E A Akl

Summary

Affiliation: University at Buffalo
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Current experience with applying the GRADE approach to public health interventions: an empirical study
    Eva A Rehfuess
    Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University of Munich, Munich, Germany
    BMC Public Health 13:9. 2013
  2. pmc Evaluating patient values and preferences for thromboprophylaxis decision making during pregnancy: a study protocol
    Pablo Alonso-Coello
    Iberoamerican Cochrane Centre, CIBERESP IIB Sant Pau, Barcelona, 08041, Spain
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 12:40. 2012
  3. pmc Learning from failure--rationale and design for a study about discontinuation of randomized trials (DISCO study)
    Benjamin Kasenda
    Basel Institute for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland
    BMC Med Res Methodol 12:131. 2012
  4. pmc Motives, beliefs and attitudes towards waterpipe tobacco smoking: a systematic review
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo ECMC DKM C216, Buffalo, NY 14215, USA
    Harm Reduct J 10:12. 2013
  5. pmc Willingness of Lebanese physicians in the United States to relocate to Lebanon
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, University at Buffalo, ECMC DKM 216, 462 Grider St, Buffalo, NY, 14215, USA
    Hum Resour Health 10:15. 2012
  6. pmc Systematic evaluation of the methodology of randomized controlled trials of anticoagulation in patients with cancer
    Gabriel Rada
    Evidence Based Health Care Program, Faculty of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
    BMC Cancer 13:76. 2013
  7. ncbi request reprint Financial characteristics and satisfaction of physicians practicing in Lebanon: a survey study
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York City, Buffalo, NY 14215, USA
    J Med Liban 60:148-52. 2012
  8. pmc Effects of assessing the productivity of faculty in academic medical centres: a systematic review
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA
    CMAJ 184:E602-12. 2012
  9. pmc Using GRADE methodology for the development of public health guidelines for the prevention and treatment of HIV and other STIs among men who have sex with men and transgender people
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, NY, USA
    BMC Public Health 12:386. 2012
  10. ncbi request reprint Characteristics of physicians practising in Lebanon: a survey
    E A Akl
    Department of Medicine, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA
    East Mediterr Health J 18:712-7. 2012

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications59

  1. pmc Current experience with applying the GRADE approach to public health interventions: an empirical study
    Eva A Rehfuess
    Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University of Munich, Munich, Germany
    BMC Public Health 13:9. 2013
    ....
  2. pmc Evaluating patient values and preferences for thromboprophylaxis decision making during pregnancy: a study protocol
    Pablo Alonso-Coello
    Iberoamerican Cochrane Centre, CIBERESP IIB Sant Pau, Barcelona, 08041, Spain
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 12:40. 2012
    ..The values and treatment preferences of pregnant women, crucial when making recommendations for prophylaxis, are currently unknown. The objective of this study is to address this gap in knowledge...
  3. pmc Learning from failure--rationale and design for a study about discontinuation of randomized trials (DISCO study)
    Benjamin Kasenda
    Basel Institute for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland
    BMC Med Res Methodol 12:131. 2012
    ..Currently, little is known regarding the frequency and characteristics of discontinued RCTs...
  4. pmc Motives, beliefs and attitudes towards waterpipe tobacco smoking: a systematic review
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo ECMC DKM C216, Buffalo, NY 14215, USA
    Harm Reduct J 10:12. 2013
    ..The objective of this study is to systematically review the medical literature for motives, beliefs and attitudes towards waterpipe tobacco smoking...
  5. pmc Willingness of Lebanese physicians in the United States to relocate to Lebanon
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, University at Buffalo, ECMC DKM 216, 462 Grider St, Buffalo, NY, 14215, USA
    Hum Resour Health 10:15. 2012
    ..abstract:..
  6. pmc Systematic evaluation of the methodology of randomized controlled trials of anticoagulation in patients with cancer
    Gabriel Rada
    Evidence Based Health Care Program, Faculty of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
    BMC Cancer 13:76. 2013
    ..In view of recent interest in the treatment and prevention of thrombotic complications in cancer patients we evaluated the characteristics, risk of bias and their time trends in RCTs of anticoagulation in patients with cancer...
