Paul Ashwood

Summary

Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Immune activation of peripheral blood and mucosal CD3+ lymphocyte cytokine profiles in children with autism and gastrointestinal symptoms
    Paul Ashwood
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California at Davis, M I N D Institute, Wet Lab Building, 50th Street, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 173:126-34. 2006
  2. ncbi request reprint Fine particles that adsorb lipopolysaccharide via bridging calcium cations may mimic bacterial pathogenicity towards cells
    Paul Ashwood
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology and MIND Institute, University of California at Davis, Wet Lab Building, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
    Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 232:107-17. 2007
  3. pmc Associations of impaired behaviors with elevated plasma chemokines in autism spectrum disorders
    Paul Ashwood
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, and The M I N D Institute, University of California at Davis, CA, United States
    J Neuroimmunol 232:196-9. 2011
  4. pmc Altered T cell responses in children with autism
    Paul Ashwood
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California at Davis, CA, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 25:840-9. 2011
  5. pmc Elevated plasma cytokines in autism spectrum disorders provide evidence of immune dysfunction and are associated with impaired behavioral outcome
    Paul Ashwood
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 25:40-5. 2011
  6. pmc Decreased cellular IL-23 but not IL-17 production in children with autism spectrum disorders
    Charity Onore
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California at Davis, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 216:126-9. 2009
  7. pmc Decreased transforming growth factor beta1 in autism: a potential link between immune dysregulation and impairment in clinical behavioral outcomes
    Paul Ashwood
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California at Davis, United States
    J Neuroimmunol 204:149-53. 2008
  8. ncbi request reprint The immune response in autism: a new frontier for autism research
    Paul Ashwood
    Medical Microbiology and Immunology and the M I N D Institute, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 80:1-15. 2006
  9. ncbi request reprint Spontaneous mucosal lymphocyte cytokine profiles in children with autism and gastrointestinal symptoms: mucosal immune activation and reduced counter regulatory interleukin-10
    Paul Ashwood
    Centre for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, United Kingdom
    J Clin Immunol 24:664-73. 2004
  10. ncbi request reprint Intestinal lymphocyte populations in children with regressive autism: evidence for extensive mucosal immunopathology
    Paul Ashwood
    The Inflammatory Bowel Disease Study Group, and Centre for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Royal Free and University College, Medical School, London, United Kingdom
    J Clin Immunol 23:504-17. 2003

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications58

  1. ncbi request reprint Immune activation of peripheral blood and mucosal CD3+ lymphocyte cytokine profiles in children with autism and gastrointestinal symptoms
    Paul Ashwood
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California at Davis, M I N D Institute, Wet Lab Building, 50th Street, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 173:126-34. 2006
    ..007) in ASD compared with NIC. There is a unique pattern of peripheral blood and mucosal CD3+ lymphocytes intracellular cytokines, which is consistent with significant immune dysregulation, in this ASD cohort...
  2. ncbi request reprint Fine particles that adsorb lipopolysaccharide via bridging calcium cations may mimic bacterial pathogenicity towards cells
    Paul Ashwood
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology and MIND Institute, University of California at Davis, Wet Lab Building, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
    Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 232:107-17. 2007
    ..The inadvertent adsorption of PAMPs to ingested, inhaled, or "wear" fine particulate matter provides a further potential mechanism for the proinflammatory nature of fine particles...
  3. pmc Associations of impaired behaviors with elevated plasma chemokines in autism spectrum disorders
    Paul Ashwood
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, and The M I N D Institute, University of California at Davis, CA, United States
    J Neuroimmunol 232:196-9. 2011
    ..Elevated MCP-1, RANTES and eotaxin in some ASD children and their association with more impaired behaviors may have etiological significance. Chemokines and their receptors might provide unique targets for future therapies in ASD...
  4. pmc Altered T cell responses in children with autism
    Paul Ashwood
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California at Davis, CA, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 25:840-9. 2011
    ..Further longitudinal analyzes of cellular immunity profiles would delineate the relationship between immune dysfunction and the progression of behavioral and developmental changes throughout the course of this disorder...
