Arthur P Arnold

Summary

Affiliation: University of California
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Cell-autonomous sex determination outside of the gonad
    Arthur P Arnold
    Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Dev Dyn 242:371-9. 2013
  2. pmc Understanding the sexome: measuring and reporting sex differences in gene systems
    Arthur P Arnold
    Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 7239, USA
    Endocrinology 153:2551-5. 2012
  3. pmc The end of gonad-centric sex determination in mammals
    Arthur P Arnold
    Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 7239, USA
    Trends Genet 28:55-61. 2012
  4. pmc Dosage compensation is less effective in birds than in mammals
    Yuichiro Itoh
    Department of Physiological Science, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    J Biol 6:2. 2007
  5. pmc Regional differences in dosage compensation on the chicken Z chromosome
    Esther Melamed
    Department of Physiological Science, and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    Genome Biol 8:R202. 2007
  6. pmc Sex chromosome complement contributes to sex differences in coxsackievirus B3 but not influenza A virus pathogenesis
    Dionne P Robinson
    The W Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Biol Sex Differ 2:8. 2011
  7. pmc Sex differences in renal angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activity are 17β-oestradiol-dependent and sex chromosome-independent
    Jun Liu
    Center for the Study of Sex Differences in Health, Aging and Disease, Georgetown University, Washington DC 20057, USA
    Biol Sex Differ 1:6. 2010
  8. pmc The organizational-activational hypothesis as the foundation for a unified theory of sexual differentiation of all mammalian tissues
    Arthur P Arnold
    Department of Physiological Science, Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Charles Young Drive South, Los Angeles CA 90095 1606, USA
    Horm Behav 55:570-8. 2009
  9. pmc What does the "four core genotypes" mouse model tell us about sex differences in the brain and other tissues?
    Arthur P Arnold
    Department of Physiological Science, Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    Front Neuroendocrinol 30:1-9. 2009
  10. pmc Systems biology asks new questions about sex differences
    Arthur P Arnold
    Department of Physiological Science, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Trends Endocrinol Metab 20:471-6. 2009

Research Grants

  1. NEURAL AND HORMONAL BASES OF VOCALIZATION
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 1993
  2. Sex Chromosome Effects on Neural Development
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2006
  3. Sex Differences in Dopamine Systems
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2003
  4. Sex chromosome effects on neural developement
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2009
  5. Sex chromosome effects on neural developement
    Arthur P Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2010
  6. GENETIC DETERMINANTS OF BRAIN SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 1999
  7. NEURAL AND HORMONAL BASES OF VOCALIZATION
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2002
  8. Sex Differences in Dopamine Systems
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2005
  9. NEURAL AND HORMONAL BASES OF VOCALIZATION
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2007
  10. NEURAL & HORMONAL BASES OF VOCALIZATION
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 1991

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications61

  1. pmc Cell-autonomous sex determination outside of the gonad
    Arthur P Arnold
    Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Dev Dyn 242:371-9. 2013
    ..However, XX and XY cells are intrinsically different because of the cell-autonomous sex-biasing action of X and Y genes...
  2. pmc Understanding the sexome: measuring and reporting sex differences in gene systems
    Arthur P Arnold
    Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 7239, USA
    Endocrinology 153:2551-5. 2012
    ..The global search for sites and mechanisms of sex-specific regulation in diverse tissues will provide unanticipated insights into physiological regulation and targets for novel therapies...
  3. pmc The end of gonad-centric sex determination in mammals
    Arthur P Arnold
    Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 7239, USA
    Trends Genet 28:55-61. 2012
    ..The separate sex-specific pathways interact to synergize with or antagonize each other, enhancing or reducing sex differences in phenotype...
  4. pmc Dosage compensation is less effective in birds than in mammals
    Yuichiro Itoh
    Department of Physiological Science, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    J Biol 6:2. 2007
    ..Dosage compensation is not understood in birds, in which females (ZW) and males (ZZ) differ in the number of Z chromosomes...
  5. pmc Regional differences in dosage compensation on the chicken Z chromosome
    Esther Melamed
    Department of Physiological Science, and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    Genome Biol 8:R202. 2007
    ..Previous studies identified a non-coding RNA in the male hypermethylated (MHM) region, associated with sex-specific histone acetylation, which has been proposed to be involved in dosage compensation...
