C J Boyd

Summary

Affiliation: University of Michigan
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Nicotine and alcohol abuse in African American women who smoke crack cocaine
    C J Boyd
    University of Michigan Substance Abuse Research Center, Ann Arbor 48108, USA
    J Subst Abuse 8:463-9. 1996
  2. pmc Adolescents' motivations to abuse prescription medications
    Carol J Boyd
    Institute for Research on Women and Gender, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    Pediatrics 118:2472-80. 2006
  3. ncbi request reprint Prescription drug abuse and diversion among adolescents in a southeast Michigan school district
    Carol J Boyd
    Institute for Research on Women and Gender, University of Michigan Ann Arbor, 204 S State Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 161:276-81. 2007
  4. pmc Medical and nonmedical use of prescription pain medication by youth in a Detroit-area public school district
    Carol J Boyd
    Institute for Research on Women and Gender, University of Michigan, 204 South State Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 81:37-45. 2006
  5. pmc Asthma inhaler misuse and substance abuse: a random survey of secondary school students
    Carol J Boyd
    Substance Abuse Research Center, 2025 Traverwood, Suite C, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 2194, United States
    Addict Behav 31:278-87. 2006
  6. pmc Non-medical use of prescription analgesics: a three-year national longitudinal study
    Carol J Boyd
    The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1290, USA
    J Addict Dis 28:232-42. 2009
  7. pmc Heavy episodic drinking and its consequences: the protective effects of same-sex, residential living-learning communities for undergraduate women
    Carol J Boyd
    Institute for Research on Women and Gender, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1290, USA
    Addict Behav 33:987-93. 2008
  8. pmc Coming to terms with the nonmedical use of prescription medications
    Carol J Boyd
    Institute for Research on Women and Gender, Substance Abuse Research Center and Nursing and Women s Studies, University of Michigan, 204 S, State Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1290, USA
    Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 3:22. 2008
  9. ncbi request reprint A modified version of the CAGE as an indicator of alcohol abuse and its consequences among undergraduate drinkers
    Carol J Boyd
    Substance Abuse Research Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108 1649, USA
    Subst Abus 24:221-32. 2003
  10. ncbi request reprint Ecstasy use among college undergraduates: gender, race and sexual identity
    Carol J Boyd
    Substance Abuse Research Center, Nursing and Women s Studies, University of Michigan, 475 Market Place, Suite D, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108 1649, USA
    J Subst Abuse Treat 24:209-15. 2003

Detail Information

Publications56

  1. ncbi request reprint Nicotine and alcohol abuse in African American women who smoke crack cocaine
    C J Boyd
    University of Michigan Substance Abuse Research Center, Ann Arbor 48108, USA
    J Subst Abuse 8:463-9. 1996
    ..As expected, women in treatment were significantly more likely to report that their behaviors were indicative of an alcohol addiction, although they did not differ from the nontreatment group in potential problems identified by the CAGE...
  2. pmc Adolescents' motivations to abuse prescription medications
    Carol J Boyd
    Institute for Research on Women and Gender, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    Pediatrics 118:2472-80. 2006
    ....
  3. ncbi request reprint Prescription drug abuse and diversion among adolescents in a southeast Michigan school district
    Carol J Boyd
    Institute for Research on Women and Gender, University of Michigan Ann Arbor, 204 S State Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 161:276-81. 2007
    ....
  4. pmc Medical and nonmedical use of prescription pain medication by youth in a Detroit-area public school district
    Carol J Boyd
    Institute for Research on Women and Gender, University of Michigan, 204 South State Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 81:37-45. 2006
    ..Of those reporting lifetime nonmedical use of prescription pain medication, 70% noted how they obtained the drugs; 34% reported getting the drugs from a family member, 17% from a friend and 14% from a dealer or theft...
