M Alan Brookhart

Summary

Affiliation: University of North Carolina
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Instrumental variable methods in comparative safety and effectiveness research
    M Alan Brookhart
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 27599 7435, USA
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 19:537-54. 2010
  2. pmc The effect of altitude change on anemia treatment response in hemodialysis patients
    M Alan Brookhart
    Department of Epidemiology, UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7435, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 173:768-77. 2011
  3. doi request reprint Confounding control in healthcare database research: challenges and potential approaches
    M Alan Brookhart
    Department of Medicine, Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Med Care 48:S114-20. 2010
  4. ncbi request reprint Gaps in treatment among users of osteoporosis medications: the dynamics of noncompliance
    M Alan Brookhart
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass 02120, USA
    Am J Med 120:251-6. 2007
  5. pmc Relative effectiveness of osteoporosis drugs for preventing nonvertebral fracture
    Suzanne M Cadarette
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02120, USA
    Ann Intern Med 148:637-46. 2008
  6. pmc Increasing levels of restriction in pharmacoepidemiologic database studies of elderly and comparison with randomized trial results
    Sebastian Schneeweiss
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Med Care 45:S131-42. 2007
  7. doi request reprint Patient, physician, and payment predictors of statin adherence
    David C Chan
    Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
    Med Care 48:196-202. 2010
  8. doi request reprint Instrumental variable analysis for estimation of treatment effects with dichotomous outcomes
    Jeremy A Rassen
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 169:273-84. 2009
  9. pmc State generic substitution laws can lower drug outlays under Medicaid
    William H Shrank
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Health Aff (Millwood) 29:1383-90. 2010
  10. doi request reprint Variation in antipsychotic treatment choice across US nursing homes
    Krista F Huybrechts
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 32:11-7. 2012

Detail Information

Publications74

  1. pmc Instrumental variable methods in comparative safety and effectiveness research
    M Alan Brookhart
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 27599 7435, USA
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 19:537-54. 2010
    ..We anticipate that IV methods will be often underpowered for drug safety studies of very rare outcomes, but may be potentially useful in studies of intended effects where uncontrolled confounding may be substantial...
  2. pmc The effect of altitude change on anemia treatment response in hemodialysis patients
    M Alan Brookhart
    Department of Epidemiology, UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7435, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 173:768-77. 2011
    ..These results support the hypothesis that altitude-induced hypoxia reduces erythropoietin requirements in hemodialysis patients with treatment-refractory anemia...
  3. doi request reprint Confounding control in healthcare database research: challenges and potential approaches
    M Alan Brookhart
    Department of Medicine, Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Med Care 48:S114-20. 2010
    ..Such reporting allows the reader to assess the sensitivity of the results to model assumptions that are often not supported by strong subject-matter knowledge...
  4. ncbi request reprint Gaps in treatment among users of osteoporosis medications: the dynamics of noncompliance
    M Alan Brookhart
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass 02120, USA
    Am J Med 120:251-6. 2007
    ..We sought to estimate the percentage of patients who restart osteoporosis therapy after a prolonged lapse in medication use and to identify the factors associated with a return to compliance...
  5. pmc Relative effectiveness of osteoporosis drugs for preventing nonvertebral fracture
    Suzanne M Cadarette
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02120, USA
    Ann Intern Med 148:637-46. 2008
    ..Little information is available on the comparative effectiveness of osteoporosis pharmacotherapies...
  6. pmc Increasing levels of restriction in pharmacoepidemiologic database studies of elderly and comparison with randomized trial results
    Sebastian Schneeweiss
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Med Care 45:S131-42. 2007
    ..The goal of restricting study populations is to make patients more homogeneous regarding potential confounding factors and treatment effects and thereby achieve less biased effect estimates...
  7. doi request reprint Patient, physician, and payment predictors of statin adherence
    David C Chan
    Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
    Med Care 48:196-202. 2010
    ..Although many patient, physician, and payment predictors of adherence have been described, knowledge of their relative strength and overall ability to explain adherence is limited...
