Neal Benowitz

Summary

Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi Cigarette smoking and infection
    Lidia Arcavi
    Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Kaplan Medical Center, Rehovot, Israel
    Arch Intern Med 164:2206-16. 2004
  2. ncbi Cardiovascular toxicity of nicotine: implications for nicotine replacement therapy
    N L Benowitz
    San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center and Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, 94143 1220, USA
    J Am Coll Cardiol 29:1422-31. 1997
  3. ncbi Nicotine metabolite ratio as a predictor of cigarette consumption
    Neal L Benowitz
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 5:621-4. 2003
  4. ncbi Effects of cigarette smoking and carbon monoxide on chlorzoxazone and caffeine metabolism
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 74:468-74. 2003
  5. ncbi Mentholated cigarette smoking inhibits nicotine metabolism
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of California, San Francisco, Box 1220, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 310:1208-15. 2004
  6. ncbi Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation during pregnancy
    Neal Benowitz
    San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, The Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 6:S189-202. 2004
  7. ncbi Cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease: pathophysiology and implications for treatment
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Prog Cardiovasc Dis 46:91-111. 2003
  8. ncbi Carcinogen exposure during short-term switching from regular to "light" cigarettes
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Department of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, Box 1220, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:1376-83. 2005
  9. ncbi Slower metabolism and reduced intake of nicotine from cigarette smoking in Chinese-Americans
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 94:108-15. 2002
  10. pmc Trans-3'-hydroxycotinine: disposition kinetics, effects and plasma levels during cigarette smoking
    N L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, and the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 1220, USA
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 51:53-9. 2001

Detail Information

Publications101 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Cigarette smoking and infection
    Lidia Arcavi
    Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Kaplan Medical Center, Rehovot, Israel
    Arch Intern Med 164:2206-16. 2004
    ..We reviewed mechanisms by which smoking increases the risk of infection and the epidemiology of smoking-related infection, and delineated implications of this increased risk of infection among cigarette smokers...
  2. ncbi Cardiovascular toxicity of nicotine: implications for nicotine replacement therapy
    N L Benowitz
    San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center and Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, 94143 1220, USA
    J Am Coll Cardiol 29:1422-31. 1997
    ..The risks of NRT for smokers, even for those with underlying cardiovascular disease, are small and are substantially outweighed by the potential benefits of smoking cessation...
  3. ncbi Nicotine metabolite ratio as a predictor of cigarette consumption
    Neal L Benowitz
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 5:621-4. 2003
    ..This finding supports the hypothesis that the rate of nicotine metabolism is a determinant of the level of cigarette consumption and supports the use of the 3-HC:cotinine ratio as a noninvasive marker of nicotine metabolism...
  4. ncbi Effects of cigarette smoking and carbon monoxide on chlorzoxazone and caffeine metabolism
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 74:468-74. 2003
    ....
  5. ncbi Mentholated cigarette smoking inhibits nicotine metabolism
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of California, San Francisco, Box 1220, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 310:1208-15. 2004
    ..Our finding of impaired metabolism of nicotine while mentholated cigarette smoking suggests that mentholated cigarette smoking enhances systemic nicotine exposure...
  6. ncbi Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation during pregnancy
    Neal Benowitz
    San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, The Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 6:S189-202. 2004
  7. ncbi Cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease: pathophysiology and implications for treatment
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Prog Cardiovasc Dis 46:91-111. 2003
  8. ncbi Carcinogen exposure during short-term switching from regular to "light" cigarettes
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Department of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, Box 1220, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:1376-83. 2005
    ....
  9. ncbi Slower metabolism and reduced intake of nicotine from cigarette smoking in Chinese-Americans
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 94:108-15. 2002
    ..We compared the rate of nicotine metabolism and the intake of nicotine per cigarette smoked among smokers of different ethnicities...
  10. pmc Trans-3'-hydroxycotinine: disposition kinetics, effects and plasma levels during cigarette smoking
    N L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, and the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 1220, USA
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 51:53-9. 2001
    ..We also studied pharmacologic responses to 3-HC and plasma levels of 3-HC in a group of smokers...