  6. pmc Sex chromosome complement contributes to sex differences in coxsackievirus B3 but not influenza A virus pathogenesis
    Dionne P Robinson
    The W Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Biol Sex Differ 2:8. 2011
    ..abstract:..
  7. pmc Sex differences in renal angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activity are 17β-oestradiol-dependent and sex chromosome-independent
    Jun Liu
    Center for the Study of Sex Differences in Health, Aging and Disease, Georgetown University, Washington DC 20057, USA
    Biol Sex Differ 1:6. 2010
    ..Angotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a newly discovered monocarboxypeptidase that counteracts the vasoconstrictor effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) by converting Ang II to Ang-(1-7) in the kidney and other tissues...
  8. pmc The organizational-activational hypothesis as the foundation for a unified theory of sexual differentiation of all mammalian tissues
    Arthur P Arnold
    Department of Physiological Science, Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Charles Young Drive South, Los Angeles CA 90095 1606, USA
    Horm Behav 55:570-8. 2009
    ..To integrate the classic organizational and activational effects with the more recently discovered sex chromosome effects, we propose a unified theory of sexual differentiation that applies to all mammalian tissues...
  9. pmc What does the "four core genotypes" mouse model tell us about sex differences in the brain and other tissues?
    Arthur P Arnold
    Department of Physiological Science, Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    Front Neuroendocrinol 30:1-9. 2009
    ..Some sex chromosome effects are mediated by sex differences in dose of X genes or their parental imprint. Future studies will identify the genes involved and their mechanisms of action...
  10. pmc Systems biology asks new questions about sex differences
    Arthur P Arnold
    Department of Physiological Science, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Trends Endocrinol Metab 20:471-6. 2009
    ..Measurement of the aggregate behavior of genes uncovers novel sex differences that can be related more effectively to susceptibility to disease...
  11. ncbi request reprint Sex chromosomes and brain gender
    Arthur P Arnold
    Department of Physiological Science and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles 90095 1606, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 5:701-8. 2004
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint Two perspectives on the origin of sex differences in the brain
    Arthur P Arnold
    Department of Physiological Science, and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1007:176-88. 2003
    ..This paper reviews the evidence that genetic sex of brain cells influences their sexual phenotype, and critically discusses the relative advantages of various experimental approaches to study this effect...
  13. doi request reprint A bird's-eye view of sex chromosome dosage compensation
    Arthur P Arnold
    Department of Physiological Science and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 9:109-27. 2008
    ..Birds are thus offering new opportunities for studying dosage compensation in a ZZ/ZW system, which should shed light on the evolution of SSDC more broadly...
  14. ncbi request reprint Are XX and XY brain cells intrinsically different?
    Arthur P Arnold
    Department of Physiological Science and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
    Trends Endocrinol Metab 15:6-11. 2004
    ..Although X and Y genes probably influence brain phenotype in a sex-specific manner, much more information is needed to identify the magnitude and character of these effects...
  15. ncbi request reprint Minireview: Sex chromosomes and brain sexual differentiation
    Arthur P Arnold
    Department of Physiological Science and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, 90095, USA
    Endocrinology 145:1057-62. 2004
    ..Fortunately, new model systems for studying sex chromosome effects have recently been developed, and they should help in testing further the role of sex chromosome genes...
  16. ncbi request reprint The gender of the voice within: the neural origin of sex differences in the brain
    Arthur P Arnold
    Department of Physiological Science, UCLA, 621 Charles E Young Drive South, Room 4117, Los Angeles CA 90095 1606, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 13:759-64. 2003
    ..Studies of songbirds and rodents suggest, however, that male and female brain cells are intrinsically different also because of the sex differences in the expression of sex chromosome genes within the cells...
  17. pmc Mouse models for evaluating sex chromosome effects that cause sex differences in non-gonadal tissues
    Arthur P Arnold
    Department of Physiological Science and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    J Neuroendocrinol 21:377-86. 2009
    ..Moreover, mouse models are available to determine whether the sex chromosome effects are caused by X or Y genes...
