W K Bickel

Summary

Affiliation: University of Vermont
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Deconstructing relative reinforcing efficacy and situating the measures of pharmacological reinforcement with behavioral economics: a theoretical proposal
    W K Bickel
    University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, Human Behavioral Pharmacology Laboratory, 38 Fletcher Place, Ira Allen School, Burlington, VT 05401 1419, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 153:44-56. 2000
  2. ncbi request reprint Toward a behavioral economic understanding of drug dependence: delay discounting processes
    W K Bickel
    University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, Human Behavioral Pharmacology Laboratory, 38 Fletcher Place, Ira Allen School, Burlington, VT 05401 1419, USA
    Addiction 96:73-86. 2001
  3. pmc Similar consumption and responding across single and multiple sources of drug
    W K Bickel
    University of Vermont, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 72:299-316. 1999
  4. ncbi request reprint Risk-sensitive foraging theory elucidates risky choices made by heroin addicts
    Warren K Bickel
    Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Vermont, USA
    Addiction 99:855-61. 2004
  5. ncbi request reprint Impulsivity and cigarette smoking: delay discounting in current, never, and ex-smokers
    W K Bickel
    Human Behavioral Pharmacology Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, 38 Fletcher Place, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 146:447-54. 1999
  6. ncbi request reprint Modeling the effects of combined behavioral and pharmacological treatment on cigarette smoking: behavioral-economic analyses
    W K Bickel
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington 05401, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 5:334-43. 1997
  7. ncbi request reprint A comparison of measures of relative reinforcing efficacy and behavioral economics: cigarettes and money in smokers
    W K Bickel
    Human Behavioral Pharmacology Laboratory, University of Vermont, Burlington 05401, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 10:627-37. 1999
  8. ncbi request reprint Secobarbital in humans discriminating triazolam under two-response and novel-response procedures
    J B Kamien
    Human Behavioral Pharmacology Laboratory, University of Vermont, Burlington 05401, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 58:983-91. 1997
  9. ncbi request reprint Examining the limits of the buprenorphine interdosing interval: daily, every-third-day and every-fifth-day dosing regimens
    N M Petry
    Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Vermont, USA
    Addiction 96:823-34. 2001
  10. ncbi request reprint Comparing the reinforcing efficacy of nicotine containing and de-nicotinized cigarettes: a behavioral economic analysis
    T A Shahan
    University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, 38 Fletcher Place, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 147:210-6. 1999

Detail Information

Publications64

  1. ncbi request reprint Deconstructing relative reinforcing efficacy and situating the measures of pharmacological reinforcement with behavioral economics: a theoretical proposal
    W K Bickel
    University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, Human Behavioral Pharmacology Laboratory, 38 Fletcher Place, Ira Allen School, Burlington, VT 05401 1419, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 153:44-56. 2000
    ..However, a variety of studies suggest that relative reinforcing efficacy may be heterogeneous...
  2. ncbi request reprint Toward a behavioral economic understanding of drug dependence: delay discounting processes
    W K Bickel
    University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, Human Behavioral Pharmacology Laboratory, 38 Fletcher Place, Ira Allen School, Burlington, VT 05401 1419, USA
    Addiction 96:73-86. 2001
    ....
  3. pmc Similar consumption and responding across single and multiple sources of drug
    W K Bickel
    University of Vermont, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 72:299-316. 1999
    ..These findings are discussed in the context of direct effects and behavioral economics perspectives of drug self-administration...
  4. ncbi request reprint Risk-sensitive foraging theory elucidates risky choices made by heroin addicts
    Warren K Bickel
    Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Vermont, USA
    Addiction 99:855-61. 2004
    ..The relevance of this behavioral process to risky choices of opioid-dependent patients is examined in this study...
  5. ncbi request reprint Impulsivity and cigarette smoking: delay discounting in current, never, and ex-smokers
    W K Bickel
    Human Behavioral Pharmacology Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, 38 Fletcher Place, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 146:447-54. 1999
    ..Recent studies show problems with alcohol and opioid dependence are associated with rapid discounting of the value of delayed outcomes. Furthermore, discounting may be particularly steep for the drug of dependence...