  8. doi request reprint Instrumental variable analysis for estimation of treatment effects with dichotomous outcomes
    Jeremy A Rassen
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 169:273-84. 2009
    ..Generalized method of moments estimation produced substantially the same results as the 2-stage logistic method. Few substantive differences among the methods were observed, despite their reliance on distinct assumptions...
  9. pmc State generic substitution laws can lower drug outlays under Medicaid
    William H Shrank
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Health Aff (Millwood) 29:1383-90. 2010
    ..Although these consent requirements are probably intended to increase patient autonomy, policy makers should consider the sizable opportunity costs...
  10. doi request reprint Variation in antipsychotic treatment choice across US nursing homes
    Krista F Huybrechts
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 32:11-7. 2012
    ..The objective of this study was to quantify the variation in antipsychotic treatment choice across US nursing homes, and to characterize its correlates...
  11. pmc High-risk patients' readiness to undergo BMD testing for osteoporosis diagnosis in Pennsylvania
    Jennifer M Polinski
    Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Int Q Community Health Educ 29:223-40. 2008
    ..We found several correlates of readiness to undergo BMD screening that may be used to design effective interventions...
  12. ncbi request reprint Evaluating the validity of an instrumental variable study of neuroleptics: can between-physician differences in prescribing patterns be used to estimate treatment effects?
    M Alan Brookhart
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Med Care 45:S116-22. 2007
    ..We sought to explore the validity of physician-level IV in a comparative study of short-term mortality risk among elderly users of conventional versus atypical antipsychotic medications (APM)...
  13. pmc Can improved prescription medication labeling influence adherence to chronic medications? An evaluation of the Target pharmacy label
    William H Shrank
    Department of Medicine, Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 1620 Tremont Street Suite 3030, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    J Gen Intern Med 24:570-8. 2009
    ..A new prescription medication labeling system was implemented by Target pharmacies in May 2005 and aimed to improve readability and understanding...
  14. pmc Risk of death and hospital admission for major medical events after initiation of psychotropic medications in older adults admitted to nursing homes
    Krista F Huybrechts
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass, USA
    CMAJ 183:E411-9. 2011
    ..We assessed the comparative safety of different classes of psychotropic medications used in nursing home residents...
  15. pmc Seizure outcomes following the use of generic versus brand-name antiepileptic drugs: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Aaron S Kesselheim
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02120, USA
    Drugs 70:605-21. 2010
    ..In the absence of better data, physicians may want to consider more intensive monitoring of high-risk patients taking AEDs when any switch occurs...
  16. pmc High-dimensional propensity score adjustment in studies of treatment effects using health care claims data
    Sebastian Schneeweiss
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Epidemiology 20:512-22. 2009
    ..Here, we develop and test an algorithm that empirically identifies candidate covariates, prioritizes covariates, and integrates them into a propensity-score-based confounder adjustment model...
  17. doi request reprint The association between statin use and outcomes potentially attributable to an unhealthy lifestyle in older adults
    Amanda R Patrick
    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Value Health 14:513-20. 2011
    ..To explore the "healthy user" and "healthy adherer" effects-hypothetical sources of bias thought to arise when patients who initiate and adhere to preventive therapies are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors than are other subjects...
  18. doi request reprint Comparative mortality risk of anemia management practices in incident hemodialysis patients
    M Alan Brookhart
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA
    JAMA 303:857-64. 2010
    ..Controversy exists about optimal management of anemia in end-stage renal disease...
  19. doi request reprint Pretransplantation erythropoiesis-stimulating agent hyporesponsiveness is associated with increased kidney allograft failure and mortality
    Nadiesda A Costa
    1 Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 2 Cecil G Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 3 Pharmacoepidemiology Program Area, Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 4 Address correspondence to Nadiesda Costa, M D, M P H, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 20 South Greene Street, Room N3W143, Baltimore, MD 21201
    Transplantation 96:807-13. 2013
    ..It is unclear whether the risk associated with poor ESA response during dialysis extends beyond kidney transplantation. We examined pretransplantation ESA response and its effect on allograft failure and mortality...
  20. pmc Infection risk with bolus versus maintenance iron supplementation in hemodialysis patients
    M Alan Brookhart
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    J Am Soc Nephrol 24:1151-8. 2013
    ..These results suggest that maintenance iron supplementation may result in fewer infections than bolus dosing, particularly among patients with a catheter...