  11. ncbi Effects of cigarette smoking and carbon monoxide on nicotine and cotinine metabolism
    N L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, University of California, 94143 1220, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 67:653-9. 2000
    ....
  12. ncbi The role of nicotine in smoking-related cardiovascular disease
    N L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, California 94110, USA
    Prev Med 26:412-7. 1997
    ..Finally, the dose response for cardiovascular events of nicotine appears to be flat, suggesting that if nicotine is involved, adverse effects might be seen with relatively low-level cigarette exposures...
  13. ncbi Ethnic differences in N-glucuronidation of nicotine and cotinine
    N L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, 94143 1220, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 291:1196-203. 1999
    ..Ethnic differences in the metabolism of other drugs undergoing N-glucuronidation should be studied...
  14. ncbi Nicotine addiction
    N L Benowitz
    Departments of Medicine, Psychiatry, and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Francisco 94143 1220, USA
    Prim Care 26:611-31. 1999
    ....
  15. pmc Biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure
    N L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 107:349-55. 1999
    ..Supporting the validity of cotinine as a biomarker, cotinine levels have been positively correlated to the risks of some ETS-related health complications in children who are not cigarette smokers...
  16. ncbi Population pharmacokinetics of nicotine and its metabolites I. Model development
    Micha Levi
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn 34:5-21. 2007
    ..7-0.8). The correlation above support that idea that the 3HC:COT ratio can be used as a predictor of CYP2A6 activity and nicotine clearance. The model-based analysis extends and further justifies this conclusion...
  17. ncbi Effect of grapefruit juice on cytochrome P450 2A6 and nicotine renal clearance
    Janne Hukkanen
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, and Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143 1220, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 80:522-30. 2006
    ..Our objective was to study the effect of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of nicotine, which is primarily metabolized by the CYP2A6 enzyme...
  18. pmc Chinese "herbal" cigarettes are as carcinogenic and addictive as regular cigarettes
    Quan Gan
    Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California, San Francisco, 94143 1390, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18:3497-501. 2009
    ..To examine the Chinese tobacco industry's claim that herbal cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes...
  19. ncbi Enhanced stimulant and metabolic effects of combined ephedrine and caffeine
    Christine A Haller
    Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 75:259-73. 2004
    ..We sought to determine whether ephedrine and caffeine have clinically significant pharmacologic interactions that explain these toxicities...
  20. ncbi Prediction methods for nicotine clearance using cotinine and 3-hydroxy-cotinine spot saliva samples II. Model application
    Micha Levi
    Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn 34:23-34. 2007
    ..The fraction of estimates below an absolute error of 25% is 43%. These results support use of M2 to estimate CYP2A6 activity in smokers in the clinical setting...
  21. pmc Urine cotinine underestimates exposure to the tobacco-derived lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in passive compared with active smokers
    Neal Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19:2795-800. 2010
    ....
  22. ncbi Concentrations of ephedra alkaloids and caffeine in commercial dietary supplements
    Christine A Haller
    University of California, San Francisco, Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, San Francisco General Hospital, 1001 Potrero Avenue, Building 30, 3rd Floor, San Francisco, California 94110, USA
    J Anal Toxicol 28:145-51. 2004
    ..We conclude that product inconsistency is common among some commercially available dietary supplements that contain ephedra alkaloids and caffeine...
  23. ncbi Influence of menstrual cycle on cytochrome P450 2A6 activity and cardiovascular effects of nicotine
    Janne Hukkanen
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 77:159-69. 2005
    ..Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A6 is primarily responsible for the metabolism of nicotine. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of the phase of the menstrual cycle on the activity of CYP2A6 and the cardiovascular effects of nicotine...
  24. ncbi Pharmacology of ephedra alkaloids and caffeine after single-dose dietary supplement use
    Christine A Haller
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, 94143, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 71:421-32. 2002
    ..We assessed the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a dietary supplement that contains these herbal stimulants...
  25. ncbi Beliefs about health, smoking, and future smoking cessation among South Korean men hospitalized for cardiovascular disease
    Min Sohn
    Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    Heart Lung 36:339-47. 2007
    ..A particularly high rate of smoking among South Korean men corresponds to high rates of cardiovascular disease...