  7. ncbi request reprint Financial characteristics and satisfaction of physicians practicing in Lebanon: a survey study
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York City, Buffalo, NY 14215, USA
    J Med Liban 60:148-52. 2012
    ..The objective of this study was to evaluate the financial characteristics and level of satisfaction of physicians practicing in Lebanon...
  8. pmc Effects of assessing the productivity of faculty in academic medical centres: a systematic review
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA
    CMAJ 184:E602-12. 2012
    ..Many academic medical centres have introduced strategies to assess the productivity of faculty as part of compensation schemes. We conducted a systematic review of the effects of such strategies on faculty productivity...
  9. pmc Using GRADE methodology for the development of public health guidelines for the prevention and treatment of HIV and other STIs among men who have sex with men and transgender people
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, NY, USA
    BMC Public Health 12:386. 2012
    ..The objective of this paper is to review the methodological challenges faced and solutions applied during the development of the guidelines...
  10. ncbi request reprint Characteristics of physicians practising in Lebanon: a survey
    E A Akl
    Department of Medicine, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA
    East Mediterr Health J 18:712-7. 2012
    ..4% and 1.2% respectively. The findings suggest that less emphasis should be placed on training in specialty care compared with primary care/general practice and future policies should aim to attract physicians to rural areas...
  11. pmc An emigration versus a globalization perspective of the Lebanese physician workforce: a qualitative study
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA
    BMC Health Serv Res 12:135. 2012
    ..The objective of this study was to understand the perceptions of Lebanese policymakers of this emigration, and elicit their proposals for future policies and strategies to deal with this emigration...
  12. doi request reprint Methodologists and context experts disagreed regarding managing conflicts of interest of clinical practice guidelines panels
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14215, USA
    J Clin Epidemiol 65:734-9. 2012
    ..We explored the views of the methodologists and content experts regarding the new strategy...
  13. pmc Discussing study limitations in reports of biomedical studies- the need for more transparency
    Milo A Puhan
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Mail room E6153, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Health Qual Life Outcomes 10:23. 2012
    ..Instead of perceiving acknowledgment of limitations negatively, authors, reviewers and editors should recognize the potential of a frank and unbiased discussion of study limitations that should not jeopardize acceptance of manuscripts...
  14. doi request reprint Potential impact on estimated treatment effects of information lost to follow-up in randomised controlled trials (LOST-IT): systematic review
    Elie A Akl
    Departments of Medicine and Family Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14215, USA
    BMJ 344:e2809. 2012
    ..To assess the reporting, extent, and handling of loss to follow-up and its potential impact on the estimates of the effect of treatment in randomised controlled trials...
  15. doi request reprint Specific instructions for estimating unclearly reported blinding status in randomized trials were reliable and valid
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14215, USA
    J Clin Epidemiol 65:262-7. 2012
    ..To test the reliability and validity of specific instructions to classify blinding, when unclearly reported in randomized trials, as "probably done" or "probably not done."..
  16. doi request reprint "Might" or "suggest"? No wording approach was clearly superior in conveying the strength of recommendation
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA
    J Clin Epidemiol 65:268-75. 2012
    ..To compare different wording approaches for conveying the strength of health care recommendations...
  17. pmc Antithrombotic therapy for VTE disease: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines
    Clive Kearon
    Departments of Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Michael de Groote School of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
    Chest 141:e419S-94S. 2012
    ..This article addresses the treatment of VTE disease...
  18. pmc Antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapy for ischemic stroke: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines
    Maarten G Lansberg
    Stanford Stroke Center, Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA
    Chest 141:e601S-36S. 2012
    ..This article provides recommendations on the use of antithrombotic therapy in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA)...
  19. pmc Subgroup Analysis of Trials Is Rarely Easy (SATIRE): a study protocol for a systematic review to characterize the analysis, reporting, and claim of subgroup effects in randomized trials
    Xin Sun
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada
    Trials 10:101. 2009
    ....
  20. pmc Stopping randomized trials early for benefit: a protocol of the Study Of Trial Policy Of Interim Truncation-2 (STOPIT-2)
    Matthias Briel
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada
    Trials 10:49. 2009
    ..The aim of STOPIT-2 is to determine the magnitude and determinants of possible bias introduced by stopping RCTs early for benefit...
