MICHAEL BARDO

Summary

Affiliation: University of Kentucky
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Individual differences and social influences on the neurobehavioral pharmacology of abused drugs
    M T Bardo
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, BBSRB Room 447, 741 S Limestone, Lexington, KY 40536 0509, USA
    Pharmacol Rev 65:255-90. 2013
  2. ncbi request reprint Effects of beta-funaltrexamine and naloxonazine on single-trial morphine-conditioned place preference and locomotor activity
    M T Bardo
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 74:617-22. 2003
  3. ncbi request reprint On the nature of the intra-administration unconditioned stimulus: comment on McDonald and Siegel (2004)
    Michael T Bardo
    University of Kentucky, Department of Psychology, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 12:12-4; discussion 23-6. 2004
  4. ncbi request reprint High-risk behavior during adolescence: comments on part I
    Michael T Bardo
    Department of Psychology and Center for Drug Abuse Research Translation CDART, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1021:59-60. 2004
  5. ncbi request reprint Effect of amphetamine on response inhibition in rats showing high or low response to novelty
    M T Bardo
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 85:98-104. 2006
  6. ncbi request reprint The effects of a novel nicotinic receptor antagonist N,N-dodecane-1,12-diyl-bis-3-picolinium dibromide (bPiDDB) on acute and repeated nicotine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in rat nucleus accumbens
    Shafiqur Rahman
    Center for Drug Abuse Research Translation, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
    Neuropharmacology 52:755-63. 2007
  7. pmc Methylphenidate enhances the abuse-related behavioral effects of nicotine in rats: intravenous self-administration, drug discrimination, and locomotor cross-sensitization
    Thomas E Wooters
    Department of Psychology, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0509, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 33:1137-48. 2008
  8. ncbi request reprint Novelty seeking and drug use: contribution of an animal model
    Mary E Cain
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, 66506, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 13:367-75. 2005
  9. ncbi request reprint Tolerance does not develop to the decrease in nicotine self-administration produced by repeated bupropion administration
    Anthony S Rauhut
    Department of Psychology, Dickinson College, Carlisle, PA 17013, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 7:901-7. 2005
  10. ncbi request reprint Environmental enrichment enhances sensitization to GBR 12935-induced activity and decreases dopamine transporter function in the medial prefrontal cortex
    Jun Zhu
    College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Behav Brain Res 148:107-17. 2004

Research Grants

  1. NOVELTY, DOPAMINE AND RESPONSE TO AMPHETAMINE
    MICHAEL BARDO; Fiscal Year: 2009
  2. NOVELTY, DOPAMINE AND RESPONSE TO AMPHETAMINE
    MICHAEL BARDO; Fiscal Year: 2007
  3. Nornicotine as a Treatment for Nicotine Addiction
    MICHAEL BARDO; Fiscal Year: 2006
  4. NOVELTY, DOPAMINE AND RESPONSE TO AMPHETAMINE
    MICHAEL BARDO; Fiscal Year: 2002
  5. NOVELTY, DOPAMINE AND RESPONSE TO AMPHETAMINE
    Michael T Bardo; Fiscal Year: 2010