  26. ncbi Menthol cigarettes, smoking cessation, atherosclerosis, and pulmonary function: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study
    Mark J Pletcher
    Departments of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 185 Berry St, Lobby 4, Suite 5700, San Francisco, CA 94143 0560, USA
    Arch Intern Med 166:1915-22. 2006
    ..African American smokers are more likely to experience tobacco-related morbidity and mortality than European American smokers, and higher rates of menthol cigarette smoking may contribute to these disparities...
  27. ncbi Cardiovascular effects of nasal and transdermal nicotine and cigarette smoking
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, San Francisco, USA nbeno itsa ucsf edu
    Hypertension 39:1107-12. 2002
    ..We conclude that, at recommended doses, TDN and NNS have fewer effects on biomarkers of cardiovascular risk than does cigarette smoking...
  28. ncbi Metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine
    Janne Hukkanen
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco Genreral Hospital Medical Center, and the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, Box 1220, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Pharmacol Rev 57:79-115. 2005
    ..Due to the significance of the CYP2A6 enzyme in nicotine clearance, special emphasis is given to the effects and population distributions of CYP2A6 alleles and the regulation of CYP2A6 enzyme...
  29. ncbi Attitudes and practices of hookah smokers in the San Francisco Bay Area
    Bilaal Ahmed
    School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA
    J Psychoactive Drugs 43:146-52. 2011
    ..More definitive studies conveying the possible harm of hookah smoking are necessary to serve as a basis for health education programs and policy changes towards this potentially harmful activity...
  30. pmc Active and passive cigarette smoking and acute lung injury after severe blunt trauma
    Carolyn S Calfee
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0111, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 183:1660-5. 2011
    ..However, the association between active and passive cigarette smoke exposure and susceptibility to ALI has not been prospectively studied...
  31. ncbi Determination of phenolic metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human urine as their pentafluorobenzyl ether derivatives using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
    Peyton Jacob
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94110, USA
    Anal Chem 79:587-98. 2007
    ..01 to 0.5 ng/mL. Stable isotope-labeled internal standards were synthesized or obtained commercially. Data on urinary excretion of several PAH metabolites in urine of smokers and nonsmokers are presented...
  32. ncbi Cotinine levels in relation to smoking behavior and addiction in young adolescent smokers
    Mark L Rubinstein
    Division of Adolescent Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 9:129-35. 2007
    ..497, p = .001), NDSS (r = 0.439, p = .002), timing of craving in the morning (r = -0.601, p = .000), and self-rated addiction (r = 0.562, p = .000). Most interesting, cotinine levels reached a plateau at around 4-5 cigarettes/day...
  33. ncbi Nicotine intake and dose response when smoking reduced-nicotine content cigarettes
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143 1220, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 80:703-14. 2006
    ..As a first step in evaluating this strategy, we studied smokers smoking cigarettes containing tobacco with differing nicotine content...
  34. doi Neurobiology of nicotine addiction: implications for smoking cessation treatment
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, San Francisco, California, USA
    Am J Med 121:S3-10. 2008
    ..Further, given the important role of sensory effects of smoking and psychoactive effects of nicotine, counseling and behavioral therapies are important adjuncts to and substantially augment the benefits of pharmacotherapy...
  35. ncbi CYP2A6 genotype and the metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, and Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco 94143 1220, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 80:457-67. 2006
    ..Our objective was to determine the relationship between variant CYP2A6 genotypes and the disposition and metabolism of nicotine administered intravenously...
  36. ncbi Nicotine and carcinogen exposure with smoking of progressively reduced nicotine content cigarette
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:2479-85. 2007
    ..This study examined whether gradual reduction in nicotine exposure increases exposure to tobacco smoke toxins...
  37. pmc Longer term exposure to secondhand smoke and health outcomes in COPD: impact of urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol
    Mark D Eisner
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 350 Parnassus Avenue, Suite 609, San Francisco, CA 94117, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 11:945-53. 2009
    ..Secondhand smoke (SHS) contains respiratory irritants and has the potential to adversely affect adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but few studies have evaluated the impact of SHS on COPD...