  18. pmc Sex bias and dosage compensation in the zebra finch versus chicken genomes: general and specialized patterns among birds
    Yuichiro Itoh
    Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    Genome Res 20:512-8. 2010
    ..These patterns suggest that different avian taxa may have evolved specific compensatory mechanisms...
  19. pmc Sexually dimorphic expression of trkB, a Z-linked gene, in early posthatch zebra finch brain
    Xuqi Chen
    Department of Physiological Science, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:7730-5. 2005
    ..Thus, the trkB-BDNF system may be a focal point for convergent masculinizing influences of Z-linked factors and hormones...
  20. ncbi request reprint X chromosome number causes sex differences in gene expression in adult mouse striatum
    Xuqi Chen
    Department of Physiological Science, and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 29:768-76. 2009
    ..XY differences in the number of X chromosomes, probably because of sex differences in the expression of X gene(s) that escape inactivation. We detected no sex chromosome effect on D2 receptor mRNA...
  21. ncbi request reprint Sex difference in neural tube defects in p53-null mice is caused by differences in the complement of X not Y genes
    Xuqi Chen
    Department of Physiological Science, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Dev Neurobiol 68:265-73. 2008
    ..The presence of a Y chromosome had no protective effect, suggesting that sex differences in NTDs are caused by sex differences in the number of X chromosomes...
  22. pmc Sex chromosome complement affects nociception and analgesia in newborn mice
    Laura Gioiosa
    Department of Physiological Science and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 1606, USA
    J Pain 9:962-9. 2008
    ..The results suggest that sex chromosome complement and gonadal secretions both contribute to sex differences in nociception and analgesia by the day of birth...
  23. pmc Elucidating the role of gonadal hormones in sexually dimorphic gene coexpression networks
    Atila Van Nas
    Department of Human Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 1679, USA
    Endocrinology 150:1235-49. 2009
    ..This study indicates that gonadal hormones play a strong role in sex differences in gene expression. In addition, it results in the identification of sex-specific gene coexpression networks related to genetic and metabolic traits...
  24. pmc A dose-response study of estradiol's effects on the developing zebra finch song system
    William Grisham
    Department of Psychology and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, UCLA, 1285 Franz Hall, P O Box 951563, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1563, United States
    Neurosci Lett 445:158-61. 2008
    ..The results suggest that several developmental processes are influenced by E2, possibly because of multiple sites of action or multiple processes that respond to E2...
  25. ncbi request reprint Expression of androgen receptor mRNA in zebra finch song system: developmental regulation by estrogen
    Yong Hwan Kim
    Department of Physiological Science and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    J Comp Neurol 469:535-47. 2004
    ....
  26. pmc Neural, not gonadal, origin of brain sex differences in a gynandromorphic finch
    Robert J Agate
    Department of Physiological Science, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:4873-8. 2003
    ..Because both sides of the song circuit were more masculine than that of females, diffusible factors such as hormones of gonadal or neural origin also likely played a role in sexual differentiation...
  27. pmc Molecular cloning and characterization of the germline-restricted chromosome sequence in the zebra finch
    Yuichiro Itoh
    Department of Physiological Science and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, 621 Charles E Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    Chromosoma 118:527-36. 2009
    ..Thus, the GRC sequences likely originated from autosomal DNA and have evolved after the galliform-passeriform split. The present study provides a foundation for further study of the intriguing GRC...
  28. ncbi request reprint Sexually dimorphic expression of the X-linked gene Eif2s3x mRNA but not protein in mouse brain
    Jun Xu
    Department of Physiological Science and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, 90095 1606, USA
    Gene Expr Patterns 6:146-55. 2006
    ..The sex difference in Eif2s3x transcript appears not to be preserved at the protein level, since no difference in the levels of Eif2s3 protein was found between (1) males and females (2) XX and XY mice, or (3) XO and XX females...
  29. ncbi request reprint The distribution of expression of doublecortin (DCX) mRNA and protein in the zebra finch brain
    Yong Hwan Kim
    Department of Physiological Science and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Brain Res 1106:189-96. 2006
    ..If DCX is predominantly expressed in migrating neurons, as suggested from studies in mammals, the present results offer no evidence for a sex difference in neuronal migration...