  21. pmc Validated instruments used to measure attitudes of healthcare students and professionals towards patients with physical disability: a systematic review
    Wai Yim Lam
    School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, NY, USA
    J Neuroeng Rehabil 7:55. 2010
    ....
  22. pmc Evidence in the learning organization
    Gerald E Crites
    Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine, One Elizabeth Place, Suite 500, Dayton, OH, USA
    Health Res Policy Syst 7:4. 2009
    ..The ELO model will need further validation and improvement through its use in organizational settings and applied health services research...
  23. pmc An instrument to assess quality of life in relation to nutrition: item generation, item reduction and initial validation
    Holger J Schunemann
    Department of Medicine, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, USA
    Health Qual Life Outcomes 8:26. 2010
    ..Therefore, the aim of this project was to develop an instrument for measuring QoL related to nutrition in the general population...
  24. pmc Interpreting the results of patient reported outcome measures in clinical trials: the clinician's perspective
    Holger J Schunemann
    Division of Clinical Research Development and INFORMAtion Translation, Department of Epidemiology, Istituto Regina Elena Italian National Cancer Institute Rome, Rome, Italy
    Health Qual Life Outcomes 4:62. 2006
    ..Thus, there are several steps investigators can take to facilitate this process to help bringing HRQL information closer to the bedside...
  25. pmc A tool for self-assessment of communication skills and professionalism in residents
    Andrew B Symons
    Department of Family Medicine, University at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Buffalo, New York, USA
    BMC Med Educ 9:1. 2009
    ..The aims of this study were to evaluate residents' self-assessment of their communication skills and professionalism in dealing with patients, and to evaluate the psychometric properties of a self-assessment questionnaire...
  26. pmc A curriculum to teach medical students to care for people with disabilities: development and initial implementation
    Andrew B Symons
    Department of Family Medicine, University at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Buffalo, New York, USA
    BMC Med Educ 9:78. 2009
    ..The objective of this paper is to describe the development and initial implementation of a curriculum for teaching medical students to care for patients with disabilities...
  27. pmc Regionalizing healthcare: a vision for transforming Lebanon into a regional academic hub
    Kamal F Badr
    Dean s Office, Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon
    BMC Health Serv Res 10:167. 2010
    ..Lebanon is currently witnessing an expansion of its medical education capacity with the establishment of new private medical schools, raising the fears of a worsening market oversaturation...
  28. pmc Educational games in geriatric medicine education: a systematic review
    Ziad Alfarah
    Geriatrics Section, Department of Medicine, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA
    BMC Geriatr 10:19. 2010
    ..To systematically review the medical literature to assess the effect of geriatric educational games on the satisfaction, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors of health care professionals...
  29. pmc The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among the general and specific populations: a systematic review
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, NY, USA
    BMC Public Health 11:244. 2011
    ..The objective of this study was to systematically review the medical literature for the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among the general and specific populations...
  30. pmc Survey instruments used in clinical and epidemiological research on waterpipe tobacco smoking: a systematic review
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA
    BMC Public Health 10:415. 2010
    ..The primary objective was to systematically review the medical literature for instruments validated for use in epidemiological and clinical research on waterpipe smoking...
  31. pmc The effects of tracking responses and the day of mailing on physician survey response rate: three randomized trials
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e16942. 2011
    ..e., determining whether each potential participant has responded or not). A secondary objective was to assess the effects of day of mailing (Monday vs. Friday) on physician survey response rate...
  32. ncbi request reprint Why are you draining your brain? Factors underlying decisions of graduating Lebanese medical students to migrate
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, ECMC CC 142, 462 Grider Street, Buffalo, NY 14215, USA
    Soc Sci Med 64:1278-84. 2007
    ..The marketing of abroad training and the culture of migration are prevalent in the academic institutions...
  33. pmc Support for and aspects of use of educational games in family medicine and internal medicine residency programs in the US: a survey
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA
    BMC Med Educ 10:26. 2010
    ..The objective of this study was to explore the support for and the different aspects of use of educational games in family medicine and internal medicine residency programs in the United States...
