Ralph Baric


Affiliation: University of North Carolina
Country: USA


  1. Sui J, Deming M, Rockx B, Liddington R, Zhu Q, Baric R, et al. Effects of human anti-spike protein receptor binding domain antibodies on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus neutralization escape and fitness. J Virol. 2014;88:13769-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that targeting conserved regions with less plasticity and more structural constraint rather than the SARS-CoV RBD-like region(s) should have broader utility for antibody-based immunotherapy. ..
  2. Agostini M, Andres E, Sims A, Graham R, Sheahan T, Lu X, et al. Coronavirus Susceptibility to the Antiviral Remdesivir (GS-5734) Is Mediated by the Viral Polymerase and the Proofreading Exoribonuclease. MBio. 2018;9: pubmed publisher
  3. Peck K, Scobey T, Swanstrom J, Jensen K, Burch C, Baric R, et al. Permissivity of Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Orthologs to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Is Governed by Glycosylation and Other Complex Determinants. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the virus-receptor interactions for these DPP4 orthologs will help in the development of additional animal models while also revealing species-specific differences impacting MERS-CoV host range. ..
  4. Mallory M, Lindesmith L, Graham R, Baric R. GII.4 Human Norovirus: Surveying the Antigenic Landscape. Viruses. 2019;11: pubmed publisher
    ..4 viruses. These data may provide a road map for the design of candidate vaccine immunogens that induce cross-protective immunity and the development of therapeutic antibodies and drugs. ..
  5. van Doremalen N, Schäfer A, Menachery V, Letko M, Bushmaker T, Fischer R, et al. SARS-Like Coronavirus WIV1-CoV Does Not Replicate in Egyptian Fruit Bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus). Viruses. 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..Two out of twelve bats showed a modest increase in coronavirus specific antibodies post challenge. In conclusion, WIV1-CoV was unable to cause a robust infection in Rousettus aegyptiacus bats. ..
  6. request reprint
    Baric R, Sims A. Development of mouse hepatitis virus and SARS-CoV infectious cDNA constructs. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2005;287:229-52 pubmed
    ..The availability of coronavirus infectious cDNAs heralds a new era in coronavirus genetics and genomic applications, especially within the replicase proteins whose functions in replication and pathogenesis are virtually unknown. ..
  7. Curtis K, Yount B, Sims A, Baric R. Reverse genetic analysis of the transcription regulatory sequence of the coronavirus transmissible gastroenteritis virus. J Virol. 2004;78:6061-6 pubmed
  8. Gallichotte E, Baric T, Nivarthi U, Delacruz M, GRAHAM R, Widman D, et al. Genetic Variation between Dengue Virus Type 4 Strains Impacts Human Antibody Binding and Neutralization. Cell Rep. 2018;25:1214-1224 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support the monitoring of changing or emerging DENV genotypes and their role in escaping pre-existing neutralizing antibodies in people who have been vaccinated or exposed to natural DENV4 infections. ..
  9. Lindesmith L, Brewer Jensen P, Mallory M, Yount B, Collins M, Debbink K, et al. Human Norovirus Epitope D Plasticity Allows Escape from Antibody Immunity without Loss of Capacity for Binding Cellular Ligands. J Virol. 2019;93: pubmed publisher
    ..This flexibility in epitope D likely contributes to GII.4 strain persistence by both allowing escape from antibody-mediated herd immunity and maintenance of cellular ligand binding and infectivity. ..