  38. pmc A randomized trial of nicotine nasal spray in adolescent smokers
    Mark L Rubinstein
    University of California, Division of Adolescent Medicine, 3333 California St, Suite 245, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    Pediatrics 122:e595-600. 2008
    ..The nasal sprayer has not been studied in adolescent smokers. The objective of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility and utility of using nicotine nasal spray for adolescent smokers who wanted to quit smoking...
  39. pmc Progressive commercial cigarette yield reduction: biochemical exposure and behavioral assessment
    Neal L Benowitz
    Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, and Department of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18:876-83. 2009
    ..We examined the effects of gradual reduction of nicotine yield in commercial cigarettes on smoking behavior, with an assessment of nicotine intake and exposure to tobacco smoke toxins...
  40. pmc Withdrawal in adolescent light smokers following 24-hour abstinence
    Mark L Rubinstein
    Division of Adolescent Medicine, University of California San Francisco, 3333 California Street, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 11:185-9. 2009
    ..Withdrawal is one of the most important symptoms of nicotine addiction. We examined the extent to which adolescent light smokers experienced withdrawal symptoms when deprived of nicotine for a 24-hr period...
  41. pmc Prevalence of smoking assessed biochemically in an urban public hospital: a rationale for routine cotinine screening
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 170:885-91. 2009
    ....
  42. pmc Estimation of nicotine dose after low-level exposure using plasma and urine nicotine metabolites
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, and Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, Box 1220, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19:1160-6. 2010
    ..We sought to determine the optimal plasma and urine nicotine metabolites, alone or in combination, to estimate the systemic dose of nicotine after low-level exposure...
  43. doi Optimal serum cotinine levels for distinguishing cigarette smokers and nonsmokers within different racial/ethnic groups in the United States between 1999 and 2004
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 1220, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 169:236-48. 2009
    ..Use of the currently accepted cutpoint of 14 ng/mL overestimates the number of nonsmokers in comparison with the proposed new overall cutpoint of 3 ng/mL or the race/ethnicity-specific cutpoints of 1-6 ng/mL...
  44. pmc Subpicogram per milliliter determination of the tobacco-specific carcinogen metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol in human urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
    Peyton Jacob
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, UCSF Box 1220, San Francisco, California 94143 1220, USA
    Anal Chem 80:8115-21. 2008
    ..The lower limit of quantitation is 0.25 pg/mL for 5-mL urine specimens. Applications to studies of people with a range of different SHS exposure levels is described...
  45. pmc Urine menthol as a biomarker of mentholated cigarette smoking
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 1220, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19:3013-9. 2010
    ..We measured urine menthol concentrations in relation to biomarkers of exposure to nicotine and tobacco carcinogens...
  46. pmc Determination of the nicotine metabolites cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine in biologic fluids of smokers and non-smokers using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: biomarkers for tobacco smoke exposure and for phenotyping cytochrome P450 2
    Peyton Jacob
    Department of Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, 1001 Potrero Avenue, University of California, San Francisco, UCSF Box 1220, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 879:267-76. 2011
    ..Concentrations of both metabolites in urine of non-smokers with different levels of secondhand smoke exposure are presented...
  47. pmc Elimination kinetics of the tobacco-specific biomarker and lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol
    Maciej L Goniewicz
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18:3421-5. 2009
    ....
  48. pmc Pharmacology of nicotine: addiction, smoking-induced disease, and therapeutics
    Neal L Benowitz
    Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 1220, USA
    Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 49:57-71. 2009
    ..Pharmacotherapeutic approaches to tobacco addiction include nicotine replacement, bupropion, and varenicline, the latter a selective nicotine receptor partial agonist...
  49. pmc Comparison of urine cotinine and the tobacco-specific nitrosamine metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and their ratio to discriminate active from passive smoking
    Maciej Lukasz Goniewicz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of California, San Francisco, Box 1220, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 13:202-8. 2011
    ..The aim of the study was to determine optimal cutoff points to discriminate active versus passive smokers and to compare sensitivity and specificity for the use of cotinine, NNAL, and the ratio of the NNAL/cotinine in urine...