Detail Information

Publications51

  1. pmc Individual differences and social influences on the neurobehavioral pharmacology of abused drugs
    M T Bardo
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, BBSRB Room 447, 741 S Limestone, Lexington, KY 40536 0509, USA
    Pharmacol Rev 65:255-90. 2013
    ..Finally, some speculation is offered about the implications of this research for the prevention and treatment of substance abuse...
  2. ncbi request reprint Effects of beta-funaltrexamine and naloxonazine on single-trial morphine-conditioned place preference and locomotor activity
    M T Bardo
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 74:617-22. 2003
    ..These results indicate that mu-opioid receptors are more critically involved in acute morphine-induced hypoactivity than in acute morphine reward...
  3. ncbi request reprint On the nature of the intra-administration unconditioned stimulus: comment on McDonald and Siegel (2004)
    Michael T Bardo
    University of Kentucky, Department of Psychology, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 12:12-4; discussion 23-6. 2004
    ....
  4. ncbi request reprint High-risk behavior during adolescence: comments on part I
    Michael T Bardo
    Department of Psychology and Center for Drug Abuse Research Translation CDART, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1021:59-60. 2004
    ....
  5. ncbi request reprint Effect of amphetamine on response inhibition in rats showing high or low response to novelty
    M T Bardo
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 85:98-104. 2006
    ....
  6. ncbi request reprint The effects of a novel nicotinic receptor antagonist N,N-dodecane-1,12-diyl-bis-3-picolinium dibromide (bPiDDB) on acute and repeated nicotine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in rat nucleus accumbens
    Shafiqur Rahman
    Center for Drug Abuse Research Translation, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
    Neuropharmacology 52:755-63. 2007
    ....
  7. pmc Methylphenidate enhances the abuse-related behavioral effects of nicotine in rats: intravenous self-administration, drug discrimination, and locomotor cross-sensitization
    Thomas E Wooters
    Department of Psychology, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0509, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 33:1137-48. 2008
    ..Taken together with recent clinical findings, these results suggest that methylphenidate may enhance the abuse-related behavioral effects of nicotine, perhaps increasing vulnerability to tobacco dependence...
  8. ncbi request reprint Novelty seeking and drug use: contribution of an animal model
    Mary E Cain
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, 66506, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 13:367-75. 2005
    ..These results indicate that, similar to evidence in humans, individual differences in novelty seeking may be able to predict drug use in rats...
  9. ncbi request reprint Tolerance does not develop to the decrease in nicotine self-administration produced by repeated bupropion administration
    Anthony S Rauhut
    Department of Psychology, Dickinson College, Carlisle, PA 17013, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 7:901-7. 2005
    ..These results indicate that the rat nicotine self-administration paradigm is a useful animal model for assessing smoking cessation pharmacotherapies...
  10. ncbi request reprint Environmental enrichment enhances sensitization to GBR 12935-induced activity and decreases dopamine transporter function in the medial prefrontal cortex
    Jun Zhu
    College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Behav Brain Res 148:107-17. 2004
    ..These results suggest that EC-induced changes in activity may be due to decreased DAT function and decreased DA metabolism in the mPFC...
  11. pmc Lobelane decreases methamphetamine self-administration in rats
    Nichole M Neugebauer
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 571:33-8. 2007
    ....
  12. pmc Nicotine and cocaine self-administration using a multiple schedule of intravenous drug and sucrose reinforcement in rats
    Dustin J Stairs
    Department of Psychology, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska 68178 0321, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 21:182-93. 2010
    ..These results indicate that i.v. nicotine maintains responding under a multiple schedule. This procedure may be useful when studying the specificity of drug pretreatments on nicotine self-administration...
  13. ncbi request reprint Individual differences in response to novelty predict prefrontal cortex dopamine transporter function and cell surface expression
    Jun Zhu
    College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, 725 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536 0082, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 26:717-28. 2007
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Monoamine-depleting doses of methamphetamine in enriched and isolated rats: consequences for subsequent methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity and reward
    Brenda J Gehrke
    Departments of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536 0509, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 17:499-508. 2006