  34. doi request reprint The effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking on health outcomes: a systematic review
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14215, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 39:834-57. 2010
    ..The objective of this study was therefore to systematically review the medical literature for the effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking on health outcomes...
  35. doi request reprint Low-molecular-weight heparin vs unfractionated heparin for perioperative thromboprophylaxis in patients with cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Erie County Medical Center CC 142, 462 Grider St, Buffalo, NY 14215, USA
    Arch Intern Med 168:1261-9. 2008
    ..We systematically reviewed the literature to quantify these effects...
  36. pmc Post-graduation migration intentions of students of Lebanese medical schools: a survey study
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, University at Buffalo, NY, USA
    BMC Public Health 8:191. 2008
    ..Given that residency training abroad is a critical step in the migration of physicians, the objective of this study was to survey students of Lebanese medical schools about their intentions to train abroad and their post training plans...
  37. doi request reprint Thromboprophylaxis for patients with cancer and central venous catheters: a systematic review and a meta-analysis
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14215, USA
    Cancer 112:2483-92. 2008
    ..The objective of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy and safety of anticoagulation in reducing mortality and thromboembolic events in cancer patients with a CVC...
  38. ncbi request reprint Oral anticoagulation may prolong survival of a subgroup of patients with cancer: a cochrane systematic review
    E A Akl
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, NY 14215, USA
    J Exp Clin Cancer Res 26:175-84. 2007
    ..34; 95% CI 1.66-6.74). The evidence suggests a survival benefit from warfarin in patients with extensive SCLC, but not in other patient groups. This survival benefit should be weighed against the increased risk for hemorrhage...
  39. pmc A decision aid for COPD patients considering inhaled steroid therapy: development and before and after pilot testing
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA
    BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 7:12. 2007
    ..An area not covered by a DA is the decision of a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to use inhaled steroids which requires balancing the benefits and downsides of therapy...
  40. pmc Graduates of Lebanese medical schools in the United States: an observational study of international migration of physicians
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, University at Buffalo, NY, USA
    BMC Health Serv Res 7:49. 2007
    ....
  41. pmc The United States physician workforce and international medical graduates: trends and characteristics
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14215, USA
    J Gen Intern Med 22:264-8. 2007
    ..International medical graduates (IMGs) have been a valuable resource for the United States physician workforce, and their contribution to the United States workforce is likely to increase...
  42. pmc Brief report: Internal medicine residents', attendings', and nurses' perceptions of the night float system
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, University at Buffalo, NY 14215, USA
    J Gen Intern Med 21:494-7. 2006
    ..Residency training programs use the night float system increasingly to meet the new resident work hour regulations...
  43. ncbi request reprint Anticoagulation in patients with cancer: an overview of reviews
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, NY 14215, USA
    Pol Arch Med Wewn 118:183-93. 2008
    ..Relative benefits and harms of anticoagulants are required for judgments regarding appropriate anticoagulation in patients with cancer...
  44. pmc Parenteral anticoagulation may prolong the survival of patients with limited small cell lung cancer: a Cochrane systematic review
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, NY, USA
    J Exp Clin Cancer Res 27:4. 2008
    ..To determine the efficacy and safety of heparin (unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low-molecular-weight-heparin (LMWH)) and fondaparinux in improving the survival of patients with cancer...
  45. doi request reprint The effect of educational games on medical students' learning outcomes: a systematic review: BEME Guide No 14
    Elie A Akl
    State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA
    Med Teach 32:16-27. 2010
    ..An educational game is 'an instructional method requiring the learner to participate in a competitive activity with preset rules.' A number of studies have suggested beneficial effects of educational games in medical education...
  46. pmc An educational game for teaching clinical practice guidelines to Internal Medicine residents: development, feasibility and acceptability
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, NY, USA
    BMC Med Educ 8:50. 2008
    ..The objectives of this study were to develop an educational game to teach CPGs in Internal Medicine residency programs and to evaluate its feasibility and acceptability...