  50. pmc Rate of nicotine metabolism and withdrawal symptoms in adolescent light smokers
    Mark L Rubinstein
    University of California, Division of Adolescent Medicine, 3333 California St, Suite 245, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    Pediatrics 122:e643-7. 2008
    ..The objectives of this study were to examine the associations between the rate of nicotine metabolism and cigarette consumption, addiction, and withdrawal symptoms in a sample of adolescent light smokers...
  51. pmc Urine nicotine metabolite concentrations in relation to plasma cotinine during low-level nicotine exposure
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Department of Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, Box 1220, San Francisco, CA 94143 1220, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 11:954-60. 2009
    ....
  52. ncbi Female sex and oral contraceptive use accelerate nicotine metabolism
    Neal L Benowitz
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco 94143 1220, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 79:480-8. 2006
    ..This study tested the hypothesis that women metabolize nicotine more rapidly than men and that, among women, oral contraceptive users metabolize nicotine more rapidly than nonusers of oral contraceptives...
  53. ncbi Nicotine metabolite ratio as an index of cytochrome P450 2A6 metabolic activity
    Delia Dempsey
    Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, University of California, 94143 1220, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 76:64-72. 2004
    ..Our objective was to evaluate the use of oral nicotine with measurement of the trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3HC)/cotinine (COT) metabolite ratio as a noninvasive probe of CYP2A6 activity...
  54. ncbi Determination of ephedra alkaloid and caffeine concentrations in dietary supplements and biological fluids
    Peyton Jacob
    University of California, San Francisco, Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, San Francisco General Hospital, 1001 Potrero Avenue, Building 30, 3rd Floor, San Francisco, California 94110, USA
    J Anal Toxicol 28:152-9. 2004
    ..Using this method, low nanogram-per-milliliter concentrations of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, methylpseudoephedrine, and caffeine can be quantitated in a 12-min LC-MS-MS run...
  55. ncbi Anabasine and anatabine as biomarkers for tobacco use during nicotine replacement therapy
    Peyton Jacob
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94110, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11:1668-73. 2002
    ..Anabasine and anatabine concentrations in urine can be used to validate abstinence or measure the extent of tobacco use in persons undergoing nicotine replacement therapy...
  56. ncbi High rates of sustained smoking cessation in women hospitalized with cardiovascular disease: the Women's Initiative for Nonsmoking (WINS)
    Erika S Sivarajan Froelicher
    University of California at San Francisco, Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, San Francisco, CA 94143 0610, USA
    Circulation 109:587-93. 2004
    ..Although men hospitalized with cardiovascular disease (CVD) show high smoking-cessation rates, similar data for women are lacking. We tested the efficacy of smoking-cessation intervention in women hospitalized for CVD...
  57. pmc Directly measured secondhand smoke exposure and COPD health outcomes
    Mark D Eisner
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, UCSF Box 0924, San Francisco, CA 94113 0924, USA
    BMC Pulm Med 6:12. 2006
    ..Despite the importance of this question, the impact of SHS exposure on COPD health outcomes remains unknown...
  58. ncbi Modeling nicotine arterial-venous differences to predict arterial concentrations and input based on venous measurements: application to smokeless tobacco and nicotine gum
    Maria Pitsiu
    Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0446, USA
    J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn 29:383-402. 2002
    ..The use of disposition functions obtained from venous data may lead to erroneous estimation of the rates of entry into the circulation and systemic bioavailability for many drugs...
  59. pmc Human pharmacology of a performance-enhancing dietary supplement under resting and exercise conditions
    Christine A Haller
    Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 65:833-40. 2008
    ..The effect of exercise on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of stimulant herbals is unknown...
  60. ncbi Tobacco use and dependence
    Min Sohn
    Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, N631, 2 Koret Way, Box 0610, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0610, USA
    Semin Oncol Nurs 19:250-60. 2003
    ..To review tobacco use and dependence including nicotine pharmacology and addiction, and pharmacologic treatment...
  61. ncbi Short-term metabolic and hemodynamic effects of ephedra and guarana combinations
    Christine A Haller
    Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 77:560-71. 2005
    ..We sought to determine whether repeated dosing and multi-ingredient formulations contribute to the adverse effects of these supplements...