  5. pmc Asthma inhaler misuse and substance abuse: a random survey of secondary school students
    Carol J Boyd
    Substance Abuse Research Center, 2025 Traverwood, Suite C, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 2194, United States
    Addict Behav 31:278-87. 2006
    ..To assess the relationship between prescription asthma inhaler misuse and other substance abuse...
  6. pmc Non-medical use of prescription analgesics: a three-year national longitudinal study
    Carol J Boyd
    The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1290, USA
    J Addict Dis 28:232-42. 2009
    ..42, 95% confidence interval = 1.45, 8.07); however, most respondents who engaged in non-medical use will cease using 3 years later although non-medical use is associated with higher prevalence of a future substance use disorder...
  7. pmc Heavy episodic drinking and its consequences: the protective effects of same-sex, residential living-learning communities for undergraduate women
    Carol J Boyd
    Institute for Research on Women and Gender, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1290, USA
    Addict Behav 33:987-93. 2008
    ..RLCs - particularly single-sex learning communities - appear to provide undergraduate women with an environment that supports lower rates of alcohol use and abuse...
  8. pmc Coming to terms with the nonmedical use of prescription medications
    Carol J Boyd
    Institute for Research on Women and Gender, Substance Abuse Research Center and Nursing and Women s Studies, University of Michigan, 204 S, State Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1290, USA
    Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 3:22. 2008
    ..S. national studies. We also offer an alternative way of conceptualizing the nonmedical use of prescription medications for future study...
  9. ncbi request reprint A modified version of the CAGE as an indicator of alcohol abuse and its consequences among undergraduate drinkers
    Carol J Boyd
    Substance Abuse Research Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108 1649, USA
    Subst Abus 24:221-32. 2003
    ..g. alcohol consumption, fear of addiction, etc.). We found preliminary evidence that the question "Have you been afraid you might be alcoholic" may be the best identifier, when compared to the modified CAGE, of at-risk students...
  10. ncbi request reprint Ecstasy use among college undergraduates: gender, race and sexual identity
    Carol J Boyd
    Substance Abuse Research Center, Nursing and Women s Studies, University of Michigan, 475 Market Place, Suite D, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108 1649, USA
    J Subst Abuse Treat 24:209-15. 2003
    ..Significant relationships existed between ecstasy use and other substance use such as binge drinking, marijuana use, and cigarette smoking. Implications for interventions are discussed...
  11. ncbi request reprint Putting drug use in context. Life-lines of African American women who smoke crack
    C J Boyd
    Nursing Women s Studies Substance Abuse Research Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109, USA
    J Subst Abuse Treat 15:235-49. 1998
    ..The life-lines provided a retrospective (but time-ordered) perspective and in several ways provided preliminary support for a stress-diathesis perspective...
  12. ncbi request reprint Women who smoke crack and their family substance abuse problems
    Carol J Boyd
    Substance Abuse Research Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Health Care Women Int 23:576-86. 2002
    ..3; p < or =.05) was significantly correlated with that of the participants. These findings clearly support the hypothesis that the participants' substance use patterns are significantly correlated with that of male family members...
  13. pmc Adolescents' nonmedical use of prescription medications and other problem behaviors
    Carol J Boyd
    Institute for Research on Women and Gender, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    J Adolesc Health 45:543-50. 2009
    ..This study examines adolescent nonmedical use of prescription medications (NUPM) and its relationship to other problem behaviors...
  14. ncbi request reprint Prevalence and motives for illicit use of prescription stimulants in an undergraduate student sample
    Christian J Teter
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, College of Pharmacy and Substance Abuse Research Center at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
    J Am Coll Health 53:253-62. 2005
    ..Students appear to be using these prescription drugs non-medically, mainly to enhance performance or get high...
  15. pmc Sexual orientation, substance use behaviors and substance dependence in the United States
    Sean Esteban McCabe
    Substance Abuse Research Center, Institute for Research on Women and Gender, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 2194, USA
    Addiction 104:1333-45. 2009
    ....