More Information


  1. Gralinski L, Sheahan T, Morrison T, Menachery V, Jensen K, Leist S, et al. Complement Activation Contributes to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Pathogenesis. MBio. 2018;9: pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that inhibition of complement signaling might be an effective treatment option following coronavirus infection. ..
  2. Kocher J, Lindesmith L, Debbink K, Beall A, Mallory M, Yount B, et al. Bat Caliciviruses and Human Noroviruses Are Antigenically Similar and Have Overlapping Histo-Blood Group Antigen Binding Profiles. MBio. 2018;9: pubmed publisher
  3. Cockrell A, Johnson J, Moore I, Liu D, Bock K, Douglas M, et al. A spike-modified Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infectious clone elicits mild respiratory disease in infected rhesus macaques. Sci Rep. 2018;8:10727 pubmed publisher
    ..Although pulmonary disease was mild, these results demonstrate for the first time the utility of CT imaging to measure disease elicited by a MERS-CoV infectious clone system in nonhuman primate models. ..
  4. Cockrell A, Leist S, Douglas M, Baric R. Modeling pathogenesis of emergent and pre-emergent human coronaviruses in mice. Mamm Genome. 2018;29:367-383 pubmed publisher
  5. Menachery V, Gralinski L, Mitchell H, Dinnon K, Leist S, Yount B, et al. Combination Attenuation Offers Strategy for Live Attenuated Coronavirus Vaccines. J Virol. 2018;92: pubmed publisher
    ..Coupled with increased safety and reduced pathogenesis, the study highlights the potential for 2'O methyltransferase attenuation as a major component of future live attenuated coronavirus vaccines. ..
  6. Shin J, Jung E, Kim M, Baric R, Go Y. Saracatinib Inhibits Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus Replication In Vitro. Viruses. 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that saracatinib alone or in combination with gemcitabine can provide a new therapeutic option for the treatment of MERS-CoV infection. ..
  7. Menachery V, Eisfeld A, Schäfer A, Josset L, Sims A, Proll S, et al. Pathogenic influenza viruses and coronaviruses utilize similar and contrasting approaches to control interferon-stimulated gene responses. MBio. 2014;5:e01174-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the data highlight how comparative systems biology analysis can be combined with experimental validation to derive novel insights into viral pathogenesis. ..
  8. Agnihothram S, Menachery V, Yount B, Lindesmith L, Scobey T, Whitmore A, et al. Development of a Broadly Accessible Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Replicon Particle Vaccine Platform. J Virol. 2018;92: pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the new system represents a highly portable, safe system for use in the context of disease emergence. ..
  9. Menachery V, Graham R, Baric R. Jumping species-a mechanism for coronavirus persistence and survival. Curr Opin Virol. 2017;23:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we explore the host and viral dynamics that shape these CoV populations for survival, amplification, and possible emergence in novel hosts. ..
  10. Cockrell A, Beall A, Yount B, Baric R. Efficient Reverse Genetic Systems for Rapid Genetic Manipulation of Emergent and Preemergent Infectious Coronaviruses. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1602:59-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Using this method, recombinant CoVs can be rapidly generated and used to investigate host range, gene function, pathogenesis, and candidate therapeutics for emerging and preemergent CoVs both in vitro and in vivo. ..
  11. Swanstrom J, Plante J, Plante K, Young E, McGowan E, Gallichotte E, et al. Dengue Virus Envelope Dimer Epitope Monoclonal Antibodies Isolated from Dengue Patients Are Protective against Zika Virus. MBio. 2016;7: pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the identification of a functionally conserved epitope between ZIKV and DENV raises the possibility that a vaccine may be able to elicit neutralizing antibodies against both viruses. ..
  12. Selinger C, Tisoncik Go J, Menachery V, Agnihothram S, Law G, Chang J, et al. Cytokine systems approach demonstrates differences in innate and pro-inflammatory host responses between genetically distinct MERS-CoV isolates. BMC Genomics. 2014;15:1161 pubmed publisher
  13. Widman D, Young E, Yount B, Plante K, Gallichotte E, Carbaugh D, et al. A Reverse Genetics Platform That Spans the Zika Virus Family Tree. MBio. 2017;8: pubmed publisher
    ..Recombinant viruses replicated efficiently in cell culture and were pathogenic in immunodeficient mice, providing a genetic platform for rational vaccine and therapeutic design. ..
  14. Schäfer A, Baric R. Epigenetic Landscape during Coronavirus Infection. Pathogens. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
  15. Menachery V, Yount B, Sims A, Debbink K, Agnihothram S, Gralinski L, et al. SARS-like WIV1-CoV poised for human emergence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:3048-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the data highlight the utility of a platform to identify and prioritize prepandemic strains harbored in animal reservoirs and document the threat posed by WIV1-CoV for emergence in human populations. ..
  16. Beall A, Yount B, Lin C, Hou Y, Wang Q, Saif L, et al. Characterization of a Pathogenic Full-Length cDNA Clone and Transmission Model for Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strain PC22A. MBio. 2016;7:e01451-15 pubmed publisher
    ..S. strain PC22A both in vitro and in piglets. This infectious clone can be used both to study the genetics, virulence, and transmission of PEDV coronavirus and to inform the creation of a live attenuated PEDV vaccine. ..
  17. Widman D, Young E, Nivarthi U, Swanstrom J, Royal S, Yount B, et al. Transplantation of a quaternary structure neutralizing antibody epitope from dengue virus serotype 3 into serotype 4. Sci Rep. 2017;7:17169 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the hinge-spanning region of the 5J7 quaternary epitope is a target for serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies after DENV3 infection. ..
  18. Menachery V, Mitchell H, Cockrell A, Gralinski L, Yount B, Graham R, et al. MERS-CoV Accessory ORFs Play Key Role for Infection and Pathogenesis. MBio. 2017;8: pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, disruption of accessory ORFs in parallel may offer a rapid response platform to attenuation of future emergent strains based on both SARS- and MERS-CoV accessory ORF mutants. ..
  19. Rockx B, Donaldson E, Frieman M, Sheahan T, Corti D, Lanzavecchia A, et al. Escape from human monoclonal antibody neutralization affects in vitro and in vivo fitness of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:946-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously characterized a panel of neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), but the majority of epitopes recognized by the MAbs remain unknown...
  20. Gralinski L, Menachery V, Morgan A, Totura A, Beall A, Kocher J, et al. Allelic Variation in the Toll-Like Receptor Adaptor Protein Ticam2 Contributes to SARS-Coronavirus Pathogenesis in Mice. G3 (Bethesda). 2017;7:1653-1663 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate a critical role for Ticam2 in SARS-CoV disease, and highlight the importance of host genetic variation in disease responses. ..
  21. Totura A, Whitmore A, Agnihothram S, Schäfer A, Katze M, Heise M, et al. Toll-Like Receptor 3 Signaling via TRIF Contributes to a Protective Innate Immune Response to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection. MBio. 2015;6:e00638-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These data should inform the design and use of TLR agonists and antagonists in coronavirus-specific vaccine and antiviral strategies. ..