  6. ncbi request reprint Modeling the effects of combined behavioral and pharmacological treatment on cigarette smoking: behavioral-economic analyses
    W K Bickel
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington 05401, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 5:334-43. 1997
    ..Findings suggest that combined pharmacological and behavioral interventions produce the greatest reductions in smoking...
  7. ncbi request reprint A comparison of measures of relative reinforcing efficacy and behavioral economics: cigarettes and money in smokers
    W K Bickel
    Human Behavioral Pharmacology Laboratory, University of Vermont, Burlington 05401, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 10:627-37. 1999
    ..Implications for the concept of reinforcing efficacy are discussed...
  8. ncbi request reprint Secobarbital in humans discriminating triazolam under two-response and novel-response procedures
    J B Kamien
    Human Behavioral Pharmacology Laboratory, University of Vermont, Burlington 05401, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 58:983-91. 1997
    ..These results suggest that the novel-response procedure for human drug discrimination may enhance the pharmacological selectivity of triazolam- and placebo-appropriate responding...
  9. ncbi request reprint Examining the limits of the buprenorphine interdosing interval: daily, every-third-day and every-fifth-day dosing regimens
    N M Petry
    Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Vermont, USA
    Addiction 96:823-34. 2001
    ..These studies compared opioid withdrawal symptoms during 24-, 72-, and 120-hour buprenorphine dosing regimens and evaluated participants' preferences for these different dosing regimens...
  10. ncbi request reprint Comparing the reinforcing efficacy of nicotine containing and de-nicotinized cigarettes: a behavioral economic analysis
    T A Shahan
    University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, 38 Fletcher Place, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 147:210-6. 1999
    ..Smoking-related respiratory stimuli produced by de-nicotinized cigarettes may function as conditioned reinforcers, but behavioral data on such reinforcing effects are limited...
  11. ncbi request reprint A comparison of four buprenorphine dosing regimens using open-dosing procedures: is twice-weekly dosing possible?
    N M Petry
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, USA
    Addiction 95:1069-77. 2000
    ..To compare opioid withdrawal symptoms during 24-, 48-, 72- and 96-hour buprenorphine dosing regimens and to evaluate subjects' preferences for these different dosing schedules...
  12. ncbi request reprint Discounting of delayed rewards in opioid-dependent outpatients: exponential or hyperbolic discounting functions?
    G J Madden
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 7:284-93. 1999
    ..Consistent with previous findings, delayed heroin rewards were discounted at a significantly higher rate than were delayed monetary rewards...
  13. ncbi request reprint Sensitivity of nicotine-containing and de-nicotinized cigarette consumption to alternative non-drug reinforcement: a behavioral economic analysis
    T A Shahan
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 12:277-84. 2001
    ..e. conditioned reinforcement, primary reinforcement by respiratory stimulation, instructional control, demand characteristics) are also discussed...
  14. ncbi request reprint Alternate-day buprenorphine dosing is preferred to daily dosing by opioid-dependent humans
    L Amass
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado, School of Medicine, Denver, CO 80206, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 136:217-25. 1998
    ..Choice of alternate-day buprenorphine administration underscores the procedure's clinical utility and potential use as a positive reinforcer to enhance opioid treatment...
  15. ncbi request reprint Impulsive and self-control choices in opioid-dependent patients and non-drug-using control participants: drug and monetary rewards
    G J Madden
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont 05401 1410, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 5:256-62. 1997
    ..Opioid-dependent participants discounted delayed monetary rewards significantly more than did non-drug-using participants. Furthermore opioid-dependent participants discounted delayed heroin significantly more than delayed money...