  21. doi request reprint Percutaneous vertebroplasty among low income Medicare beneficiaries
    Daniel H Solomon
    Divisions of Pharmacoepidemiology, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 32:2910-4. 2007
    ..Cohort...
  22. pmc The relationship between focal erosions and generalized osteoporosis in postmenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis
    Daniel H Solomon
    Brigham and Women s Hospital, Division of Rheumatology, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Arthritis Rheum 60:1624-31. 2009
    ..The aim of this study was to determine whether lower BMD is associated with higher erosion scores among patients with RA...
  23. pmc Instrumental variables II: instrumental variable application-in 25 variations, the physician prescribing preference generally was strong and reduced covariate imbalance
    Jeremy A Rassen
    Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    J Clin Epidemiol 62:1233-41. 2009
    ..As reduction in covariate imbalance may suggest increased IV validity, we sought to examine the covariate balance and instrument strength in 25 formulations of the PPP IV in two cohort studies...
  24. pmc The complex relation between bisphosphonate adherence and fracture reduction
    Amanda R Patrick
    Divisions of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, 1620 Tremont Street, Suite 3030, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:3251-9. 2010
    ....
  25. ncbi request reprint Osteoporosis improvement: a large-scale randomized controlled trial of patient and primary care physician education
    Daniel H Solomon
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 22:1808-15. 2007
    ..04; 95% ci, 0.85-1.26)...
  26. pmc The implications of propensity score variable selection strategies in pharmacoepidemiology: an empirical illustration
    Amanda R Patrick
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 20:551-9. 2011
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint Adherence to lipid-lowering therapy and the use of preventive health services: an investigation of the healthy user effect
    M Alan Brookhart
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 166:348-54. 2007
    ..Further work is needed to identify study design and analysis methods that can be used to minimize the healthy user bias in studies of preventive therapies...
  28. ncbi request reprint Compliance with osteoporosis medications
    Daniel H Solomon
    Divisions of Pharmacoepidemiology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    Arch Intern Med 165:2414-9. 2005
    ..This study was undertaken to assess the level and determinants of compliance with drugs prescribed for osteoporosis...
  29. pmc The effect of altitude on dosing and response to erythropoietin in ESRD
    M Alan Brookhart
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women s Hospital Harvard Medical School, 1620 Tremont Street, Suite 3030, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    J Am Soc Nephrol 19:1389-95. 2008
    ..Furthermore, resistance to EPO decreased with elevation. Our results suggest that ESRD patients living at high altitude either increase endogenous EPO production or respond better to endogenous and exogenous EPO...
  30. doi request reprint The epidemiology of prescriptions abandoned at the pharmacy
    William H Shrank
    Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02120, USA
    Ann Intern Med 153:633-40. 2010
    ..Understanding the epidemiology and correlates of prescription abandonment may have an important effect on health care quality...
  31. pmc Trends in the incidence, demographics, and outcomes of end-stage renal disease due to lupus nephritis in the US from 1995 to 2006
    Karen H Costenbader
    Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Arthritis Rheum 63:1681-8. 2011
    ....
  32. doi request reprint Approaches to inverse-probability-of-treatment--weighted estimation with concurrent treatments
    Alan R Ellis
    Cecil G Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB 7590, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7590, USA
    J Clin Epidemiol 66:S51-6. 2013
    ..We explore these two approaches in a study of intravenous iron use in hemodialysis patients treated concurrently with epoetin alfa (EPO)...
  33. pmc A comparison of statistical approaches for physician-randomized trials with survival outcomes
    Margaret R Stedman
    Orthopedics and Arthritis Center for Outcomes Research, Department of Orthopedics, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Contemp Clin Trials 33:104-15. 2012
    ..The marginal proportional hazards method performed well even when model assumptions were violated. Nonlinear mixed models were only advantageous when the distribution was correctly specified...
  34. pmc Primary medication non-adherence: analysis of 195,930 electronic prescriptions
    Michael A Fischer
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    J Gen Intern Med 25:284-90. 2010
    ..Little is known about the frequency with which patients fail to fill prescriptions when new medications are started ("primary non-adherence") or predictors of failure to fill...