  5. pmc Elevated plasma cytokines in autism spectrum disorders provide evidence of immune dysfunction and are associated with impaired behavioral outcome
    Paul Ashwood
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 25:40-5. 2011
    ..The characterization of immunological parameters in ASD has important implications for diagnosis, and should be considered when designing therapeutic strategies to treat core symptoms and behavioral impairments of ASD...
  6. pmc Decreased cellular IL-23 but not IL-17 production in children with autism spectrum disorders
    Charity Onore
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California at Davis, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 216:126-9. 2009
    ..Decreased cellular IL-23 production in ASD warrants further research to determine its role on the generation and survival of T(H)17 cells, a cell subset important in neuroinflammatory conditions that may include ASD...
  7. pmc Decreased transforming growth factor beta1 in autism: a potential link between immune dysregulation and impairment in clinical behavioral outcomes
    Paul Ashwood
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California at Davis, United States
    J Neuroimmunol 204:149-53. 2008
    ..Such immune dysregulation may predispose to the development of possible autoimmune responses and/or adverse neuroimmune interactions during critical windows in development...
  8. ncbi request reprint The immune response in autism: a new frontier for autism research
    Paul Ashwood
    Medical Microbiology and Immunology and the M I N D Institute, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 80:1-15. 2006
    ..This review will examine the status of the research linking the immune response with ASD...
  9. ncbi request reprint Spontaneous mucosal lymphocyte cytokine profiles in children with autism and gastrointestinal symptoms: mucosal immune activation and reduced counter regulatory interleukin-10
    Paul Ashwood
    Centre for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, United Kingdom
    J Clin Immunol 24:664-73. 2004
    ..The data provide further evidence of a diffuse mucosal immunopathology in some ASD children and the potential for benefit of dietary and immunomodulatory therapies...
  10. ncbi request reprint Intestinal lymphocyte populations in children with regressive autism: evidence for extensive mucosal immunopathology
    Paul Ashwood
    The Inflammatory Bowel Disease Study Group, and Centre for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Royal Free and University College, Medical School, London, United Kingdom
    J Clin Immunol 23:504-17. 2003
    ..The data provide further evidence of a pan-enteric mucosal immunopathology in children with regressive autism that is apparently distinct from other inflammatory bowel diseases...
  11. pmc A review of autism and the immune response
    Paul Ashwood
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California, One Shield s Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Clin Dev Immunol 11:165-74. 2004
  12. doi request reprint Behavioral correlates of maternal antibody status among children with autism
    Daniel Braunschweig
    Division of Rheumatology Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis, 451 E Health Sciences Drive, Suite 6510 GBSF, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Autism Dev Disord 42:1435-45. 2012
    ..05). This study provides evidence of multiple patterns of reactivity to fetal brain proteins by maternal antibodies associated with ASD and specific childhood behavioral outcomes...
  13. doi request reprint Exposure to air pollution in critical prenatal time windows and IgE levels in newborns
    Caroline E W Herr
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Epidemiology, University of California Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Pediatr Allergy Immunol 22:75-84. 2011
    ..PAHs and PM(2.5) , constituents of both ambient air pollution and cigarette smoke, appear to influence fetal immune development, particularly among infants whose mothers are not atopic...
  14. pmc Autism: maternally derived antibodies specific for fetal brain proteins
    Daniel Braunschweig
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, CA, USA
    Neurotoxicology 29:226-31. 2008
    ....
  15. pmc Autoantibodies to cerebellum in children with autism associate with behavior
    Paula Goines
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616, United States
    Brain Behav Immun 25:514-23. 2011
    ..Future studies are needed to determine the identities of the protein targets and explore their significance in autism...
  16. pmc Differential monocyte responses to TLR ligands in children with autism spectrum disorders
    Amanda M Enstrom
    Departments of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California at Davis, CA 95817, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 24:64-71. 2010
    ....
  17. pmc Altered gene expression and function of peripheral blood natural killer cells in children with autism
    Amanda M Enstrom
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California at Davis, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 23:124-33. 2009
    ..Abnormalities in NK cells may represent a susceptibility factor in ASD and may predispose to the development of autoimmunity and/or adverse neuroimmune interactions during critical periods of development...
  18. pmc Air pollution exposure during critical time periods in gestation and alterations in cord blood lymphocyte distribution: a cohort of livebirths
    Caroline E W Herr
    Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, USA
    Environ Health 9:46. 2010
    ..This study investigates the association between cord blood lymphocyte proportions and maternal exposure to air pollution during each gestational month...