  16. ncbi request reprint Therapeutic alliance and psychiatric severity as predictors of completion of treatment for opioid dependence
    N M Petry
    Substance Abuse Treatment Center and Department of Psychology, University of Vermont, Burlington, USA
    Psychiatr Serv 50:219-27. 1999
    ..The role of patient characteristics and the strength of the therapeutic alliance in predicting completion of treatment by opioid-dependent patients was examined...
  17. pmc Three predictions of the economic concept of unit price in a choice context
    G J Madden
    University of Vermont, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 73:45-64. 2000
    ..An expansion of unit price is proposed in which handling costs and the discounted value of reinforcers available according to ratio schedules are incorporated...
  18. ncbi request reprint Nicotine gum as a substitute for cigarettes: a behavioral economic analysis
    T A Shahan
    Human Behavioral Pharmacology Laboratory, University of Vermont, Burlington 05401, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 11:71-9. 2000
    ..As a result, nicotine gum may be useful in human laboratory studies of the behavioral economics of reinforcer interactions and their role in drug dependence...
  19. ncbi request reprint Behavioral economics of human drug self-administration: progressive ratio versus random sequences of response requirements
    L A Giordano
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 12:343-7. 2001
    ..We found no evidence that PR and random sequences of fixed-ratio (FR) schedules, incremented across daily sessions, resulted in different demand curves...
  20. ncbi request reprint Gender differences in hostility of opioid-dependent outpatients: role in early treatment termination
    N M Petry
    Department of Psychiatry, Substance Abuse Treatment Center, University of Vermont, Burlington 05401, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 58:27-33. 2000
    ..Results from this study show that female heroin addicts have high levels of hostility and suggest that hostility may be an important predictor of premature discharge from opioid substitution programs, especially among women...
  21. pmc Comparing single and cumulative dosing procedures in human triazolam discriminators
    B J Smith
    University of Vermont, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 71:417-37. 1999
    ..When qualitative stimulus functions rather than quantitative functions are of interest, application of cumulative dosing may increase efficiency in human drug discrimination...
  22. ncbi request reprint Flumazenil discrimination by humans under a two-response and a novel-response procedure
    B J Smith
    Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 291:1257-68. 1999
    ....
  23. ncbi request reprint Buprenorphine dose self-selection: effects of an alternative reinforcer, behavioral economic analysis of demand, and examination of subjective drug effects
    N M Petry
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 7:38-48. 1999
    ..Thus, BUP dose selection varies with the magnitude of alternative reinforcers, and subjective drug effects depend on whether doses are self- or experimenter-selected...
  24. ncbi request reprint Modeling drug consumption in the clinic using simulation procedures: demand for heroin and cigarettes in opioid-dependent outpatients
    E A Jacobs
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 7:412-26. 1999
    ..The relationship between behavioral-economic and traditional measures of reinforcement efficacy is also discussed...
  25. ncbi request reprint Elevated liver enzyme levels in opioid-dependent patients with hepatitis treated with buprenorphine
    N M Petry
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington 06030 1517, USA
    Am J Addict 9:265-9. 2000
    ..05; odds ratio = 1.23 per 1 mg increase in dose). These results suggest that liver enzyme levels should be monitored carefully when patients with hepatitis are treated with buprenorphine...
  26. ncbi request reprint The behavioral economics of cigarette smoking: The concurrent presence of a substitute and an independent reinforcer
    M W Johnson
    University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Vermont 05401 1419, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 14:137-44. 2003
    ..The results highlight the potential for an independent reinforcer such as money to be more effective at reducing drug use than a pharmacological substitute...
  27. ncbi request reprint Needle sharing in opioid-dependent outpatients: psychological processes underlying risk
    A L Odum
    Department of Psychiatry, Human Behavioral Pharmacology Laboratory, 38 Fletcher Place, University of Vermont, Burlington, 05401, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 60:259-66. 2000
    ..Persistent needle sharing may be related to the relative inability of delayed outcomes to impact current behavior. Training to mitigate the effect of delay on outcome value may offer reductions in needle sharing and drug abuse...