  30. ncbi request reprint Molecular cloning of zebra finch W chromosome repetitive sequences: evolution of the avian W chromosome
    Yuichiro Itoh
    Department of Physiological Science and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    Chromosoma 117:111-21. 2008
    ..The apparent lineage-specificity of W chromosome repeat sequences in passerines and galliform birds suggest that the W chromosome had not differentiated well from the Z at the time of divergence of these lineages...
  31. pmc Tissue-specific expression and regulation of sexually dimorphic genes in mice
    Xia Yang
    Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Genome Res 16:995-1004. 2006
    ..Moreover, many tissue-specific transcription factor binding sites were found to be enriched in the sexually dimorphic genes...
  32. pmc Sex chromosome complement affects nociception in tests of acute and chronic exposure to morphine in mice
    Laura Gioiosa
    Department of Physiological Science, and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Horm Behav 53:124-30. 2008
    ..The results indicate that X- or Y-linked genes have direct effects, not mediated by gonadal secretions, on sex differences in two different types of acute nociception...
  33. ncbi request reprint A yin-yang effect between sex chromosome complement and sex hormones on the immune response
    Karen M Palaszynski
    Department of Neurology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Endocrinology 146:3280-5. 2005
    ..This is the first experimental evidence of a compensatory yin-yang effect of sex chromosome complement and sex hormones on a biologic process...
  34. pmc X and Y chromosome complement influence adiposity and metabolism in mice
    Xuqi Chen
    Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 7239, USA
    Endocrinology 154:1092-104. 2013
    ..The results reveal a role for the Y chromosome in metabolism independent of testes and gonadal hormones and point to a small number of X-Y gene pairs with similar coding sequences as candidates for causing these effects...
  35. ncbi request reprint Distribution and onset of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (zRalDH) expression in zebra finch brain: lack of sex difference in HVC and RA at early posthatch ages
    Yong Hwan Kim
    Department of Physiological Science and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, 621 Charles E Young Drive South, Room 4117, 90095 1606, USA
    J Neurobiol 65:260-8. 2005
    ..The size of HVC in females at P11 defined by zRalDH expression was greater than that in adult females, suggesting that HVC might experience net cell loss between P11 and adulthood...
  36. ncbi request reprint Expression of NGF and trkA mRNA in song control and other regions of the zebra finch brain
    Yong Hwan Kim
    Department of Physiological Science and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, UCLA 621 Charles E Young Drive South, Room 4117, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    Neurosci Lett 409:151-6. 2006
    ..The presence of NGF and trkA mRNA in RA and lMAN at P25 suggests that they may participate in sexually dimorphic neural development of RA and lMAN, possibly by participating in sex-specific cell survival...
  37. ncbi request reprint Differential distribution of the MeCP2 splice variants in the postnatal mouse brain
    Joanna M Dragich
    Neuroscience Interdepartmental PhD Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 1761, USA
    J Comp Neurol 501:526-42. 2007
    ..The differential distribution of the Mecp2e1 and Mecp2e2 transcripts indicates regional and developmental regulation of Mecp2 splicing in the postnatal mouse brain...
  38. pmc Effects of long-term flutamide treatment during development in zebra finches
    William Grisham
    Department of Psychology and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1563, United States
    Neurosci Lett 418:92-6. 2007
    ..The present results do not support an important role for androgen in masculinizing the song circuit after posthatch day 7...
  39. pmc Gonadal- and sex-chromosome-dependent sex differences in the circadian system
    Dika A Kuljis
    Department of Neurobiology, University of California LosAngeles, Los Angeles, California 90024, USA
    Endocrinology 154:1501-12. 2013
    ..Taken together, sex differences in the circadian rhythms of activity, neuronal physiology, and gene expression were subtle but provide important clues for understanding the pathophysiology of the circadian system...
  40. ncbi request reprint Comparison of the chicken and zebra finch Z chromosomes shows evolutionary rearrangements
    Yuichiro Itoh
    Department of Physiological Science, UCLA, 621 Charles E Young Drive South, Room 4117, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    Chromosome Res 14:805-15. 2006
    ..These repetitive sequences likely evolved in the finch lineage after it diverged from the Galliform lineage...