  19. pmc Detection of autoantibodies to neural cells of the cerebellum in the plasma of subjects with autism spectrum disorders
    Sharifia Wills
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, 451 E Health Sciences Drive, Suite 6510 GBSF, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 23:64-74. 2009
    ....
  20. pmc Plasma cytokine profiles in Fragile X subjects: is there a role for cytokines in the pathogenesis?
    Paul Ashwood
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, School of Medicine, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 24:898-902. 2010
    ..Altered immune responses have been described in autism and there is potential that in children with FXS and autism, an abnormal immune response may play a role...
  21. pmc Correlations between gene expression and mercury levels in blood of boys with and without autism
    Boryana Stamova
    Department of Neurology, University of California at Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
    Neurotox Res 19:31-48. 2011
    ..These findings might suggest different genetic transcriptional programs associated with mercury in AU compared to TD children...
  22. pmc Increased IgG4 levels in children with autism disorder
    Amanda Enstrom
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2805, 50th Street, Wet Lab Building, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 23:389-95. 2009
    ..Further investigation is necessary to elucidate the relationship between immunological findings and behavioral impairments in autism...
  23. pmc Reduced levels of immunoglobulin in children with autism correlates with behavioral symptoms
    Luke Heuer
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Autism Res 1:275-83. 2008
    ..To assay if plasma antibody levels in children with autism or developmental delays (DD) differ from those with typical development as an indicator of immune function and to correlate antibody levels with severity of behavioral symptoms...
  24. doi request reprint Myeloid dendritic cells frequencies are increased in children with autism spectrum disorder and associated with amygdala volume and repetitive behaviors
    Elizabeth Breece
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, Davis, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 31:69-75. 2013
    ..These data further implicate innate immune cells in the complex pathophysiology of ASD...
  25. ncbi request reprint Brief report: plasma leptin levels are elevated in autism: association with early onset phenotype?
    Paul Ashwood
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Autism Dev Disord 38:169-75. 2008
    ..042), TD controls (p<.0015), and DD controls (p<.004). We demonstrated an increase in leptin levels in autism, a finding driven by the early onset group...
  26. pmc Correlations of gene expression with blood lead levels in children with autism compared to typically developing controls
    Yingfang Tian
    Department of Neurology, University of California at Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
    Neurotox Res 19:1-13. 2011
    ..We postulate that this may relate to the underlying genetic differences between the two groups, though other explanations cannot be excluded...
  27. pmc Maternal autoantibodies are associated with abnormal brain enlargement in a subgroup of children with autism spectrum disorder
    Christine Wu Nordahl
    The M I N D Institute, University of California at Davis, School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 30:61-5. 2013
    ..These results suggest that maternal autoantibodies associated with autism spectrum disorder may impact brain development leading to abnormal enlargement...
  28. doi request reprint Immune-mediated disorders among women carriers of fragile X premutation alleles
    Tri Indah Winarni
    Medical Investigation of Neurodevelopmental Disorders Institute, University of California, Davis, Health System, Sacramento, USA
    Am J Med Genet A 158:2473-81. 2012
    ..4 times higher when compared to carriers without FXPOI (95% CI 1.1-5.0; P = 0.021). The likelihood of IMD in carriers with or without FXPOI is greater (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1-5.0; P = 0.021) compared to that of controls...
  29. ncbi request reprint Focal-enhanced gastritis in regressive autism with features distinct from Crohn's and Helicobacter pylori gastritis
    Franco Torrente
    The Centre for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Department of Histopathology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London
    Am J Gastroenterol 99:598-605. 2004
    ..All autistic, Crohn's, and normal patients were H. pylori negative...
  30. pmc Stereotypies and hyperactivity in rhesus monkeys exposed to IgG from mothers of children with autism
    Loren A Martin
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Center for Neuroscience, California National Primate Research Center and The MIND Institute, University of California Davis, 2825 50th Street, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 22:806-16. 2008
    ..This research raises the prospect of prenatal evaluation for neurodevelopmental risk factors and the potential for preventative therapeutics...