  16. ncbi request reprint Dealing with daily hassles: smoking and African-American adolescent girls
    B J Guthrie
    University of Michigan School of Nursing, 400 North Ingalls, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    J Adolesc Health 29:109-15. 2001
    ..To examine cigarette use and its relationship to daily life hassles in an urban sample of African-American adolescent girls...
  17. pmc Adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression: characteristics of aggressors of alcohol and non-alcohol-related assault
    Amy M Young
    Institute for Research on Women and Gender, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 48109 1290, USA
    J Stud Alcohol Drugs 70:700-3. 2009
    ..The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of adolescents involved in alcohol-related and non-alcohol-related sexual assault of peers...
  18. pmc A modified version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test among undergraduate students
    Sean Esteban McCabe
    Substance Abuse Research Center, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 2194, USA
    J Subst Abuse Treat 31:297-303. 2006
    ..Based on the prevalence of drug use, colleges and universities are encouraged to provide screening opportunities to identify and to provide services for students at high risk for drug abuse...
  19. pmc A new measure of binge drinking: prevalence and correlates in a probability sample of undergraduates
    James A Cranford
    Substance Abuse Research Center, University of Michigan, 2025 Traverwood Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 30:1896-905. 2006
    ..This study compares the standard and new binge measures for overall and subgroup prevalence rates; associations with gender, race/ethnicity, and age of drinking onset; and associations with negative drinking consequences...
  20. pmc Motives for nonmedical use of prescription opioids among high school seniors in the United States: self-treatment and beyond
    Sean Esteban McCabe
    Substance Abuse Research Center, Institute for Research on Women and Gender, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 2025 Traverwood Dr, Ste C, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 2194, USA
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 163:739-44. 2009
    ..To assess motives for nonmedical use of prescription opioids among US high school seniors and examine associations between motives for nonmedical use and other substance use behaviors...
  21. pmc Medical and nonmedical use of prescription drugs among secondary school students
    Sean Esteban McCabe
    Substance Abuse Research Center, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105 2194, USA
    J Adolesc Health 40:76-83. 2007
    ..A secondary objective was to examine the association between the use of four categories of prescription medications and illicit drug use and probable drug abuse...
  22. pmc Reasons for nonresponse in a web-based survey of alcohol involvement among first-year college students
    James A Cranford
    Substance Abuse Research Center, The University of Michigan, 2025 Traverwood Drive, Suite C, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 2194, USA
    Addict Behav 33:206-10. 2008
    ..1%). Reasons for nonresponse to Web surveys among college students are similar to reasons for nonresponse to mail and telephone surveys, and some nonresponse reasons vary as a function of alcohol involvement...
  23. ncbi request reprint Women's self-care agency to manage urinary incontinence: the impact of nursing agency and body experience
    Sandra H Hines
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    ANS Adv Nurs Sci 30:175-88. 2007
    ..Women with urinary incontinence (UI) report that the disease negatively impacts their quality of life but, paradoxically, under-report symptoms...
  24. doi request reprint Adolescents' experiences of sexual assault by peers: prevalence and nature of victimization occurring within and outside of school
    Amy M Young
    Institution of Research on Women and Gender, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    J Youth Adolesc 38:1072-83. 2009
    ..Distinctions between sexual assault occurring in and out of school are conceptualized with literature on developmental changes in heterosexual relationships and aggression...
  25. pmc Alcohol involvement and participation in residential learning communities among first-year college students
    Sean Esteban McCabe
    Substance Abuse Research Center, The University of Michigan, 2025 Traverwood Drive, Suite C, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105 2194, USA
    J Stud Alcohol Drugs 68:722-6. 2007
    ..The objective of this longitudinal study was to examine the association between living in RLCs and alcohol misuse among first-year undergraduate students...