  41. pmc Karyotypic polymorphism of the zebra finch Z chromosome
    Yuichiro Itoh
    Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    Chromosoma 120:255-64. 2011
    ..This finding, in combination with regional differences in the frequency of the polymorphism, has important consequences for future studies using zebra finches...
  42. ncbi request reprint Sexually dimorphic expression of co-repressor Sin3A in mouse kidneys
    Jun Xu
    Department of Physiological Science, UCLA, 621 Charles E Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    Endocr Res 31:111-9. 2005
    ..XY) is independent of gonadal type (testes vs. ovaries), there was no difference in the level of Sin3A or HDAC1 expression in kidney in XX or XY mice of the same gonadal sex...
  43. doi request reprint Disruption of FEM1C-W gene in zebra finch: evolutionary insights on avian ZW genes
    Yuichiro Itoh
    Department of Physiological Science, University of California, UCLA 621 Charles E Young Drive South, Room 4117, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    Chromosoma 118:323-34. 2009
    ..FEM1C-Z is expressed in a cytoplasmic location in zebra finch fibroblast cells, as in C. elegans. FEM1C represents an interesting example of evolutionary degradation of a W chromosome gene...
  44. ncbi request reprint Chromosomal polymorphism and comparative painting analysis in the zebra finch
    Yuichiro Itoh
    Department of Physiological Science and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Chromosome Res 13:47-56. 2005
    ..We detected a telocentric/submetacentric polymorphism of chromosome 6 in our colony of zebra finches, and found that the polymorphism was inherited in a Mendelian pattern...
  45. ncbi request reprint Sex differences in structure and expression of the sex chromosome genes CHD1Z and CHD1W in zebra finches
    Robert J Agate
    Department of Physiological Science, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 21:384-96. 2004
    ..These differences between CHD1Z and CHD1W suggest that the two proteins may have diverged in their function...
  46. ncbi request reprint Sex differences in sex chromosome gene expression in mouse brain
    Jun Xu
    Department of Physiological Science and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 11:1409-19. 2002
    ..These sex differences in X-Y gene expression suggest several mechanisms by which these genes may participate in sex differences in brain development and function...
  47. ncbi request reprint XY sex chromosome complement, compared with XX, in the CNS confers greater neurodegeneration during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
    Sienmi Du
    UCLA Multiple Sclerosis Program, Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine, Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Brain Research Institute, and Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:2806-11. 2014
    ..This is a demonstration of a direct effect of sex chromosome complement on neurodegeneration in a neurological disease. ..
  48. pmc Neural expression and post-transcriptional dosage compensation of the steroid metabolic enzyme 17beta-HSD type 4
    Sarah E London
    Interdepartmental Program in Neuroscience, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    BMC Neurosci 11:47. 2010
    ..If a higher abundance of HSD17B4 mRNA in males than females was translated into functional enzyme in the brain, then contrary to expectation, males could produce less E2 in their brains than females...
  49. pmc The role of LINEs and CpG islands in dosage compensation on the chicken Z chromosome
    Esther Melamed
    Department of Physiological Science and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, 621 Charles Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    Chromosome Res 17:727-36. 2009
    ..Our results suggest that CpG islands are not randomly distributed on the Z chromosome and may influence Z gene dosage compensation status...
  50. ncbi request reprint Sex chromosome genes directly affect brain sexual differentiation
    Laura L Carruth
    Department of Physiological Science and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Nat Neurosci 5:933-4. 2002
    ....
  51. ncbi request reprint Expression of estrogen receptor and aromatase mRNAs in embryonic and posthatch zebra finch brain
    William R Perlman
    Department of Physiological Science, Interdepartmental Program for Neuroscience and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    J Neurobiol 55:204-19. 2003
    ..The results fail to provide support for the hypothesis that sexual differentiation of the song system is mediated by sex differences in the expression of these mRNAs at these ages...