  31. pmc Cytokine dysregulation in autism spectrum disorders (ASD): possible role of the environment
    Paula E Goines
    University of California, Davis, School of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Molecular Biosciences, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 36:67-81. 2013
    ..We propose that the immune system provides critical clues regarding the nature of the gene by environment interactions that underlie ASD pathophysiology...
  32. doi request reprint Autism spectrum disorders: from immunity to behavior
    Milo Careaga
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology and the M I N D Institute, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 934:219-40. 2012
    ....
  33. ncbi request reprint Brain-specific autoantibodies in the plasma of subjects with autistic spectrum disorder
    Maricel Cabanlit
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1107:92-103. 2007
    ..While the potential role of these autoantibodies in AU is currently unknown, their presence suggests a loss of self-tolerance to one or more neural antigens during early childhood...
  34. pmc Preliminary evidence of the in vitro effects of BDE-47 on innate immune responses in children with autism spectrum disorders
    Paul Ashwood
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 208:130-5. 2009
    ..Moreover, PBMC from the ASD subjects were differentially affected when compared with the TD controls suggesting a biological basis for altered sensitivity to BDE-47 in the ASD population...
  35. pmc The role of immune dysfunction in the pathophysiology of autism
    Charity Onore
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 26:383-92. 2012
    ....
  36. pmc Increased midgestational IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5 in women bearing a child with autism: A case-control study
    Paula E Goines
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, 451 Health Sciences Dr, Suite 6510, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Mol Autism 2:13. 2011
    ..abstract:..
  37. pmc In search of cellular immunophenotypes in the blood of children with autism
    Paul Ashwood
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e19299. 2011
    ..There has been substantial evidence for dysregulation of the immune system in autism...
  38. ncbi request reprint Autoantibodies in autism spectrum disorders (ASD)
    Sharifia Wills
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1107:79-91. 2007
    ..In addition, we will discuss recent studies performed by our group concerning the presence of autoantibodies directed against neural antigens, which are observed in patients with ASD...
  39. doi request reprint Immune dysfunction in autism: a pathway to treatment
    Milo Careaga
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California at Davis, Sacramento, California 95817, USA
    Neurotherapeutics 7:283-92. 2010
    ..A better understanding of the involvement of the immune response in autism, and of how early brain development is altered, may have important therapeutic implications...
  40. pmc Increased anti-phospholipid antibodies in autism spectrum disorders
    Milo Careaga
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, Davis, USA MIND Institute, University of California, 2805 50th Street Sacramento, Davis, CA 95817, USA
    Mediators Inflamm 2013:935608. 2013
    ....
  41. pmc Decreased levels of total immunoglobulin in children with autism are not a result of B cell dysfunction
    Luke S Heuer
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 251:94-102. 2012
    ..Results suggest no differences in the B cell parameters measured, indicating that decreased Ig in autism is not a result of B cell dysfunction and other immune cells might be involved...
  42. doi request reprint Brief report: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in children with autism spectrum disorder: a clinical trial
    Stephen Bent
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Autism Dev Disord 42:1127-32. 2012
    ..Although this study was limited by the small sample size and by the variable nature of cytokines, we found no evidence that HBOT affects cytokine levels or that cytokine levels were associated with behavioral changes...
  43. pmc Further characterization of autoantibodies to GABAergic neurons in the central nervous system produced by a subset of children with autism
    Sharifia Wills
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, 451 Health Sciences Drive, Suite 6510 GBSF, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Mol Autism 2:5. 2011
    ..abstract:..
  44. ncbi request reprint Reduced transforming growth factor-beta1-producing T cells in the duodenal mucosa of children with food allergy
    Miguel A Pérez-Machado
    Centre for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Royal Free and University College School of Medicine, London, GB
    Eur J Immunol 33:2307-15. 2003
    ..As generation of these cells requires innate immune response to enteric bacteria, we suggest that changing infectious exposures may inhibit primary establishment of basic oral tolerance mechanisms...
  45. pmc A pilot randomized controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acids for autism spectrum disorder
    Stephen Bent
    Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco VAMC, 111 A1, 4150 Clement St, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    J Autism Dev Disord 41:545-54. 2011
    ..Although this pilot study did not find a statistically significant benefit from omega-3 fatty acids, the small sample size does not rule out small to moderate beneficial effects...
  46. ncbi request reprint Is autism an autoimmune disease?