  28. ncbi request reprint Effects of infusion rate of intravenously administered morphine on physiological, psychomotor, and self-reported measures in humans
    L A Marsch
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05401, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 299:1056-65. 2001
    ..Results suggest that the pharmacokinetic properties of a drug, including the dosage administered and the rate of at which it is administered may function to jointly affect the abuse liability of the drug...
  29. ncbi request reprint Marijuana use and treatment outcome among opioid-dependent patients
    A J Budney
    University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, S Burlington 05403, USA
    Addiction 93:493-503. 1998
    ..Information concerning the association between marijuana use and opioid dependence and its treatment is needed to determine effective clinical guidelines for addressing marijuana use among opioid abusers...
  30. ncbi request reprint Modeling drug dependence behaviors for animal and human studies
    J R Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry, Psychology and Family Practice, University of Vermont, Burlington 05401 1419, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 57:413-7. 1997
    ....
  31. ncbi request reprint Effects of alprazolam, caffeine, and zolpidem in humans trained to discriminate triazolam from placebo
    B J Smith
    Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 61:249-60. 2001
    ..Caffeine produced both placebo-appropriate and novel responding. The self-reported effects of triazolam, alprazolam and zolpidem were similar. Overall, zolpidem produced similar, but not identical, effects as the benzodiazepines...
  32. ncbi request reprint Celebrating the decade of behavior: introduction to special issue
    S T Higgins
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 8:261-3. 2000
    ..This series of articles bodes well for the health of psychopharmacology and substance abuse research and offers a fitting salute to this important initiative...
  33. ncbi request reprint Limits to buprenorphine dosing: a comparison between quintuple and sextuple the maintenance dose every 5 days
    A Gross
    Substance Abuse Treatment Center, University of Vermont, 1 South Prospect Street, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 64:111-6. 2001
    ..Thus, these data suggest that sextuple buprenorphine dosing, administered every 5 days, does not abate opioid-withdrawal beyond 96 hours...
  34. ncbi request reprint Functional antagonism of the caffeine-discriminative stimulus by triazolam in humans
    A H Oliveto
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington 05401, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 8:124-38. 1997
    ..These results indicate that, at the doses tested, the caffeine discriminative stimulus can be blocked, at least partly by triazolam, but not by buspirone, which is consistent with the pharmacological actions of these compounds...
  35. ncbi request reprint Comparison of the subjective, physiological, and psychomotor effects of atomoxetine and methylphenidate in light drug users
    S H Heil
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 67:149-56. 2002
    ..These results suggest that atomoxetine does not induce subjective effects similar to methylphenidate and suggest that it is unlikely that atomoxetine will have abuse liability...
  36. pmc Replacing relative reinforcing efficacy with behavioral economic demand curves
    Matthew W Johnson
    University of Vermont, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 85:73-93. 2006
    ..The demand curve analysis illustrates why concordance between traditional measures is expected under some experimental conditions but not others...
  37. ncbi request reprint A comparison between low-magnitude voucher and buprenorphine medication contingencies in promoting abstinence from opioids and cocaine
    Anke Gross
    Department of General Psychiatry, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 14:148-56. 2006
    ..95 and 2.90, respectively). Results suggest that the use of medication-based contingencies in combination with behavioral therapy in promoting drug abstinence may have clinical utility. Limitations of the study are discussed...
  38. ncbi request reprint The combined effects of delay and probability in discounting
    Richard Yi
    Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
    Behav Processes 73:149-55. 2006
    ..The present paper offers a novel statistical method, within an established framework, for the analysis of data from studies of discounting that combine delay and probability...
  39. ncbi request reprint The relationship between temporal discounting and the prisoner's dilemma game in intranasal abusers of prescription opioids
    Richard Yi
    Center for Addiction Research, Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 WestMarkham Street, 843, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 87:94-7. 2007
    ....