  52. pmc A role for sex chromosome complement in the female bias in autoimmune disease
    Deborah L Smith-Bouvier
    Department of Neurology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    J Exp Med 205:1099-108. 2008
    ..This is the first evidence that the XX sex chromosome complement, as compared with XY, confers greater susceptibility to autoimmune disease...
  53. doi request reprint Possible differences in the two Z chromosomes in male chickens and evolution of MHM sequences in Galliformes
    Yuichiro Itoh
    Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California Los Angeles, USA
    Chromosoma 120:587-98. 2011
    ..The turkey, another galliform bird, has repetitive sequences in the predicted turkey MHM region, raising the question of regional dosage compensation in the turkey as in the chicken...
  54. ncbi request reprint Expression of androgen receptor mRNA in the late embryonic and early posthatch zebra finch brain
    William R Perlman
    Department of Physiological Science, Interdepartmental Program for Neuroscience and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 1606, USA
    J Comp Neurol 455:513-30. 2003
    ..Our results suggested that androgens act early in neural development and therefore may contribute to the process of sexual differentiation...
  55. ncbi request reprint The number of X chromosomes influences protection from cardiac ischaemia/reperfusion injury in mice: one X is better than two
    Jingyuan Li
    Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Molecular Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, BH 160CHS, Los Angeles, CA 90095 7115, USA
    Cardiovasc Res 102:375-84. 2014
    ..Here, we investigated the role of the sex chromosomes in causing sex differences in myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury...
  56. ncbi request reprint Reduced threshold for cortical spreading depression in female mice
    Kevin C Brennan
    Department of Neurology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Ann Neurol 61:603-6. 2007
    ..These results suggest an increased cortical excitability in female mice that may be independent of the estrous cycle...
  57. ncbi request reprint Spatially and temporally specific expression in mouse hippocampus of Usp9x, a ubiquitin-specific protease involved in synaptic development
    Jun Xu
    Department of Physiological Science and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 1606, USA
    J Neurosci Res 80:47-55. 2005
    ..This spatial and temporal specificity in expression of Usp9x and Ube1x protein raises interesting questions about the roles of these ubiquitin enzymes in the differential functions of CA1 and CA3...
  58. pmc Zebra finch cell lines from naturally occurring tumors
    Yuichiro Itoh
    Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California, UCLA 610 Charles E Young Drive South, Room 1146, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 47:280-2. 2011
    ..ZFTMA is a tetraploid female cell line and G266 as a diploid male cell line. These first zebra finch cell lines should facilitate development of research on this model species...
  59. ncbi request reprint Cloning and expression of zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) steroidogenic factor 1: overlap with hypothalamic but not with telencephalic aromatase
    Robert J Agate
    Department of Physiological Science, Brain Research Institute, University of California Los Angeles, 621 Charles E Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606
    Biol Reprod 66:1127-33. 2002
    ..These findings suggest that steroidogenesis in the zebra finch brain may be regulated by both SF1-dependent and SF1-independent mechanisms. No sex differences were detected in SF1 expression in brain...
  60. ncbi request reprint Antiandrogen blocks estrogen-induced masculinization of the song system in female zebra finches
    William Grisham
    Department of Physiological Science, University of California Los Angeles, 641Charles E Young Drive South, Room 4117, California 90095 1606, USA
    J Neurobiol 51:1-8. 2002
    ..Flutamide alone had no effect. Our results strongly suggest that the activation of androgen receptors is necessary for the E2-induced masculinization of the song system in females...

Research Grants37

  1. NEURAL AND HORMONAL BASES OF VOCALIZATION
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..This idea will be tested by administering steroids or inhibitors of steroid synthesis to embryos to assess the effects of these treatments on development of brain and behavior...
  2. Sex Chromosome Effects on Neural Development
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  3. Sex Differences in Dopamine Systems
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..e.g., Multiple Sclerosis). Understanding sex differences in brain function will help develop sex-specific strategies for treatment of brain diseases. ..
  4. Sex chromosome effects on neural developement
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Understanding the molecular basis of sex differences will shed light on factors that protect the brain from disease. ..
  5. Sex chromosome effects on neural developement
    Arthur P Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Understanding the molecular basis of sex differences will shed light on factors that protect the brain from disease. ..