  62. ncbi Intraindividual variability of plasma antioxidants, markers of oxidative stress, C-reactive protein, cotinine, and other biomarkers
    Gladys Block
    School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Epidemiology 17:404-12. 2006
    ..Within-person variability in biomarkers results in random error that can attenuate estimates of association. Little information on such variability is available for a number of nutrition-related biomarkers...
  63. ncbi Hemodynamic effects of ephedra-free weight-loss supplements in humans
    Christine A Haller
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 94143, USA
    Am J Med 118:998-1003. 2005
    ..These supplements may have some of the health risks associated with ephedra, but studies in humans are lacking. Our aim was to characterize the pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects of C. aurantium dietary supplements...
  64. doi Efficacy and safety of varenicline for smoking cessation in patients with cardiovascular disease: a randomized trial
    Nancy A Rigotti
    General Medicine Division, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Tobacco Research and Treatment Center, Boston, Mass 02114, USA
    Circulation 121:221-9. 2010
    ..Varenicline, a partial alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, is effective for smoking cessation in healthy smokers, but its efficacy and safety in smokers with cardiovascular disease are unknown...
  65. ncbi Accelerated metabolism of nicotine and cotinine in pregnant smokers
    Delia Dempsey
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, California 94143 1220, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 301:594-8. 2002
    ..Lower cotinine levels observed during pregnancy do not necessarily reflect less smoke exposure, and cut-off levels used to classify nonsmokers, passive smokers, and active smokers need to be established for pregnancy...
  66. ncbi Women's Initiative for Nonsmoking (WINS V): under-use of nicotine replacement therapy
    Romy Mahrer-Imhof
    Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Heart Lung 31:368-73. 2002
    ..The purpose of this study was to assess the use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in a nurse-managed smoking cessation program...
  67. ncbi Vagal modulation of spinal nicotine-induced inhibition of the inflammatory response mediated by descending antinociceptive controls
    Frederick Jia Pei Miao
    NIH Pain Center UCSF, University of California at San Francisco, Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, San Francisco, CA 94143 0440, USA
    Neuropharmacology 45:605-11. 2003
    ....
  68. pmc A genome-wide screen for nicotine dependence susceptibility loci
    Gary E Swan
    Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, California, USA
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 141:354-60. 2006
    ..Several of the corresponding support intervals were near putative loci reported previously (on chromosomes 6, 7, and 8) while others appear to be novel (on chromosomes 5, 16, and 19)...
  69. pmc Nicotine metabolism in pregnant and nonpregnant rabbits
    Piotr Tutka
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, 1550 4th Street, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 10:1385-90. 2008
    ..However, a molecular understanding of these effects is essential for prediction of the pharmacological and toxicological consequences of smoking during pregnancy...
  70. ncbi Support for previously identified alcoholism susceptibility Loci in a cohort selected for smoking behavior
    Kirk C Wilhelmsen
    Department of Neurology, Gallo Institute, Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, California, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 29:2108-15. 2005
    ..In this paper we use, for the first time, linkage analysis to search for alcoholism-related phenotypes in a family sample selected for smoking behavior...
  71. ncbi Influence of arterial vs. venous sampling site on nicotine tolerance model selection and parameter estimation
    Franziska Schaedeli
    Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of California at San Francisco, USA
    J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn 29:49-66. 2002
    ....
  72. ncbi Short-term effects of cannabinoids in patients with HIV-1 infection: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial
    Donald I Abrams
    University of California, San Francisco, and Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, San Francisco, California 94110, USA
    Ann Intern Med 139:258-66. 2003
    ..Cannabinoid use could potentially alter HIV RNA levels by two mechanisms: immune modulation or cannabinoid-protease inhibitor interactions (because both share cytochrome P-450 metabolic pathways)...
  73. ncbi The effects of cannabinoids on the pharmacokinetics of indinavir and nelfinavir
    Bradley W Kosel
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    AIDS 16:543-50. 2002
    ..We present pharmacokinetic data from a randomized placebo-controlled study designed to evaluate the metabolic effects of smoked marijuana and dronabinol in HIV-infected patients receiving indinavir (IDV) or nelfinavir (NFV)...