    ..Thus, environmental enrichment may exacerbate the behavioral consequences of monoamine-depleting doses of methamphetamine...
  15. pmc The novel nicotinic receptor antagonist N,N'-dodecane-1,12-diyl-bis-3-picolinium dibromide decreases nicotine-induced dopamine metabolism in rat nucleus accumbens
    Shafiqur Rahman
    Center for Drug Abuse Research Translation, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 601:103-5. 2008
    ..These results indicate that bPiDDB inhibits the nicotine-induced increase in DOPAC in reward-relevant brain region targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors...
  16. pmc Individual differences in amphetamine self-administration: the role of the central nucleus of the amygdala
    Mary E Cain
    Department of Psychology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 5302, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 33:1149-61. 2008
    ..These results suggest that the ACe contributes to the elevated rate of amphetamine self-administration in HR rats...
  17. ncbi request reprint Effect of bupropion on nicotine self-administration in rats
    Anthony S Rauhut
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 169:1-9. 2003
    ..To determine the specificity of bupropion-induced changes in nicotine self-administration, the ability of bupropion to alter sucrose-maintained responding or amphetamine self-administration was determined...
  18. pmc Extended access to amphetamine self-administration increases impulsive choice in a delay discounting task in rats
    Cassandra D Gipson
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0509, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 207:391-400. 2009
    ..d-Amphetamine (AMPH) is a widely prescribed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medication, but little is known about its effects on impulsive choice with escalated use...
  19. ncbi request reprint Reboxetine: attenuation of intravenous nicotine self-administration in rats
    Anthony S Rauhut
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0082, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 303:664-72. 2002
    ..The reboxetine-induced decrease in nicotine self-administration and sucrose-maintained responding may be the result of inhibition of norepinephrine transporters and/or neuronal nicotinic receptor function...
  20. pmc Repeated nicotine administration robustly increases bPiDDB inhibitory potency at alpha6beta2-containing nicotinic receptors mediating nicotine-evoked dopamine release
    Andrew M Smith
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Biochem Pharmacol 80:402-9. 2010
    ..Therefore, bPiDDB and r-bPiDDB appear to target different alpha6beta2-containing nAChR subtypes...
  21. pmc Nicotinic receptors differentially modulate the induction and expression of behavioral sensitization to methylphenidate in rats
    Thomas E Wooters
    Department of Psychology, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0509, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 204:551-62. 2009
    ..Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) regulate sensitization to stimulant drugs such as d-amphetamine and cocaine...
  22. pmc Novelty seeking, incentive salience and acquisition of cocaine self-administration in the rat
    Joshua S Beckmann
    University of Kentucky, Department of Psychology, 741 S Limestone, BBSRB, Room 447, Lexington, KY 40536 0509, United States
    Behav Brain Res 216:159-65. 2011
    ..The results suggest that novelty-seeking behavior may be a mediator of incentive salience attribution and that incentive salience magnitude may be an indicator of drug reward...
  23. ncbi request reprint The monoamine oxidase inhibitor phenelzine enhances the discriminative stimulus effect of nicotine in rats
    Thomas E Wooters
    Department of Psychology, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536 0509, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 18:601-8. 2007
    ..056 mg/kg) and prolonged the time course effect of the nicotine-training dose. These findings indicate that concomitant inhibition of MAOA and MAOB can enhance the discriminative stimulus effect of nicotine in rats...
  24. pmc N,N'-Alkane-diyl-bis-3-picoliniums as nicotinic receptor antagonists: inhibition of nicotine-evoked dopamine release and hyperactivity
    Linda P Dwoskin
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0082, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 326:563-76. 2008
    ..Further development of nAChR antagonists that inhibit nicotine-evoked DA release and penetrate brain to antagonize DA-mediated locomotor stimulant effects of nicotine as novel treatments for nicotine addiction is warranted...
  25. pmc Differences in impulsivity on a delay-discounting task predict self-administration of a low unit dose of methylphenidate in rats
    Julie A Marusich
    Center for Drug Abuse Research Translation CDART, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 20:447-54. 2009
    ..1 mg/kg/infusion), though not at higher doses, indicating that individual differences in impulsive choice influence the dose-dependent reinforcing effects of MPH...
  26. pmc Renewal of sucrose-seeking behavior in rats: Role of D(2) dopamine receptors
    Anthony S Rauhut