  6. GENETIC DETERMINANTS OF BRAIN SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..g., Alzheimer's Disease and Multiple Sclerosis). ..
  7. NEURAL AND HORMONAL BASES OF VOCALIZATION
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..g., Alzheimer's and Multiple Sclerosis). Moreover, the proposed studies bear strongly on the regulation of steroid hormone action on the nervous system, during reproduction and stress. ..
  8. Sex Differences in Dopamine Systems
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..e.g., Multiple Sclerosis). Understanding sex differences in brain function will help develop sex-specific strategies for treatment of brain diseases. ..
  9. NEURAL AND HORMONAL BASES OF VOCALIZATION
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The proposed experiments will shed light on genetic and hormonal mechanisms of brain sexual differentiation, and may provide new understanding of sex differences in brain development and disease. ..
  10. NEURAL & HORMONAL BASES OF VOCALIZATION
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Anatomical tract tracing techniques will map the ontogeny of interconnections between song system neurons to suggest possible times at which these neurons can have trophic interactions regulated by steroids...
  11. Sex chromosome effects on neural developement
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Understanding the molecular basis of sex differences will shed light on factors that protect the brain from disease. ..
  12. Sex differences in obesity and metabolic disease
    Karen Reue; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Understanding the molecular basis of sex differences will shed light on factors that can prevent metabolic disease in both sexes. ..
  13. Sex Chromosome Effects on Neural Development
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  14. NEURAL AND HORMONAL BASES OF VOCALIZATION
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..g., Alzheimer's and Multiple Sclerosis). Moreover, the proposed studies bear strongly on the regulation of steroid hormone action on the nervous system, during reproduction and stress. ..
  15. NEURAL AND HORMONAL BASES OF VOCALIZATION
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..This idea will be tested by administering steroids or inhibitors of steroid synthesis to embryos to assess the effects of these treatments on development of brain and behavior...
  16. NEURAL & HORMONAL BASES OF VOCALIZATION
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Anatomical tract tracing techniques will map the ontogeny of interconnections between song system neurons to suggest possible times at which these neurons can have trophic interactions regulated by steroids...
  17. GENETIC DETERMINANTS OF BRAIN SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..g., Alzheimer's Disease and Multiple Sclerosis). ..
  18. Neuroendocrinology, Sex Differences, and Reproduction
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  19. Sex chromosome effects on neural developement
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Understanding the molecular basis of sex differences will shed light on factors that protect the brain from disease. ..
  20. GENETIC DETERMINANTS OF BRAIN SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..g., Alzheimer's Disease and Multiple Sclerosis). ..
  21. Sex Differences in Dopamine Systems
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..e.g., Multiple Sclerosis). Understanding sex differences in brain function will help develop sex-specific strategies for treatment of brain diseases. ..
  22. NEURAL AND HORMONAL BASES OF VOCALIZATION
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The proposed experiments will shed light on genetic and hormonal mechanisms of brain sexual differentiation, and may provide new understanding of sex differences in brain development and disease. ..
  23. NEURAL AND HORMONAL BASES OF VOCALIZATION
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..g., Alzheimer's and Multiple Sclerosis). Moreover, the proposed studies bear strongly on the regulation of steroid hormone action on the nervous system, during reproduction and stress. ..
  24. NEURAL AND HORMONAL BASES OF VOCALIZATION
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The proposed experiments will shed light on genetic and hormonal mechanisms of brain sexual differentiation, and may provide new understanding of sex differences in brain development and disease. ..
  25. Sex Differences in Dopamine Systems
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..e.g., Multiple Sclerosis). Understanding sex differences in brain function will help develop sex-specific strategies for treatment of brain diseases. ..
  26. NEURAL AND HORMONAL BASES OF VOCALIZATION
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The proposed experiments will shed light on genetic and hormonal mechanisms of brain sexual differentiation, and may provide new understanding of sex differences in brain development and disease. ..
  27. NEURAL AND HORMONAL BASES OF VOCALIZATION
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..g., Alzheimer's and Multiple Sclerosis). Moreover, the proposed studies bear strongly on the regulation of steroid hormone action on the nervous system, during reproduction and stress. ..