    Paul Ashwood
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, and UC Davis M I N D Institute, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Autoimmun Rev 3:557-62. 2004
    ..In this review, we discuss current findings with respect to immune function and the spectrum of autoimmune phenomena described in children with ASD...
  47. pmc The human placenta methylome
    Diane I Schroeder
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, UC Davis School of Medicine, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:6037-42. 2013
    ..These results suggest that PMDs are a developmentally dynamic feature of the methylome that are relevant for understanding both normal development and cancer and may be of use as epigenetic biomarkers...
  48. pmc Levels of soluble platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 and P-selectin are decreased in children with autism spectrum disorder
    Charity E Onore
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 72:1020-5. 2012
    ..Findings of immune dysfunction in ASD include increases in inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and microglial activity in brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid, as well as abnormal peripheral immune cell function...
  49. ncbi request reprint Altered monocyte responses to defined TLR ligands in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis
    Tin Ky Mao
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Hepatology 42:802-8. 2005
    ....
  50. doi request reprint Mechanistic biomarkers for autism treatment
    Robert L Hendren
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, 401 Parnassus Ave, Box F 0984, San Francisco, CA 94143 0984, USA
    Med Hypotheses 73:950-4. 2009
    ..This review highlights the need to identify autism subgroups as they each might require unique approaches for prevention or treatment...
  51. ncbi request reprint Autoimmunity in autism
    Amanda M Enstrom
    University of California at Davis, Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology UC Davis MIND Institute, 2805 50th Street, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
    Curr Opin Investig Drugs 10:463-73. 2009
    ..A better understanding of the involvement of the immune response in early brain development, with respect to autism, may have important therapeutic implications...
  52. pmc Air pollution and lymphocyte phenotype proportions in cord blood
    Irva Hertz-Picciotto
    Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, California, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 113:1391-8. 2005
    ..7% (95% CI, 0.4 to 3.0%). Associations were similar but slightly weaker for PM2.5. Ambient air pollution may influence the relative distribution of lymphocyte immunophenotypes of the fetus...
  53. ncbi request reprint Genomic profiles for human peripheral blood T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, monocytes, and polymorphonuclear cells: comparisons to ischemic stroke, migraine, and Tourette syndrome
    Xinli Du
    MIND Institute, University of California at Davis, 2805 50th Street, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
    Genomics 87:693-703. 2006
    ..These specific gene expression, cell-type-related profiles will need to be confirmed in larger data sets and could be used to study these and many other neurological diseases...
  54. pmc Gestational exposure to a viral mimetic poly(i:C) results in long-lasting changes in mitochondrial function by leucocytes in the adult offspring
    Cecilia Giulivi
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA Medical Investigations of Neurodevelopmental Disorders MIND Institute, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Mediators Inflamm 2013:609602. 2013
    ....
  55. pmc Autoimmune disease in mothers with the FMR1 premutation is associated with seizures in their children with fragile X syndrome
    Weerasak Chonchaiya
    Medical Investigation of Neurodevelopmental Disorders Institute, University of California Davis Health System, 2825 50th Street, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
    Hum Genet 128:539-48. 2010
    ..This suggests a potential new mechanism of seizure and tic exacerbation in FXS related to an intergenerational influence from autoimmunity in the carrier mother...
  56. ncbi request reprint The significance of ileo-colonic lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in children with autistic spectrum disorder
    Andrew J Wakefield
    Thoughtful House Center for Children, Austin, Texas 78746, USA
    Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 17:827-36. 2005
    ....
  57. ncbi request reprint The role of dietary microparticles and calcium in apoptosis and interleukin-1beta release of intestinal macrophages
    Stephen M Evans
    Gastrointestinal Laboratory, Rayne Institute, St Thomas Hospital, London, England
    Gastroenterology 123:1543-53. 2002
    ..g., titanium dioxide) and freshly formed endogenous particles (calcium phosphate). A role for such microparticles in inflammation has been proposed, and here we examined their effects on lamina propria mononuclear cells...
  58. ncbi request reprint Selective binding of nucleotide probes by eosinophilic cationic protein during in situ hybridisation
    Richard D Ellis
    Gastrointestinal Laboratory, The Rayne Institute, St Thomas Hospital, London, SE1 7EH, UK
    Histochem J 34:153-60. 2002
    ....