  35. doi request reprint Trends in the use and outcomes of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in patients undergoing dialysis in the United States
    David M Charytan
    Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
    Am J Kidney Dis 58:409-17. 2011
    ..Sudden cardiac death constitutes the leading cause of death in patients receiving dialysis. Little is known about the trends in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) use and the outcomes of such device placement...
  36. pmc Doubly robust estimation of causal effects
    Michele Jonsson Funk
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 173:761-7. 2011
    ..Cary, North Carolina) for doubly robust estimation, available for download at http://www.unc.edu/~mfunk/dr/...
  37. ncbi request reprint Physician follow-up and provider continuity are associated with long-term medication adherence: a study of the dynamics of statin use
    M Alan Brookhart
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass, USA
    Arch Intern Med 167:847-52. 2007
    ....
  38. ncbi request reprint Simultaneous assessment of short-term gastrointestinal benefits and cardiovascular risks of selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors and nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: an instrumental variable analysis
    Sebastian Schneeweiss
    Harvard Medical School, Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Boston, MA 021205, USA
    Arthritis Rheum 54:3390-8. 2006
    ....
  39. ncbi request reprint The medical license number accurately identifies the prescribing physician in a large pharmacy claims database
    M Alan Brookhart
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02120, USA
    Med Care 45:907-10. 2007
    ..We studied the accuracy of the medical license number in data from a state-run drug benefit plan by assessing its consistency with 2 external sources of data...
  40. doi request reprint Altitude and the risk of cardiovascular events in incident US dialysis patients
    Wolfgang C Winkelmayer
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 27:2411-7. 2012
    ..We hypothesized that higher altitude would be associated with lower rates of cardiovascular events due to an altered physiological response of dialysis patients to altitude induced hypoxia...
  41. pmc Medicare part D's impact on antipsychotic drug use and costs among elderly patients without prior drug insurance
    Jennifer M Polinski
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 32:3-10. 2012
    ..Part D implementation was associated with increased use and affordability of APMs for the elderly without prior drug insurance...
  42. doi request reprint Osteoporosis telephonic intervention to improve medication regimen adherence: a large, pragmatic, randomized controlled trial
    Daniel H Solomon
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Arch Intern Med 172:477-83. 2012
    ..We examined the effectiveness of a telephone-based counseling program rooted in motivational interviewing to improve adherence to a medication regimen for osteoporosis...
  43. pmc Correlations of nursing home characteristics with prescription of osteoporosis medications
    Seema Parikh
    Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Bone 48:1164-8. 2011
    ..NH characteristics have been associated with prescription of some medications. We examined associations of NH-level characteristics with osteoporosis treatment in elderly patients admitted to a NH after a fracture...
  44. pmc Instrumental variables I: instrumental variables exploit natural variation in nonexperimental data to estimate causal relationships
    Jeremy A Rassen
    Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    J Clin Epidemiol 62:1226-32. 2009
    ..It gives examples of instruments used in clinical epidemiology and concludes with an outline on estimation of effects...
  45. ncbi request reprint Effects of noncardiovascular comorbidities on antihypertensive use in elderly hypertensives
    Philip S Wang
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Hypertension 46:273-9. 2005
    ..Highly prevalent, noncardiovascular conditions appear to deter use of antihypertensives in elderly with hypertension...
  46. pmc Covariate selection in high-dimensional propensity score analyses of treatment effects in small samples
    Jeremy A Rassen
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02120, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 173:1404-13. 2011
    ..hd-PS is a flexible analytical tool for nonrandomized research across a range of study sizes and event frequencies...
  47. pmc Variable selection for propensity score models
    M Alan Brookhart
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 163:1149-56. 2006
    ..These simulation studies and other analytical results suggest that standard model-building tools designed to create good predictive models of the exposure will not always lead to optimal PS models, particularly in small studies...