  26. pmc The relationship between discrimination and substance use disorders among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States
    Sean Esteban McCabe
    CorrespSubstance Abuse Research Center and the Institute for Research on Women and Gender, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    Am J Public Health 100:1946-52. 2010
    ..We examined the associations between 3 types of discrimination (sexual orientation, race, and gender) and substance use disorders in a large national sample in the United States that included 577 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults...
  27. pmc Does early onset of non-medical use of prescription drugs predict subsequent prescription drug abuse and dependence? Results from a national study
    Sean E McCabe
    Substance Abuse Research Center, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 2194, USA
    Addiction 102:1920-30. 2007
    ..e. sedatives, tranquilizers, opioids, stimulants) and the development of prescription drug abuse and dependence in the United States...
  28. pmc Alcohol-related sexual assault victimization among adolescents: prevalence, characteristics, and correlates
    Amy Young
    Institute for Research on Women and Gender, University of Michigan, 204 South State Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1290, USA
    J Stud Alcohol Drugs 69:39-48. 2008
    ..The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence and describe the characteristics of alcohol-related sexual assault among middle and high school students...
  29. pmc Race/ethnicity and gender differences in drug use and abuse among college students
    Sean Esteban McCabe
    University of Michigan, Substance Abuse Research Center, 2505 Traverwood Dr Suite C, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 2194, USA
    J Ethn Subst Abuse 6:75-95. 2007
    ..The findings of the present study reveal several important racial/ethnic differences in drug use and abuse that need to be considered when developing collegiate drug prevention and intervention efforts...
  30. pmc Subtypes of nonmedical prescription drug misuse
    Sean Esteban McCabe
    University of Michigan Substance Abuse Research Center, 2025 Traverwood Dr, Suite C, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 2194, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 102:63-70. 2009
    ..The findings indicate subtypes should be considered when examining nonmedical prescription drug misuse, especially for pain medication...
  31. pmc Motives, diversion and routes of administration associated with nonmedical use of prescription opioids
    Sean Esteban McCabe
    University of Michigan Substance Abuse Research Center, 2025 Traverwood Dr, Suite C, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 2194, USA
    Addict Behav 32:562-75. 2007
    ....
  32. pmc Medical use, illicit use and diversion of prescription stimulant medication
    Sean Esteban McCabe
    Substance Abuse Research Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48105 2194, USA
    J Psychoactive Drugs 38:43-56. 2006
    ..The present study provides evidence that the illicit use of prescription stimulants is a problem among undergraduate college students, and certain subgroups appear to be at heightened risk...
  33. pmc The relationship between past-year drinking behaviors and nonmedical use of prescription drugs: prevalence of co-occurrence in a national sample
    Sean Esteban McCabe
    Substance Abuse Research Center, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 2194, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 84:281-8. 2006
    ..These findings suggest that the treatment for AUDs should include a thorough assessment of NMUPD, especially among young adults...
  34. ncbi request reprint Drinking like a guy: frequent binge drinking among undergraduate women
    Amy M Young
    Substance Abuse Research Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    Subst Use Misuse 40:241-67. 2005
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint Illicit use of prescription pain medication among college students
    Sean Esteban McCabe
    Substance Abuse Research Center, The University of Michigan, 2025 Traverwood Dr, Suite C, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 77:37-47. 2005
    ..These findings suggest that the illicit use of prescription pain medications may represent a problem among undergraduate students and effective prevention efforts are needed that account for gender differences...
  36. ncbi request reprint Prevalence and correlates of illicit methylphenidate use among 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students in the United States, 2001
    Sean Esteban McCabe
    Substance Abuse Research Center, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108 1649, USA
    J Adolesc Health 35:501-4. 2004
    ..The annual prevalence of illicit methylphenidate use was 4%. Race, grade level, geographical region, grade point average, and substance use were all significantly associated with illicit methylphenidate use...
