 +/- 0.21 to 2.25 +/- 0.18 l/min). In conclusion, 1) endogenous ovarian steroids have little effect on VO(2 peak), but 2) the exogenous ovarian steroids in OC decrease peak exercise capacity in moderately physically active young women...
  37. ncbi request reprint Lipid oxidation in fit young adults during postexercise recovery
    Calvin C Kuo
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Dept of Integrative Biology, 5101 Valley Life Sciences Bldg, Univ of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3140, USA
    J Appl Physiol 99:349-56. 2005
    ....
  38. doi request reprint Transpulmonary pyruvate kinetics
    Matthew L Johnson
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley California, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 301:R769-74. 2011
    ..We conclude that a major site of circulating pyruvate extraction resides with the lungs and that during times of elevated circulating lactate, pyruvate, or epinephrine stimulation, pyruvate extraction is increased...
  39. ncbi request reprint Menstrual cycle phase and oral contraceptive effects on triglyceride mobilization during exercise
    Gretchen A Casazza
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3140, USA
    J Appl Physiol 97:302-9. 2004
    ..We conclude that the hierarchy of effects of ovarian steroids and their analogs on triglyceride mobilization in exercising women is as follows: energy flux > OC use > recent carbohydrate nutrition, menstrual cycle effects...
  40. ncbi request reprint Endurance training has little effect on active muscle free fatty acid, lipoprotein cholesterol, or triglyceride net balances
    Kevin A Jacobs
    University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3140, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 291:E656-65. 2006
    ..Therefore, the favorable effects of physical activity on the lipid profiles of young, healthy normolipidemic men in the postprandial state are not attributable to changes in HDL-C or LDL-C exchange across active skeletal muscle...
  41. ncbi request reprint Pyruvate metabolism in working human skeletal muscle
    Gregory C Henderson
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 292:E366. 2007
  42. pmc Investigation of the lactate shuttle in skeletal muscle mitochondria
    George A Brooks
    J Physiol 584:705-6;author reply 707-8. 2007
  43. ncbi request reprint From euclid to molecular biology and gene expression: where now for allometric modeling?
    Edward M Winter
    Exerc Sport Sci Rev 35:83-5. 2007
  44. ncbi request reprint Hematological and acid-base changes in men during prolonged exercise with and without sodium-lactate infusion
    Benjamin F Miller
    Institute of Sports Medicine, Bispebjerg Hospital, Bispeberg Bakke 23, Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Appl Physiol 98:856-65. 2005
    ..The infusion of hypertonic LC caused only minor volume, acid-base, and CO(2) storage responses. We conclude that an LC infusion is appropriate for studies of metabolic regulation...
  45. ncbi request reprint Reflections on the Institute of Medicine Report: arriving December 2005
    George A Brooks
    Exerc Sport Sci Rev 34:47-9. 2006
  46. ncbi request reprint ACSM Fellow Ken Baldwin and colleagues discover a new antisense retrograde mechanism of gene regulation
    George A Brooks
    Exerc Sport Sci Rev 34:143-4. 2006
  47. ncbi request reprint So many meetings and things to learn and so little time
    George A Brooks
    Exerc Sport Sci Rev 35:2-4. 2007
  48. ncbi request reprint Comments on point:counterpoint: "the lactate paradox does/does not occur during exercise at high altitude"
    George A Brooks
    J Appl Physiol 102:2408; author reply 2409-10. 2007
  49. pmc Immunohistochemical analysis of MCT1, MCT2 and MCT4 expression in rat plantaris muscle
    Takeshi Hashimoto
    Department of Environmental Physiology, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Yoshida, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8501, Japan
    J Physiol 567:121-9. 2005
    ..MCTs and associated proteins are positioned to facilitate the function of the lactate shuttles...
  50. ncbi request reprint Three weeks of caloric restriction alters protein metabolism in normal-weight, young men
    Anne L Friedlander
    Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center and Research and Medical Services, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 289:E446-55. 2005
    ..However, despite negative nitrogen balance and loss of lean mass, whole body exercise performance was well maintained in response to CR...
  51. ncbi request reprint Comments on Point-Counterpoint "Positive effects of intermittent hypoxia (live high:train low) on exercise performance are/are not mediated primarily by augmented red cell volume"
    George A Brooks
    J Appl Physiol 100:368-9. 2006
  52. ncbi request reprint Critical importance of controlling energy status to understand the effects of "exercise" on metabolism
    Barry Braun
    Department of Kinesiology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA
    Exerc Sport Sci Rev 36:2-4. 2008

Research Grants16

  1. Physiological Signals to MCT Expression
    George Brooks; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Aim 3 studies will involve comparisons of the levels of muscle MCT pre-mRNAs, mRNAs and protein levels. We have the tools to achieve the stated aims. ..
  2. Exercise Substrate Utilization:The Crossover Concept
    George Brooks; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Further, we have the auxiliary personnel and facilities to conduct longitudinal training studies ..
  3. EXERCISE SUBSTRATE UTILIZATION--THE CROSSOVER CONCEPT
    George Brooks; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Indirect calorimetry, primed-continuous dual stable isotope infusion, isotope and isotopomer analyses, and glucoregulatory hormonal analyses will be used to address the specific aims. ..