    Department of Psychology, James Hall, Dickinson College, Carlisle, PA 17013, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 96:354-62. 2010
    ..Eticlopride dose-dependently blocked renewal of sucrose-seeking behavior without suppressing locomotor activity, implicating a role of D(2) dopamine receptors in mediating renewal of sucrose-seeking behavior...
  27. pmc Methylphenidate as a reinforcer for rats: contingent delivery and intake escalation
    Julie A Marusich
    Center for Drug Abuse Research Translation, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40636, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 18:257-66. 2010
    ....
  28. pmc Neuropharmacology of the interoceptive stimulus properties of nicotine
    Thomas E Wooters
    Department of Psychology, BBSRB, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0509, USA
    Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2:243-55. 2009
    ....
  29. ncbi request reprint Effects of opioid antagonists on unconditioned and conditioned hyperactivity to morphine
    Anthony S Rauhut
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506 0044, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 73:611-22. 2002
    ..Collectively results suggest that the unconditioned and conditioned hyperactive responses to morphine are mediated by different receptor systems and that activation of multiple opioid-receptor subtypes mediate expression of CH...
  30. doi request reprint Nicotinic receptor-based therapeutics and candidates for smoking cessation
    Linda P Dwoskin
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Biochem Pharmacol 78:732-43. 2009
    ..This review summarizes the currently available smoking cessation therapies and discusses emerging potential therapeutic approaches employing pharmacological agents which act as antagonists at nicotinic receptors...
  31. pmc Performance and subjective effects of diazepam and d-amphetamine in high and low sensation seekers
    Thomas H Kelly
    Department of Behavioral Science, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 20:505-17. 2009
    ..Adolescents who report high levels of sensation seeking on a consistent basis are more sensitive to pharmacological effects of stimulant and sedative drugs that are associated with abuse potential as young adults...
  32. ncbi request reprint Ethanol and nicotine: a pharmacologic balancing act?
    Mark A Prendergast
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506 0044, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 26:1917-8. 2002
  33. ncbi request reprint Lobeline attenuates locomotor stimulation induced by repeated nicotine administration in rats
    Dennis K Miller
    College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536 0082, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 74:279-86. 2003
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint Lobeline does not serve as a reinforcer in rats
    Steven B Harrod
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, 115 Kastle Hall, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 165:397-404. 2003
    ..Previous results demonstrated that pretreatment with lobeline attenuates d-methamphetamine self-administration in rats...
  35. ncbi request reprint Effects of environmental enrichment on extinction and reinstatement of amphetamine self-administration and sucrose-maintained responding
    Dustin J Stairs
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536 0509, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 17:597-604. 2006
    ..Environmental enrichment also raised the reinstatement threshold specific to the amphetamine prime, suggesting a reduction in the incentive motivational effect of amphetamine...
  36. pmc Discovery of a novel nicotinic receptor antagonist for the treatment of nicotine addiction: 1-(3-Picolinium)-12-triethylammonium-dodecane dibromide (TMPD)
    Linda P Dwoskin
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0082, USA
    Biochem Pharmacol 74:1271-82. 2007
    ....
  37. ncbi request reprint Review of the pharmacology and clinical profile of bupropion, an antidepressant and tobacco use cessation agent
    Linda P Dwoskin
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0082, USA
    CNS Drug Rev 12:178-207. 2006
    ..Extensive hepatic metabolism of bupropion produces three pharmacologically active metabolites, which may contribute to its clinical profile...
  38. ncbi request reprint On the nature of the conditioned stimulus: comment on Leri and Stewart (2002)
    Michael T Bardo
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506 0044, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 10:353-5; discussion 364-6. 2002
    ....
  39. pmc meso-Transdiene analogs inhibit vesicular monoamine transporter-2 function and methamphetamine-evoked dopamine release
    David B Horton
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0082, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 336:940-51. 2011
    ....
  40. pmc Environmental enrichment increases amphetamine-induced glutamate neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens: a neurochemical study
    Shafiqur Rahman
    Center for Drug Abuse Research Translation, University of Kentucky, BBSRB, Room 447, 741 S Limestone, Lexington, KY 40536 0509, USA
    Brain Res 1197:40-6. 2008