  37. ncbi request reprint The use, misuse and diversion of prescription stimulants among middle and high school students
    Sean Esteban McCabe
    Substance Abuse Research Center, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108 1649, USA
    Subst Use Misuse 39:1095-116. 2004
    ..Our findings suggest that community-based approaches are needed to reduce the illicit use and diversion of stimulant medications within middle and high school student populations...
  38. ncbi request reprint Substance use and misuse: are bisexual women at greater risk?
    Sean Esteban McCabe
    University of Michigan Substance Abuse Research Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108 1649, USA
    J Psychoactive Drugs 36:217-25. 2004
    ..However, additional research is needed to replicate these findings with larger samples of bisexual women...
  39. ncbi request reprint Illicit methylphenidate use in an undergraduate student sample: prevalence and risk factors
    Christian J Teter
    College of Pharmacy, Substance Abuse Research Center, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1065, USA
    Pharmacotherapy 23:609-17. 2003
    ....
  40. ncbi request reprint Ebb and flow when navigating adolescence: predictors of daily hassles among African-American adolescent girls
    Barbara J Guthrie
    J Spec Pediatr Nurs 7:143-52. 2002
    ..To examine the nature of daily hassles as perceived by African-American adolescent females...
  41. ncbi request reprint Mode effects for collecting alcohol and other drug use data: Web and U.S. mail
    Sean Esteban McCabe
    University of Michigan Substance Abuse Research Center, 47S Market Place, Suite D, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108 1649, USA
    J Stud Alcohol 63:755-61. 2002
    ..The present study examined mode effects for collecting alcohol and other drug use data using a Web-based survey mode and a U.S. mail-based survey mode for comparison...
  42. ncbi request reprint Mode effects for collecting alcohol and tobacco data among 3rd and 4th grade students: a randomized pilot study of Web-form versus paper-form surveys
    Sean Esteban McCabe
    University of Michigan Substance Abuse Research Center, 2025 Traverwood, Suite C, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 2194, USA
    Addict Behav 30:663-71. 2005
    ..The present study examined the feasibility and possible mode effects of using a Web-form versus a paper-form survey to collect alcohol and tobacco data from 3rd and 4th grade students...
  43. ncbi request reprint Nonmedical use of prescription opioids among U.S. college students: prevalence and correlates from a national survey
    Sean Esteban McCabe
    University of Michigan Substance Abuse Research Center, 2025 Traverwood Dr, Suite C, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 2194, United States
    Addict Behav 30:789-805. 2005
    ..This study examined the prevalence rates and correlates of nonmedical use of prescription opioid analgesics among U.S. college students in terms of student and college characteristics...
  44. ncbi request reprint Illicit use of opioid analgesics by high school seniors
    Sean Esteban McCabe
    Substance Abuse Research Center, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    J Subst Abuse Treat 28:225-30. 2005
    ..The present study provides evidence that the illicit use of opioid analgesics represents a problem among American high school seniors and effective prevention and intervention efforts are needed...
  45. pmc Medical use, illicit use, and diversion of abusable prescription drugs
    Sean Esteban McCabe
    Substance Abuse Research Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48105 2194, USA
    J Am Coll Health 54:269-78. 2006
    ..The authors provide evidence that prescription drug abuse is a problem among college students...
  46. pmc Comparing web and mail responses in a mixed mode survey in college alcohol use research
    Sean Esteban McCabe
    Substance Abuse Research Center, The University of Michigan, 2025 Traverwood, Suite C, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105 2194, USA
    Addict Behav 31:1619-27. 2006
    ..This exploratory study examined potential mode effects (web versus U.S. mail) in a mixed mode design survey of alcohol use at eight U.S. colleges...
  47. ncbi request reprint African American girls' smoking habits and day-to-day experiences with racial discrimination
    Barbara J Guthrie
    University of Michigan School of Nursing, Ann Arbor 48109 0482, USA
    Nurs Res 51:183-90. 2002
    ..Few studies have examined the relationship between racial discrimination and specific health risks...