  48. ncbi request reprint Instrumental variable analysis of secondary pharmacoepidemiologic data
    M Alan Brookhart
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    Epidemiology 17:373-4. 2006
  49. ncbi request reprint Risk of death in elderly users of conventional vs. atypical antipsychotic medications
    Philip S Wang
    Department of Psychiatry, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    N Engl J Med 353:2335-41. 2005
    ..However, the advisory did not apply to conventional antipsychotic medications; the risk of death with these older agents is not known...
  50. pmc Evaluating short-term drug effects using a physician-specific prescribing preference as an instrumental variable
    M Alan Brookhart
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    Epidemiology 17:268-75. 2006
    ..Instrumental variable methods have been proposed as a potential approach to control confounding by indication in nonexperimental studies of treatment effects; however, good instruments are hard to find...
  51. ncbi request reprint Design of cluster-randomized trials of quality improvement interventions aimed at medical care providers
    Robert J Glynn
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Med Care 45:S38-43. 2007
    ..Such trials are frequently embedded in health care systems with available automated records, which can be used to enhance the design of the trial...
  52. pmc Physician effectiveness in interventions to improve cardiovascular medication adherence: a systematic review
    Sarah L Cutrona
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    J Gen Intern Med 25:1090-6. 2010
    ..Medications for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease save lives but adherence is often inadequate. The optimal role for physicians in improving adherence remains unclear...
  53. doi request reprint Altitude and all-cause mortality in incident dialysis patients
    Wolfgang C Winkelmayer
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 1620 Tremont St, Ste 3 030, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    JAMA 301:508-12. 2009
    ..Increased iron availability caused by activation of hypoxia-induced factors at higher altitude may explain this finding. Hypoxia-induced factors are also involved in other pathways that may affect morbidity and mortality...
  54. pmc Trends in drug prescribing for osteoporosis after hip fracture, 1995-2004
    Suzanne M Cadarette
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02120, USA
    J Rheumatol 35:319-26. 2008
    ..To examine trends in osteoporosis drug prescribing after hip fracture from 1995 to 2004...
  55. pmc Effect of statin use on acute kidney injury risk following coronary artery bypass grafting
    J Bradley Layton
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    Am J Cardiol 111:823-8. 2013
    ..7% vs 4.0%). In conclusion, statin initiation immediately before CABG may modestly reduce the risk for postoperative AKI, particularly in younger CABG patients...
  56. doi request reprint Influenza vaccine effectiveness in patients on hemodialysis: an analysis of a natural experiment
    Leah J McGrath
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7435, USA
    Arch Intern Med 172:548-54. 2012
    ..Observational studies of vaccine effectiveness (VE) are challenging because vaccinated subjects may be healthier than unvaccinated subjects...
  57. pmc Assessing residual confounding of the association between antipsychotic medications and risk of death using survey data
    Sebastian Schneeweiss
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    CNS Drugs 23:171-80. 2009
    ..Nonrandomised studies on the causal effects of psychotropic medications may be biased by patient characteristics that are not fully adjusted...
  58. pmc Evaluating uses of data mining techniques in propensity score estimation: a simulation study
    Soko Setoguchi
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02130, USA
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 17:546-55. 2008
    ....
  59. pmc Measuring concurrent adherence to multiple related medications
    Niteesh K Choudhry
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    Am J Manag Care 15:457-64. 2009
    ..To propose standardized methods for measuring concurrent adherence to multiple related medications and to apply these definitions to a cohort of patients with diabetes mellitus...
  60. ncbi request reprint Assessing health state utilities in elderly patients at cardiovascular risk
    Wolfgang C Winkelmayer
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    Med Decis Making 26:247-54. 2006
    ..Health state preferences can be a crucial component of cost-effectiveness analyses, but off-the-shelf health state utilities specifically for older people are not available...
  61. doi request reprint An evaluation of statistical approaches for analyzing physician-randomized quality improvement interventions
    Margaret R Stedman
    Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA, USA
    Contemp Clin Trials 29:687-95. 2008
    ..PQL yielded biased results. The permutation test preserved Type I error rates, but had less power than the other methods considered...
  62. pmc Healthy user and related biases in observational studies of preventive interventions: a primer for physicians
    William H Shrank
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    J Gen Intern Med 26:546-50. 2011
    ..More careful consideration of these sources of bias and study designs by providers can enhance evidence-based decision-making...