  74. ncbi Determinants of salivary cotinine levels among current smokers in Mexico
    Julio C Campuzano
    Centro de Investigacion en Salud Poblacional, Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico
    Nicotine Tob Res 6:997-1008. 2004
    ....
  75. ncbi Smoking habits, nicotine use, and congenital malformations
    Jacques le Houezec
    Obstet Gynecol 107:1166; author reply 1168. 2006
  76. ncbi Influence of menthol on caffeine disposition and pharmacodynamics in healthy female volunteers
    Ayse Gelal
    Associated Professor in Pharmacology, Dokuz Eylul University Medical Faculty, Department of Pharmacology, Inciralti, 35340 Izmir, Turkey
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 59:417-22. 2003
    ..The present study was undertaken to determine whether a single oral dose of menthol affects the metabolism of caffeine, a cytochrome P(450) 1A2 (CYP1A2) substrate, and pharmacological responses to caffeine in people...
  77. ncbi Does menthol enhance the addictiveness of cigarettes? An agenda for research
    Jack E Henningfield
    Department of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 5:9-11. 2003
  78. ncbi Determinants of salivary cotinine concentrations in Chinese male smokers
    Maritta S Jaakkola
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberry School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Prev Med 36:282-90. 2003
    ..Our aims were to characterize the distribution of salivary cotinine levels in Chinese smokers and to investigate factors that influence cotinine concentrations...
  79. ncbi Basic cardiovascular research and its implications for the medicinal use of nicotine
    Neal L Benowitz
    J Am Coll Cardiol 41:497-8. 2003
  80. ncbi Cotinine concentration in smokers from different countries: relationship with amount smoked and cigarette type
    Amanda L Blackford
    Division of Biostatistics, Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15:1799-804. 2006
    ..Results suggest a saturation point for daily nicotine intake and minimal or no reduction in nicotine intake by smoking light cigarettes...
  81. ncbi Higher nicotine and carbon monoxide levels in menthol cigarette smokers with and without schizophrenia
    Jill M Williams
    UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and UMDNJ School of Public Health Tobacco Dependence Program, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 9:873-81. 2007
    ..Menthol is an important cigarette additive that may help explain why some groups have lower quit rates and more smoking-caused disease...
  82. pmc Gamma-hydroxybutyrate and ethanol effects and interactions in humans
    Dung Thai
    Amgen Corporation, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 26:524-9. 2006
    ..Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a common drug of abuse that can produce serious toxicity, particularly when used with other sedatives. We examined the individual and combined effects of GHB and ethanol in human volunteers...
  83. ncbi Biomarkers to assess the utility of potential reduced exposure tobacco products
    Dorothy K Hatsukami
    University of Minnesota Cancer Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 8:600-22. 2006
    ..Other promising biomarkers were discussed. No existing biomarkers have been demonstrated to be predictive of tobacco-related disease, which highlights the importance and urgency of conducting research in this area...
  84. ncbi Within-subject variation of the salivary 3HC/COT ratio in regular daily smokers: prospects for estimating CYP2A6 enzyme activity in large-scale surveys of nicotine metabolic rate
    Rod A Lea
    The Institute of Environmental Science and Research, Wellington, New Zealand
    J Anal Toxicol 30:386-9. 2006
    ..These findings should be useful for designing large-scale population surveys to assess the variation in the metabolic rate of nicotine (via CYP2A6) in smokers...
  85. ncbi Biomarkers to assess the utility of potential reduced exposure tobacco products
    Dorothy K Hatsukami
    Tobacco Use Research Center, University of Minnesota Cancer Center, Minneapolis, MN 55414, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 8:169-91. 2006
    ..Other promising biomarkers were discussed. No existing biomarkers have been demonstrated to be predictive of tobacco-related disease, which highlights the importance and urgency of conducting research in this area...
  86. ncbi Characterization of the novel CYP2A6*21 allele using in vivo nicotine kinetics
    Nael Al Koudsi
    Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, and Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 62:481-4. 2006
    ..The impact of CYP2A6*21 (K476R) on in vivo nicotine metabolism and disposition was investigated...