    ..Overall, these results suggest that alterations in glutamate in the NAcc may be involved in the environment-dependent effects of amphetamine...
  41. ncbi request reprint Environmental enrichment decreases cell surface expression of the dopamine transporter in rat medial prefrontal cortex
    Jun Zhu
    College of Pharmacy, Univeristy of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536 0082, USA
    J Neurochem 93:1434-43. 2005
    ....
  42. ncbi request reprint The effect of novelty on amphetamine self-administration in rats classified as high and low responders
    Mary E Cain
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 176:129-38. 2004
    ..Previous research has also demonstrated that novel stimuli presented during the amphetamine self-administration session decreases the number of infusions earned...
  43. ncbi request reprint Environmental enrichment decreases nicotine-induced hyperactivity in rats
    Thomas A Green
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, 115 Kastle Hall, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 170:235-41. 2003
    ..Previous research has determined that rats reared in an enriched condition (EC) are more sensitive to the effects of acute systemic amphetamine than rats raised in an impoverished condition (IC)...
  44. ncbi request reprint Biological connection between novelty- and drug-seeking motivational systems
    Michael T Bardo
    University of Kentucky, USA
    Nebr Symp Motiv 50:127-58. 2004
  45. ncbi request reprint Individual differences in the effect of novel environmental stimuli prior to amphetamine self-administration in rats (Rattus norvegicus)
    Mary E Cain
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, KY 66506, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 14:389-401. 2006
    ..These results suggest that exposure to novel environmental stimuli may reduce acquisition of drug-taking behavior, especially among high-novelty-seeking individuals...
  46. pmc Neurobehavioral effects of environmental enrichment and drug abuse vulnerability
    Dustin J Stairs
    Creighton University, Department of Psychology, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 92:377-82. 2009
    ..Some critical neural mechanisms that may mediate the behavioral changes are postulated, along with some notes of caution about the limitations of the work cited...
  47. ncbi request reprint Translation in tobacco and drug abuse prevention research
    Mary Ann Pentz
    University of Southern California, Dept of Preventive Medicine, Alhambra, CA 91803, USA
    Eval Health Prof 29:246-71. 2006
    ....
  48. pmc Environmental enrichment decreases responding for visual novelty
    Mary E Cain
    Kansas State University, Department of Psychology, 469 Bluemont Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506 5302, United States
    Behav Processes 73:360-6. 2006
    ..These results suggest that environmental enrichment decreases the incentive value of visual novelty...
  49. pmc Impulsive choice and environmental enrichment: effects of d-amphetamine and methylphenidate
    Jennifer L Perry
    Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation, S 3 Laboratories, 860, 914 South 8th Street, Minneapolis, MN 55404, United States
    Behav Brain Res 193:48-54. 2008
    ..g., those with ADHD), whereas they may increase impulsive choice in individuals with low levels of impulsivity...
  50. ncbi request reprint Introduction: motivation, drug abuse, and 50 years of theoretical and empirical inquiry
    Rick A Bevins
    University of Nebraska Lincoln, USA
    Nebr Symp Motiv 50:ix-xv. 2004
  51. ncbi request reprint Impoverished rearing environment alters metabotropic glutamate receptor expression and function in the prefrontal cortex
    Roberto I Melendez
    Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 29:1980-7. 2004
    ..These data suggest that reduced mGluR transmission in the PFC produced by impoverished, relative to enriched, rearing environments may contribute to cognitive deficits...

Research Grants11

  1. NOVELTY, DOPAMINE AND RESPONSE TO AMPHETAMINE
    MICHAEL BARDO; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Results obtained thus far indicate that environmental enrichment protects against drug abuse vulnerability. ..
  2. NOVELTY, DOPAMINE AND RESPONSE TO AMPHETAMINE
    MICHAEL BARDO; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The long-term objective of our work is to design biologically relevant, behavioral treatment and prevention strategies that can be evaluated in a controlled human study. ..
  3. Nornicotine as a Treatment for Nicotine Addiction
    MICHAEL BARDO; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The results from this Phase 1 safety study will inform future clinical efficacy studies with R(+)-nornicotine. ..
  4. NOVELTY, DOPAMINE AND RESPONSE TO AMPHETAMINE
    MICHAEL BARDO; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The long-term objective of this work is to design a biologically relevant prevention intervention strategy that can be evaluated in a controlled human study. ..
  5. NOVELTY, DOPAMINE AND RESPONSE TO AMPHETAMINE
    Michael T Bardo; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Results obtained thus far indicate that environmental enrichment protects against drug abuse vulnerability. ..