  63. ncbi request reprint Explained variation in a model of therapeutic decision making is partitioned across patient, physician, and clinic factors
    M Alan Brookhart
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital Harvard Medical School, 1620 Tremont Street, Suite 3030, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    J Clin Epidemiol 59:18-25. 2006
    ..A statistical method is presented for attributing explained variation in patient care to different levels of aggregation in a multilevel model with the aim of prioritizing and targeting quality improvement interventions...
  64. pmc Use of disease-modifying medications for rheumatoid arthritis by race and ethnicity in the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey
    Daniel H Solomon
    Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 64:184-9. 2012
    ..We investigated the use of DMARDs in patients with RA in a nationally representative sample of visits to US physicians in the National Ambulatory Care Medical Survey (NAMCS)...
  65. pmc A SAS macro for a clustered logrank test
    Margaret R Stedman
    Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed 104:266-70. 2011
    ..We discuss the theory and applications behind this test as well as details of the SAS code...
  66. pmc An evaluation of the relationship between the implementation of a newly designed prescription drug label at Target pharmacies and health outcomes
    William H Shrank
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02120, USA
    Med Care 47:1031-5. 2009
    ..A new prescription medication labeling system was implemented by Target pharmacies in May 2005 and aimed to improve health outcomes...
  67. doi request reprint Impact of statin use on outcomes after coronary artery bypass graft surgery
    Alexander Kulik
    Brigham and Women s Hospital, 1620 Tremont St, Suite 3030, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    Circulation 118:1785-92. 2008
    ....
  68. pmc Simple estimators of the intensity of seasonal occurrence
    M Alan Brookhart
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School Boston, MA, USA
    BMC Med Res Methodol 8:67. 2008
    ..From this fitted curve, estimates of the seasonal intensity of occurrence (i.e., peak-to-low ratio of the fitted curve) can be generated...
  69. ncbi request reprint Kidney function and use of recommended medications after myocardial infarction in elderly patients
    Wolfgang C Winkelmayer
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women s Hospital, 1620 Tremont Street, Suite 3030, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 1:796-801. 2006
    ..Differences in other characteristics such as age, rather than kidney function, may be responsible for much or all the reported reduction in use of preventive medications after MI seen in patients with chronic kidney disease...
  70. pmc Analytic strategies to adjust confounding using exposure propensity scores and disease risk scores: nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and short-term mortality in the elderly
    TIL STURMER
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 161:891-8. 2005
    ..26, 1.68). In this setting, analytic strategies using EPS or disease risk scores were not generally superior to "conventional" models. Various ways to use EPS and disease risk scores behaved differently with smaller study size...
  71. pmc Clinical equivalence of generic and brand-name drugs used in cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Aaron S Kesselheim
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    JAMA 300:2514-26. 2008
    ..Use of generic drugs, which are bioequivalent to brand-name drugs, can help contain prescription drug spending. However, there is concern among patients and physicians that brand-name drugs may be clinically superior to generic drugs...
  72. doi request reprint Impact of reimbursement changes on statin use among patients with diabetes in Austria
    Wolfgang C Winkelmayer
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Wien Klin Wochenschr 122:89-94. 2010
    ..These have used various instruments to steer appropriate use of such treatment. It was the purpose of this study to examine the effect of two reimbursement policy changes of statin therapy in patients with diabetes in Austria...
  73. ncbi request reprint Psychotropic medication use for behavioral symptoms of dementia
    Philip S Wang
    Department of Psychiatry, Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 1620 Tremont Street, Suite 3030, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 6:490-5. 2006
    ..Also, although various psychotropic medications used for behavioral disturbances in dementia patients may be somewhat effective, they have been increasingly associated with important safety risks...
  74. ncbi request reprint Osteoporosis action: design of the healthy bones project trial
    Daniel H Solomon
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 1620 Tremont Street, Suite 3030, Boston, MA, USA
    Contemp Clin Trials 26:78-94. 2005
    ..All outcomes will be analyzed using random effects models accounting for clustering of subjects within physicians' practices...