  48. pmc Assessment of difference in dimensions of sexual orientation: implications for substance use research in a college-age population
    Sean Esteban McCabe
    Substance Abuse Research Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48105 2194, USA
    J Stud Alcohol 66:620-9. 2005
    ..The present research examines the associations between three distinct dimensions of sexual orientation and substance use in a random sample of undergraduate students...
  49. ncbi request reprint Feasibility study for collecting alcohol and other drug use data among secondary school students: a web-based survey approach
    Sean Esteban McCabe
    University of Michigan Substance Abuse Research Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 2194 USA
    J Drug Educ 34:373-83. 2004
    ..While researchers conducting survey research within secondary schools should consider using Web-based survey approaches, additional research is needed to compare Web-based surveys to more traditional approaches to collecting data...
  50. pmc Sources of prescription drugs for illicit use
    Sean Esteban McCabe
    University of Michigan, Substance Abuse Research Center, 2025 Traverwood Dr, Suite C, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 2194, United States
    Addict Behav 30:1342-50. 2005
    ..The relationship between these sources and other substance use was examined...
  51. ncbi request reprint Comparison of Web and mail surveys for studying secondary consequences associated with substance use: evidence for minimal mode effects
    Sean Esteban McCabe
    Substance Abuse Research Center, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 48105 2194, USA
    Addict Behav 31:162-8. 2006
    ..The present study examined the impact of using a Web survey vs. a more traditional mail survey on the reporting of secondary consequences associated with substance use by undergraduate students...
  52. pmc Pilot study of abuse of asthma inhalers by middle and high school students
    Carol J Boyd
    Substance Abuse Research Center, The University of Michigan, 475 Market Place, Suite D, Ann Arbor, MI 48108 1649, USA
    J Adolesc Health 34:531-4. 2004
    ..25 and 2.30, respectively) and the nonprescribed use of asthma inhalers was significantly associated with higher rates of other drug use...
  53. ncbi request reprint College students' alcohol use: a critical review
    Carol J Boyd
    Substance Abuse Research Center, School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
    Annu Rev Nurs Res 23:179-211. 2005
    ..The chapter concludes with the identification of gaps in knowledge and implications for future research...
  54. doi request reprint In pursuit of a more complex understanding of non-medical use of prescription drugs: broadening perspective by sharpening our tools
    Sean Esteban McCabe
    Addiction 103:1051-2. 2008
  55. pmc Illicit use of specific prescription stimulants among college students: prevalence, motives, and routes of administration
    Christian J Teter
    School of Pharmacy, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Pharmacotherapy 26:1501-10. 2006
    ..To explore the illicit use of specific prescription stimulants among college students and add to our understanding of reasons (motives) and routes of administration associated with illicit use of these drugs...
  56. ncbi request reprint A means to an end: slim hopes and cigarette advertising
    Thomas C Boyd
    Department of Marketing, Campus Box 6848, California State University, Fullerton, CA 92834 6848, USA
    Health Promot Pract 4:266-77. 2003
    ..The authors use a means-end interpretation to explain the success of the advertisements and then discuss how a means-end framework can be used to create more effective antismoking messages...

Research Grants3

  1. Prescription Abuse and Diversion by Secondary Students
    Carol Boyd; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Our long term objective is to develop and evaluate a specific prevention program to reduce prescription abuse and diversion using an R01 mechanism. ..
  2. A Prospective Study of the Nonmedical use of Prescription Medications by Adolesce
    Carol Boyd; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The purpose of this study is to advance knowledge about adolescents' medical and nonmedical use of prescription medications with addictive potential in order to better inform prevention efforts. ..
  3. A Prospective Study of the Nonmedical use of Prescription Medications by Adolesce
    Carol J Boyd; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The purpose of this study is to advance knowledge about adolescents'medical and nonmedical use of prescription medications with addictive potential in order to better inform prevention efforts. ..