  47. pmc LOST to follow-up Information in Trials (LOST-IT): a protocol on the potential impact
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, USA
    Trials 10:40. 2009
    ..The secondary objectives are to describe, for published RCTs, (1) the reporting of loss to follow-up information, (2) the analytic methods used for handling loss to follow-up information, and (3) the extent of reported loss to follow-up...
  48. ncbi request reprint Extended perioperative thromboprophylaxis in patients with cancer. A systematic review
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, ECMC CC 142, 462 Grider St, Buffalo, NY 14215, USA
    Thromb Haemost 100:1176-80. 2008
    ..More and better quality evidence is needed to justify extended regimens...
  49. pmc Low-molecular-weight heparins are superior to vitamin K antagonists for the long term treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer: a cochrane systematic review
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA
    J Exp Clin Cancer Res 27:21. 2008
    ..The objective of this study was to compare low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and oral anticoagulants (vitamin K antagonist (VKA) and ximelagatran) for the long term treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer...
  50. pmc Did the post war repatriation of Lebanese physicians drive recent Lebanese medical graduates to emigrate? An observational study
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, USA
    BMC Health Serv Res 8:195. 2008
    ..The objective of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that the repatriation of Lebanese physicians educated abroad has contributed to the international emigration of recent Lebanese medical graduates...
  51. doi request reprint Anticoagulation for the initial treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer: a systematic review
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14215, USA
    Cancer 113:1685-94. 2008
    ..The authors compared the relative efficacy and safety of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and unfractionated heparin (UFH) for the initial treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) between patients with and without cancer...
  52. pmc A survey of internal medicine residents and faculty about the duration of attendings' inpatient rotations
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, University at Buffalo, NY 14215, USA
    J Gen Intern Med 19:1133-9. 2004
    ..Our objective was to determine the effect of 2-week inpatient rotation on self-reported impact on medical education, patient care practices, and faculty performance by internal medicine residents and teaching faculty...
  53. ncbi request reprint Integrating an evidence-based medicine rotation into an internal medicine residency program
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, University at Buffalo, ECMC CC 142, 462 Grider St, Buffalo, NY 14215, USA
    Acad Med 79:897-904. 2004
    ..To measure the impact of a resident focused evidence-based medicine (EBM) educational intervention on EBM knowledge of residents and students, to assess its feasibility, and to evaluate residents' attitudes regarding this rotation...
  54. ncbi request reprint EBM user and practitioner models for graduate medical education: what do residents prefer?
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Sociology, University at Buffalo, State University of NY, Buffalo, NY, USA
    Med Teach 28:192-4. 2006
    ..The user model had the advantage of reduced time requirements. In sum, the majority of residents preferred a curriculum that focuses on the practitioner over the user model...
  55. ncbi request reprint Can contraindications compromise evidence-based, patient-centered clinical practice?
    Victor M Montori
    Knowledge and Encounter Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
    Can J Clin Pharmacol 13:e92-101. 2006
    ..The impact of contraindications on treatment decisions remains unexplored...
  56. ncbi request reprint Electronic mail was not better than postal mail for surveying residents and faculty
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York, University at Buffalo, ECMC CC 142, 462 Grider Street, Buffalo, NY 14215, USA
    J Clin Epidemiol 58:425-9. 2005
    ..To compare response rate, time to response, and data quality of electronic and postal surveys in the setting of postgraduate medical education...
  57. doi request reprint Effects of water-pipe smoking on lung function: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Dany Raad
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14215, USA
    Chest 139:764-74. 2011
    ..The primary objective of this study was to systematically review the effects of WPS on lung function. The secondary objective was to compare the effects of WPS and cigarette smoking on lung function...
  58. ncbi request reprint Symbols were superior to numbers for presenting strength of recommendations to health care consumers: a randomized trial
    Elie A Akl
    Department of Medicine, University at Buffalo, NY, USA
    J Clin Epidemiol 60:1298-305. 2007
    ..To compare health care consumers' understanding, evaluations, and preferences for symbols vs. numbers and letters for the representation of strength of recommendations (SOR) and quality of evidence (QOE)...
  59. doi request reprint The use of expertise-based randomized controlled trials to assess spinal manipulation and acupuncture for low back pain: a systematic review
    Bradley C Johnston
    Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 33:914-8. 2008
    ..Systematic review...