  40. pmc Behavioral and neuroeconomics of drug addiction: competing neural systems and temporal discounting processes
    Warren K Bickel
    University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Departments of Psychiatry and Radiology, Center for Addiction Research, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 90:S85-91. 2007
    ..e., the "impulsive system"). Temporal discounting provides a useful framework for future imaging research, and suggests a novel approach to designing effective drug dependence prevention and treatment programs...
  41. ncbi request reprint A comparison of two algorithms in computerized temporal discounting procedures
    Benjamin P Kowal
    Center for Addiction Research, Fred and Dierk s Research Laboratories, Psychiatric Research Institute, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
    Behav Processes 75:231-6. 2007
    ..However, the interpretation of findings from individual studies is probably not strongly affected by the use of different computer algorithms...
  42. ncbi request reprint Moderate drug use and delay discounting: a comparison of heavy, light, and never smokers
    Matthew W Johnson
    Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21224 6823, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 15:187-94. 2007
    ..These data suggest that even moderate levels of drug use may be associated with high delay discounting levels...
  43. ncbi request reprint Probability discounting among cigarette smokers and nonsmokers: molecular analysis discerns group differences
    Richard Yi
    Center for Addiction Research, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 18:633-9. 2007
    ..Rate of smoking may also be an important factor, with differences more likely observed when heavy smokers are enrolled...
  44. pmc Cigarette smokers discount past and future rewards symmetrically and more than controls: is discounting a measure of impulsivity?
    Warren K Bickel
    Center for Addiction Research, Fred and Louise Dierks Research Laboratories, Psychiatric Research Institute, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Slot 843, Little Rock, AR 72205, United States
    Drug Alcohol Depend 96:256-62. 2008
    ..These included: hyperbolic discounting, greater discounting of small-magnitude outcomes than large-magnitude outcomes, and greater discounting by cigarette smokers relative to non-smokers...
  45. pmc Temporal horizons of cigarette satiety: determining the window of time over which recent smoking influences motivation to smoke
    Benjamin P Kowal
    University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Department of Psychology, Little Rock, AR 72204 1099, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 19:339-46. 2008
    ..In addition, we suggest that the quantitative description of satiety provided by our procedures may validate drug replacement therapies involved in cessation treatments...
  46. ncbi request reprint Mild opioid deprivation increases the degree that opioid-dependent outpatients discount delayed heroin and money
    Louis A Giordano
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 163:174-82. 2002
    ..Little is known, however, about how drug deprivation may affect temporal discounting of delayed rewards by drug-dependent individuals...
  47. pmc Within-subject comparison of real and hypothetical money rewards in delay discounting
    Matthe W Johnson
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington 05401 1419, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 77:129-46. 2002
    ..A hyperbolic decay model described the data better than an exponential model...
  48. ncbi request reprint Predictors of internalizing and externalizing problems among children of cocaine and opiate dependent parents
    Catherine Stanger
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, 1 South Prospect Street, Burlington, VT 05401 3456, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 66:199-212. 2002
    ..For drug dependent fathers, family problems were an independent predictor of children's problems...
  49. ncbi request reprint Substitutes for tobacco smoking: a behavioral economic analysis of nicotine gum, denicotinized cigarettes, and nicotine-containing cigarettes
    Matthew W Johnson
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, 38 Fletcher Place, Burlington, VT 05401 1419, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 74:253-64. 2004
    ..Furthermore, these findings indicate that alternative reinforcement would be most effective in smoking cessation treatment when combined with high prices for cigarettes...
  50. ncbi request reprint Delay discounting in currently using and currently abstinent cocaine-dependent outpatients and non-drug-using matched controls
    Sarah H Heil
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, USA
    Addict Behav 31:1290-4. 2006
    ..These data replicate previous work in cocaine-dependent and other substance abusers compared to non-drug-using controls and suggest that a longer period of abstinence may be required to modify discounting in this population...
  51. pmc Computerized behavior therapy for opioid-dependent outpatients: a randomized controlled trial
    Warren K Bickel
    University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 16:132-43. 2008
    ....