  87. ncbi Urine nicotine metabolites and smoking behavior in a multiracial/multiethnic national sample of young adults
    Denise B Kandel
    Department of Sociomedical Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 165:901-10. 2007
    ..The availability of a noninvasive measure makes possible systematic testing of causal hypotheses generated by laboratory studies in the general population...
  88. ncbi Smoking cessation trials targeted to racial and economic minority groups
    Neal L Benowitz
    JAMA 288:497-9. 2002
  89. ncbi Nicotine, cotinine, withdrawal, and craving patterns during smoking and nicotine nasal spray use: results from a pilot study with African American men
    Patricia L Mabry
    SAIC Frederick, Inc, support to Tobacco Control Research Branch TCRB, Behavioral Research Program BRP, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences DCCPS, National Cancer Institute Bethesda, MD
    Nicotine Tob Res 9:65-82. 2007
    ..When predicting nicotine, cotinine, withdrawal, and cravings, we observed significant interactions between route of nicotine intake and a variety of independent variables...
  90. ncbi Gene-gene interactions between CYP2B6 and CYP2A6 in nicotine metabolism
    Huijun Z Ring
    Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, USA
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 17:1007-15. 2007
    ..We investigated the influence of genetic variation in another potential nicotine-metabolizing enzyme, CYP2B6, and its interaction with CYP2A6, on the metabolism of nicotine...
  91. ncbi Effect of menthol on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of felodipine in healthy subjects
    Ayse Gelal
    Department of Pharmacology, Dokuz Eylul University Medical Faculty, Inciralti, 35340, Izmir, Turkey
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 60:785-90. 2005
    ..The present study was undertaken to determine whether menthol affects the metabolism of and pharmacological responses to the calcium channel antagonist felodipine in people...
  92. ncbi Cytisine for smoking cessation: a research agenda
    Jean Francois Etter
    Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Geneva, CMU, Case Postale, CH 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Drug Alcohol Depend 92:3-8. 2008
    ..Potentially, this research effort, contributing to wider use of an inexpensive drug, could save many lives...
  93. pmc Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta2 subunit gene implicated in a systems-based candidate gene study of smoking cessation
    David V Conti
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, Zilkha Neurogenetics Institute, University of Southern California, 1501 San Pablo Street, ZNI 445, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 17:2834-48. 2008
    ..0002) and an impact on withdrawal symptoms at target quit date (TQD) (P = 0.0009). Overall, while our results indicate strong evidence for CHRNB2 in ability to quit smoking, these results require replication in an independent sample...
  94. ncbi CHRNA4 and tobacco dependence: from gene regulation to treatment outcome
    Kent E Hutchison
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:1078-86. 2007
    ..Given the probable importance of the alpha4 subunit of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, the gene that codes for this subunit (CHRNA4) represents an excellent starting point for a genetic investigation of smoking behavior...
  95. doi Nicotine and postoperative management of pain
    Neal L Benowitz
    Anesth Analg 107:739-41. 2008
  96. ncbi Pharmacogenetics of nicotine metabolism in twins: methods and procedures
    Gary E Swan
    Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA
    Twin Res 7:435-48. 2004
    ....
  97. ncbi Relationship of human toenail nicotine, cotinine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol to levels of these biomarkers in plasma and urine
    Irina Stepanov
    The Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:1382-6. 2007
    ..53; P = 0.005). The results of this study provide essential validation data for the use of toenail biomarkers in investigations of the role of chronic tobacco smoke exposure in human cancer...
  98. ncbi Genetic and environmental sources of variation in heart rate response to infused nicotine in twins
    Gary E Swan
    Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:1057-64. 2007
    ..The contribution from genetic sources to heart rate response characteristics should be investigated further as a potential endophenotype for use in genetic studies of nicotine dependence...
  99. ncbi Nicotine metabolism: the impact of CYP2A6 on estimates of additive genetic influence
    Gary E Swan
    Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 15:115-25. 2005
    ..These results suggest the involvement of additional genetic factors (e.g. uncharacterized or novel CYP2A6 alleles as well as other genes in the metabolic pathway) that remain to be identified...
  100. ncbi Reducing tobacco harm: research challenges and issues
    Dorothy K Hatsukami
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55414, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 4:S89-101. 2002
    ....