  52. pmc An algorithm for identifying nonsystematic delay-discounting data
    Matthew W Johnson
    Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit, John Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21224 6823, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 16:264-74. 2008
    ..The algorithm may be used in empirical investigations to improve discounting methodology, and may be used to identify outliers to be removed from analyses...
  53. pmc Response: Still room to improve an effective treatment
    Warren K Bickel
    Sci Pract Perspect 3:32-3. 2005
  54. pmc A scale-free systems theory of motivation and addiction
    R Andrew Chambers
    Lab for Translational Neuroscience of Dual Diagnosis and Development, Institute of Psychiatric Research, Indiana Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Indiana University School of Medicine, 791 Union Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 31:1017-45. 2007
    ..This model may inform integrative research in defining more effective prevention and treatment strategies for addiction...
  55. ncbi request reprint Simulated opioid withdrawal engenders risk-prone choice: a comparison of intravenous and intranasal-using populations
    Ari P Kirshenbaum
    Animal Behavior Laboratory, Psychology Department, Saint Michael s College, 1 Winooski Park, Colchester, VT 05439, United States
    Drug Alcohol Depend 83:130-6. 2006
    ..The DEB rule is applicable to opioid dependence and provides a useful framework from which to examine the behaviors associated with opioid withdrawal...
  56. ncbi request reprint Discounting of delayed health gains and losses by current, never- and ex-smokers of cigarettes
    Amy L Odum
    Department of Psychiatry, University of New Hampshire, Conant Hall, 10 Library Way, Durham, NH 03824 3567, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 4:295-303. 2002
    ..Cigarette smokers show rapid loss of value for delayed health outcomes, emphasizing the need for smoking-cessation treatments that provide relatively immediate consequences for abstinence...
  57. ncbi request reprint Altered states: the impact of immediate craving on the valuation of current and future opioids
    Gary J Badger
    Biometry Facility, University of Vermont, VT, USA
    J Health Econ 26:865-76. 2007
    ..Under-appreciation of craving by non-addicts may contribute to initial decisions to experiment with drugs...
  58. ncbi request reprint Delay discounting in current and never-before cigarette smokers: similarities and differences across commodity, sign, and magnitude
    Forest Baker
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, USA
    J Abnorm Psychol 112:382-92. 2003
    ..Current smokers' delay discount rates for monetary outcomes, however, were higher than never-before smokers across all magnitudes and both signs. This trend was also found for delayed health outcomes, but failed to reach significance...
  59. ncbi request reprint Decision-making in state lotteries: half now or all of it later?
    Forest Baker
    University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 10:965-70. 2003
    ..These findings suggest that real-world choices involving large sums of money may be subject to diminishing marginal utility and probability and delay discounting...
  60. ncbi request reprint Discounting of past outcomes
    Richard Yi
    Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 7199, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 14:311-7. 2006
    ..Past discounting may be of use in the study of drug-dependent and other impulsive populations. Implications of a relationship between future and past discounting are discussed...
  61. ncbi request reprint Buprenorphine treatment for opioid dependence: the relative efficacy of daily, twice and thrice weekly dosing
    Lisa A Marsch
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 77:195-204. 2005
    ....
  62. ncbi request reprint Comparison of pharmacological treatments for opioid-dependent adolescents: a randomized controlled trial
    Lisa A Marsch
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 62:1157-64. 2005
    ..The prevalence of heroin and other opioid use has markedly increased among adolescents in the last decade; however, virtually no research has been conducted to identify effective treatments for this population...
  63. ncbi request reprint Relationship between cooperation in an iterated prisoner's dilemma game and the discounting of hypothetical outcomes
    Richard Yi
    University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, USA
    Learn Behav 33:324-36. 2005
    ..Correlations between rate of probability-discounting and cooperation rate in a repeated prisoner's dilemma game versus neither a tit-for-tat nor a random strategy were significant...
  64. ncbi request reprint What came first? Comment on Dom et al. (2006)
    Warren K Bickel
    Addiction 101:291-2; author reply 293-4. 2006